Almahmodi-20110908 - Computing Science and Mathematics

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Web
-
based Database of Questionnaire study with A
l
lied Health
Professionals

Mohammad Al
-
Mahmodi

September 20
11


















Dissertation submitted in partial
fulfilment for the degree of

Master of Science in
Information Technology



Computing Science and Mathematics

University of Stirling
-

i

-

Abstract

As technology improves over time so does the development of skill and performance of
individuals especially in the

health sector such as
hospi
tals, clinics
and treatment cen
tres.
GPs,

Allied Health Professionals (AHP) such as p
hysiotherapists, occup
a
tional therapists
,
dieticians and nursing professionals

are continuously improving

and finding

ways to imp
rove
their ski
lls, knowledge and performance.

H
ence, the use of
questionnaire
s

to as
sess the

pra
c-
titioners

by pa
tients
a
nd this can be referred to as the

consultation and relational measure
empathy (CARE). This evaluati
on is carried

out

between the practitioner
and the
patient

where the patient
gives a
feedback

after a
session.

The

patient

is

given the opportunity to
assess
the
practitioner by a
n
swering questions in the
CARE measure
questionnaire and then
returned
to the practitioner
. The

feedback
provided by
patients

ab
out practitioners gives
the
practitioners an
opportunity to improve their perfor
m
ance and

skills
.



The objective of this project is to measure the capaci
ty and qualifications of practiti
o
n-
ers

and nurses in dealing with patients and
this is compared
w
ith the
perform
ance of other
practitioner
s. T
his measure includes 10 questions
,

each que
s
tion has 6 options from the poor
to excel
lent in the following order is Poor, Fair, G
ood, Very Good, Excellent, and Does not
apply.
A Practitioner is expected to

co
l
l
ect 50 questionnaire from patients
, which is
entered
into the system and then answer some
demographic
questions such as age, gender, profes
sion
then the system will give a feedback and
his/her
performance
is evaluated
.



The website was designed using

mainly
PHP lan
guage, HTML and a strict version of
HTML (XHTML). F
or several rea
sons,
PHP is a free, open sources and simple language
used by the server side only, also it is inherent language to HTML, to build and design d
y-
namic pages.
The
SQL database is

used to store data and information
of
users and
information that will
be submitted by
user
s

using
forms or applications
. The data is submi
t-
ted and
insert
ed

into

database and save
d

in t
a
bles.



The
website

was created to

include
a
login

page, the forms f
or questionnaires, result
page which is allow the practitioners to see who many questionnaires have
been completed
and

a

pro
file page to display the user’s personal
information

details that
was
completed
from practitioner demographic questionnaire page
.

-

ii

-

Attestation

I understand the nature of plagiarism, and I am aware of the University’s policy on this
.

I
certify that this dissertation reports original work by me during my University project e
x-
cept for the
following:



The code discussed in Section 5.6 was
partly taken from [16].



The code discussed in Section 5.9 was partly taken from [17]



The code discussed in Section 5.14 and 5.16 were partly taken from [18]



Some Codes and ideas used in designing the website were taken partly from[19]



The structure of the

tables used to describe the use cases in chapter 3 was taken from
[10]




Signature





Date


-

iii

-

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my sincerest

gratitude to

my father and my mother and I would
like to thank them

for
their
support and supporting
me
at
all times since
the
start of
my
sc
holarship until
I

fi
n
ished

my studies in the UK.

I would like to thank my government represented in King Abdullah

who ga
ve me this
o
p-
portunity
to complete my study.

I would like to t
hank my supervisor Kevin Swingle
r
who he
lped me in no small way by
giving

me a
d
vice

and guidance

on how
to solve problems.

I would
also like to thank the client who

gave me this
opportunity
to complete my
degree
with this project.

Finally,
I would like to thank

the staff of the Institute of Comp
uter Science and Math
e-
matics and lecturers

who
t
aught

me in all courses.




-

iv

-

Table of Contents

Abstract

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

i

Attestation
................................
................................
................................
.............................

ii

Acknowledgements

................................
................................
................................
.............

iii

Table of Contents

................................
................................
................................
.................

iv

List of Figures
................................
................................
................................
....................

viii

1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
.....................

1

1.1

Background and Context

................................
................................
.........................

1

1.2

Scope and Objectives

................................
................................
...............................

1

1.3

Achievements

................................
................................
................................
..........

1

1.4

Overview of Dissertation

................................
................................
.........................

2

1.4.1

Chapter 1

................................
................................
................................
............

2

1.4.2

Chapter 2

................................
................................
................................
............

2

1.4.3

Chapter 3

................................
................................
................................
............

2

1.4.4

Chapter 4

................................
................................
................................
............

2

1.4.5

Chapter 5

................................
................................
................................
............

3

1.4.6

Chapter 6

................................
................................
................................
............

3

1.4.7

Chapter 7

................................
................................
................................
............

3

2

State
-
of
-
The
-
Art

................................
................................
................................
..............

4

2.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
.............

4

2.2

Differences between Electronic (Web
-
based) and Paper
-
based Questionnaires

......

4

2.2.1

Paper Questionnaires

................................
................................
..........................

5

2.2.2

Web
-
based Questionnaires

................................
................................
.................

6

1.

Accessibility

................................
................................
................................
.......

8

2.

Usability

................................
................................
................................
.............

9

2.3

Review of Languages/Technologies

................................
................................
........

9

2.3.1

Languages
used in the design of the site

................................
............................

9

2.3.2

Markup Languages

................................
................................
.............................

9

2.3.2.1

HTML

................................
................................
................................
.........

9

2.3.2.2

XHTML

................................
................................
................................
....

10

2.3.3

Style Sheets

................................
................................
................................
......

10

2.3.3.1

Cascading Style S
heets

................................
................................
.............

10

2.3.4

Server Side Scripting

................................
................................
........................

10

2.3.4.1

PHP

................................
................................
................................
...........

10

2.3.5

Database

................................
................................
................................
...........

11

-

v

-

2.3.5.1

phpMyAdmin

................................
................................
............................

11

2.3.6

Alternative Technologies

................................
................................
..................

11

2.3.6.1

ASP /ASP.NET

................................
................................
.........................

11

2.3.6.2

ColdFusion

................................
................................
................................

12

2.3.6.3

Java Servlets

................................
................................
.............................

12

3

Analysis and Use Cases

................................
................................
................................
.

13

3.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
...........

13

3.2

Use
Cases

................................
................................
................................
...............

13

3.2.1

Log in

................................
................................
................................
...............

14

3.2.2

Registration
................................
................................
................................
.......

15

3.2.3

Care Patient Feedback

................................
................................
......................

16

3.2.4

Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire

................................
.........................

17

3.2.5

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire

................................
................................

18

3.2.6

Admin Page

................................
................................
................................
......

19

3.2.7

Change Password

................................
................................
..............................

20

3.2.8

Log Out

................................
................................
................................
.............

21

4

Website Design

................................
................................
................................
..............

22

4.1

Website Design Requirement
................................
................................
.................

22

4.1.1

User Requirements

................................
................................
...........................

22

4.1.2

Technical requirements

................................
................................
.....................

22

4.2

Website’s Layout and Structure

................................
................................
.............

24

4.2.1

Main Web Pages

................................
................................
...............................

25

4.2.1.1

Index/Home Page

................................
................................
......................

25

4.2.1.2

How to use this website Page

................................
................................
...

25

4.2.1.3

Log In Page

................................
................................
...............................

25

4.2.1.4

Regist
ration Page

................................
................................
......................

25

4.2.1.5

Welcome/Home

Page

................................
................................
................

25

4.2.1.6

Profile Page

................................
................................
...............................

25

4.2.1.7

Enter more data page

................................
................................
................

25

4.2.1.8

Care Patient Feedback Page

................................
................................
......

26

4.2.1.9

Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire Page

................................
.........

26

4.2.1.10

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire

................................
........................

26

4.2.1.11

Result

Page

................................
................................
...............................

26

4.2.1.12

Change Password Page

................................
................................
.............

26

4.2.1.13
Change Password Page

................................
................................
.............

26

4.2.1.14

Log Out Page

................................
................................
............................

26

4.2.2

Access denied Pages

................................
................................
.........................

26

-

vi

-

4.3

Page Design

................................
................................
................................
...........

27

4.3.1

Colour

................................
................................
................................
...............

27

4.3.2

Text

................................
................................
................................
...................

27

4.3.3

Page Layout

................................
................................
................................
......

27

4.3.4

Navigational Aids

................................
................................
.............................

28

4.4

Database Design

................................
................................
................................
....

28

4.4.1

D
atabase Tables

................................
................................
................................

29

4.4.1.1

User Table

................................
................................
................................
.

29

4.4.1.2

Patient Table
................................
................................
..............................

29

4.4.1.3

Practitioner Table

................................
................................
......................

29

4.4.1.4

Feedback Table

................................
................................
.........................

29

5

Implementation

................................
................................
................................
..............

30

5.1

Database
................................
................................
................................
.................

30

5.2

Database Security

................................
................................
................................
..

31

5.2.1

Password Protection and Encryption

................................
................................

31

5.2.2

The use of the function
mysql_real_escape_string ()

................................
.......

31

5.3

Home Page
/index page

................................
................................
..........................

32

5.4

How to use this website Page

................................
................................
................

32

5.5

Logging into the website

................................
................................
.......................

33

5.5.1

Registration Page

................................
................................
..............................

33

5.5.2

Log in page

................................
................................
................................
.......

35

5.6

Sessions

................................
................................
................................
.................

36

5.7

Welcome/Home Page

................................
................................
.............................

37

5.8

Admin Pages

................................
................................
................................
..........

38

5.9

Profile Page
................................
................................
................................
............

40

5
.10

Enter more data page

................................
................................
.............................

42

5.11

Care Patient Feedback Form

................................
................................
..................

43

5.12

Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire
................................
...............................

45

5.13

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire

................................
................................
.....

46

5.14

Getting Results/Result Page

................................
................................
..................

47

5.15

Changing Passwords

................................
................................
..............................

48

5.16

Logging Out

................................
................................
................................
...........

49

5.17

Layout of the
website

................................
................................
............................

50

5.16.1


Keeping the design simple

................................
................................
...............

50

5.16.2


Readable Texts and Fonts

................................
................................
................

50

5.16.3


The use of Colours

................................
................................
...........................

50

5.16.4


Webpage Dimension

................................
................................
........................

51

-

vii

-

5.16.5

Navigation and Links

................................
................................
.......................

51

6

Testing

................................
................................
................................
...........................

52

6.1

Testing the functionality of the website

................................
................................
.

52

6.1.1

Testing website

navigation

................................
................................
...............

52

6.1.2

Database testing

................................
................................
................................

52

6.1.3

Testing Form submissions

................................
................................
................

53

6.1.4

Testing user sessions

................................
................................
.........................

53

6.1.5

Browser Compatibility testing

................................
................................
..........

53

6.2

Usability Testing

................................
................................
................................
....

53

6.2.1

Designing the test

................................
................................
.............................

54

6.2.2

Choosing/selecting the Users
................................
................................
............

54

6.2.3

Conducting the

test

................................
................................
...........................

54

6.2.4

Analysis

................................
................................
................................
............

54

6.2.4.1

Feedback from Client

................................
................................
................

54

6.2.4.2

Feedback from Users

................................
................................
................

55

7

Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
.....................

56

7.1

Summary

................................
................................
................................
................

56

7.2

Future Work

................................
................................
................................
...........

56

References

................................
................................
................................
..........................

58

Appendix 1

................................
................................
................................
.........................

60

Appendix 2


User guide

................................
................................
................................
....

63



-

viii

-

List of Figures

Figure 1.

A Questionnaire prepared on paper by the Royal College of Physicians.

............

6

Figure 2.

A demo employee Questionnaire used by People Insight for measuring staff
performa
nces for various institutions and companies.

................................
......................

7

Figure 3.

This diagram illustrates the log in use case

................................
........................

14

Figure 4.

This diagram
illustrates User Registration use case

................................
...........

15

Figure 5.

This diagram illustrates Care Patient Feedback use case

................................
....

16

Figure 6.

This di
agram illustrates Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire use case

.......

17

Figure 7.

This diagram illustrates Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire use case

.............

18

Figure 8.

This diagram illustrates the Admin use case

................................
.......................

19

Figure 9.

This diagram illustrates Change of password use case

................................
.......

20

Figure 10.

This diagram illustrates the Log out use case

................................
.................

21

Figure 11.

The Structure of the website

................................
................................
...........

24

Figure

12.

The Website’s database and tables associated with the database.

...................

28

Figure 13.

The website’s home page

................................
................................
................

32

Figure 14.

The pag
e describing how to use the website

................................
...................

33

Figure 15.

The registration page

................................
................................
......................

34

Figure 16.

The Log In page

................................
................................
..............................

35

Figure 17.

The home page after logging into the website

................................
................

38

Figure 18.

The Admin Page

................................
................................
.............................

40

Figure 19.

The Profile Page

................................
................................
.............................

41

Figure 20.

Enter more Data Page

................................
................................
.....................

42

Figure 21.

The CARE Patient Feedback form

................................
................................
.

44

Figure 22.

The Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire

................................
................

45

Figure 23.

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire

................................
..............................

47



-

1

-

1

In
troduction

1.1

Background and Context

Q
uestionnaires
are becoming more
widespread

and

are continually being used by
employers

to
assess and evaluate the performance of employees as well as
to ensure that e
m
ployees can use
the relevant feedback to improve their

performance.

Therefore, there is a need to continuously improve the ways and manner data is collected from
questionnaires especially from paper to electronic. This is because paper
-
based questionnaires
are becoming more complicated to manage whereby data

collected using paper
-
based
que
s-
tionnaires

can be quite huge and unmanageable over a period of time especially if it involves
storing the forms.

It is
in
this regard a website and a database
were

designed and implemented
to enable the use
and storage data

from questionnaires used to assess and evaluate the performances of allied
health and nursing professionals
and compared with their peers.

The website is to enable pra
c-
titioners complete questionnaires quickly

compared with paper questionnaires

and
which
may
take a considerable time to distribute and complete. It also
provide
s

a platform

which

enable
s

practitioners to
obtain instant feedback about their performance in terms of patient
-
perceived
empathy and relational
skills. The feedback received by the pr
actitioner can then be acted u
p-
on which gi
v
es them the opportunity to improve their own performance.

1.2

Scope

and Objectives

The object
ive of this

project is to
design a web
-
based platform

t
hat would enable A
l
lied Health
Professionals (AHP) and nursing professionals to enter their 50 CARE scores, plus some basic
demographic information which is used to
measure the
abilities and
performances of a pract
i-
tioner

and then compared with other pract
itioner
col
leagues.

1.3

Achievements


The website was designed and implemented
to allow

users
(practitioners) to access the we
b-
site by viewing the website as guest
s

or by registering and logging in over a session to enter
their CARE measure scores via a questi
onnaire which is submitted into the database.

A practitioner demographic questionnaire was also designed and implemented to enable pract
i-
tioners fill in their dem
o
graphic information. The details from the practitioner demographic
-

2

-

questionnaire which were
submit and the number of the CARE measure

forms completed are
can be viewed from the result page enabling the practitioner to see his/her progress so far.

The design and implementation of the website specifications and structure can be described as
the mai
n achievement of the project, because the features (database, layout and stru
c
ture) of
the website were designed using the appropriate web development and design elements,
met
h-
ods and
techniques
by striking a balance between a high standard of web design a
nd making
the website user
-
friendly.

1.4

Overview of Dissertation

This dissertation consists of 7

chapters
and these chapters can briefly be discussed as follows
:

1.4.1

Chapter 1



Introdu
ction:

This chapter focuses on the
main idea of the project and the goals o
f the pr
o-
ject. What
was
achieved and
how they were achieved during the course of the
project. In
addition to

this
, the main pages in the project.

1.4.2

Chapter 2

State of the art:

This
chapter
discusses the types of
questionnaire and
the uses of questio
n-
naires.
Differences and comparisons were drawn between paper
-
based
and electronic
-
based

questionnaire
s. The
advantages and disadvantages of each

of the questionnaires are also di
s-
cussed
.

Languages and Technologies used in the design and implementation of the websi
te as
well as alternative languages/technologies are reviewed and also discussed in this chapter.

1.4.3

Chapter 3

Analysis and use cases:


This
chapter
focuses on
analysis and

potential use cases. It discusses
the tasks that will

be performed

by the user

and the

type of tasks that can be carried out in the
website. Every step of the use cases are analysed
in
terms of logging into
the
we
b
site from the
front page
using the
login page
to
the questionnaire

pages

and then other pages until
the
end
point

is achieved b
y logging out .


1.4.4

Chapter 4

Website
Design
:

The Design chapter discusses the design of the website
, how

to go about
d
e
signing the website,

design specifications and

design requirements, a preview of how the
-

3

-

website will look like before implementing the d
esign, the website’s layout and structure , pr
e-
liminary web pages as well as the database to be designed.

1.4.5

Chapter 5

Implementation:

This chapter discusses the implementations of the design specifications and
requirements discussed in the design chapter. Th
e implementation focuses on the various web
pages in the website, the database and layout of the website.

1.4.6

Chapter
6

Testing:


This chapter discusses how the website was tested and the types of test carried out
(Functionality and Usability testing). The tes
t carried out were analysed while fee
d
backs and
suggestions from u
s
ers were also discussed.

1.4.7

Chapter 7

Conclusion:

This chapter
summarises the
previous

chapters
,

limitations of the project and
f
u-
ture
work are also considered and
discussed in this chapter.

-

4

-

2

S
tate
-
of
-
The
-
Art

2.1

Introduction

In the present day
,

questionnaires

are increasing being used to
get feedbacks in other to
measure
their performance(s) against other colleagues. This type of assessment or e
m-
ployee performance measure
is becoming
increasingly
i
mpor
tant

in
many of the
Public
and Private
institutions

such as hospitals,

schools and other
sectors and sections of the

economy.


T
he main objective
of questionnaires used for performance measure is
to evaluate e
m-
ployees and compare them to other colleag
ues

usually through feedback forms or other
feedback methods

in order to improve their professional develop
ment.


There are mainly two types of Q
uestionnaires
and these are in
form of paper or web
-
based.
Questionnaire designed on paper was the most common

way of administering
questionnaires but in recent times, the web
-
based questionnaires are becoming more
acceptable and quite
prominent [1
]
.

Employers and head of organisation
s

consider
web
-
based questionnaires quite fast, flexible and
save cost, resources

and
time.


2.2

Differences between Electronic (Web
-
based) and Paper
-
based

Que
s-
tionnaires

There are many differences between the use of paper
-
based assessment and evalu
a
tion
through
websites,
web pages

or by other means electronically.

Although, these are the
main forms in which questionnaires can be presented there are also other
Questio
n-
naire collection
methods such as administering interviews and questionnaires through
the telephone.

One major disadvantage of the telephone
method however,
is that it is
pron
e to
various forms of
bias and

may not be
suitable to sensitive subjects and to
p
ics’
[2
].

In other to draw a comparison web
-
based and paper questionnaires, this difference is
based on the evaluation of employee in institutions and also the idea behind the
design
of the project.

Factors such as their usability, storage, structuring questions, speed and
response rates are also considered.

-

5

-

2.2.1

Paper Questionnaires

Paper Questionnaires are common ways of employee evaluation by getting specific info
r-
m
a
tion and co
l
lecting data used for performance measure. Although, paper questionnaires are
popular they have a lot of shortcomings
.


I.

Usability

The employee uses
a
pen

or pencil

in the mobilization of the questionnaire and this
may lead to mistakes
especially if there
are fields that need to be modified or co
r
rec
t-
ed
. T
his
may lead

to distortion of the pages and
also the return of torn and soiled
papers

making the
paper unusable and colle
c
tion

of data incomplete
.


II.

Storage

Questionnaire paper
s

take

up
large space
s

when st
ored in the files
.

In a situation,
where each employee has a special file containing all the papers
in
terms of asses
s-
ment infor
mation and personal information covering long period of years
,

s
toring
these information would require a lot of space, resource
and
in some cases
time co
n-
suming.




III.

Structuring Questions

When structuring Questions, i
f there are typographical errors in
fields to be completed
or errors
discovered at a later stage of
administering the questionnaire, it

becomes
quite
difficult

and cos
tly
to modify
a large amount of forms
especially if
they may
have been printed and di
s
tributed
. This does not make structuring questions in paper
questionnaires flexible because making mistakes when preparing the form could be
very
costly.

[3]



IV.

Speed and
Response rates

The response rate for paper
-
based questionnaires is not very fast. It may take several
months to distribute, coll
ect and encode for analysis. [3
]

-

6

-




Figure 1.


A Questionnaire prepared on paper by the Royal College of Physicians.


2.2.2

Web
-
bas
ed Questionnaires

Web
-
based questionnaires are becoming increasingly popular for evaluating employee pe
r
fo
r-
mance and to collect specific data.

There are a lot of
public and private
institutions

that
use web
-
based questio
n
naires in
the
measurement of perfo
rmance for career
s of employees
and

also
benefit

from the
-

7

-

evaluation of staff
. Some
notable institutions and
companies’
that use

web
-
based que
s-
tionnaires for
performance measure
:


1.

Flybe.com

2.

Medway NHS

3.

Royal college of physicians

4. Suffolk coun
ty
council



These

companies

and institutions employ experts in employee engagement and Que
s-
tionnaires and surveys
used

the me
asurement of
staff
pe
r
form
ance. One of the most
common Questionnaire providers for measuring staff performance is

People Insight

which provides employee Questionnaires, su
r
veys, reports and analysis, benchmarking
and action
planning’
[4
]






Figure 2.


A demo employee Questionnaire used by People Insight for measuring staff
performances
for var
i
ous institutions and companies.



Using Questi
onnaires on web pages have some considerable advantages
over paper
-
based
questionnaires and these advantages can be described as follows:

-

8

-


I.

Usability

Using web
-
based Questionnaires employees may use a Special Account with passwords to
access

their accounts
and this allows him / her to complete questionnaires and supplement
their own pe
r
sonal data quickly with records electronically stored or sent to a database.


II.

Storage

Electronic Questionnaires
d
o

not
require
large space
s

to store data

such as files. This

is b
e-
cause

they can
be stored in electronic databases

or other electronic forms
which may
contain
large
amount
of data.


III.

Structuring Questions

Structuring questions in web
-
based
questionnaire
s

is simplified by
providing the
desired
text
fields
and other w
eb elements such as
radio bu
t
tons, check
box
es
,

menu and drop down list
.

A
text area can also be used to provide
quick and immediate comments and feedbacks about the
questionnaire.

An administrator or employer also has control over the site
to modify
,

chang
e or
make a
d
ditions to the site and questionnaires. This saves time, resources and
cost.

[3]



IV.

Speed and Response rates

Unlike
paper
-
based questionnaires, web
-
based questionnaires are relatively fast to
process, distribute and collect. Collection can be wi
thin minutes and hours. This saves
a considerable amount of time and cost when analysing data.


As stated earlier w
eb
-
based questionnaires in recent times are becoming more co
m-
mon in
evaluating and as a yardstick for
staf
f performance measure over the pape
r
-
based questionnaires but it is also important that the paper
-
based questionnaires also
have some advantages over the web
-
based questionnaires. Some of these advantages
are:

1.

Accessibility

Web
-
based Questionnaire as the name implies may only be useful if t
he employees are
connected to the internet or over a network. This may cause some delay or even the
inability of employees to access the Questionnaire unlike the paper
-
based questio
n-
naire which can be easily prepared and printed on paper.


-

9

-

2.

Usability

Web
-
based questionnaires can also become a problem if the web
-
based questionnaire
is poorly designed and made to display in different browsers. Employee screen resol
u-
tions on different computers and devices may also differ. This may result in poor
responses by

the employees thereby affecting the data to be collected. This is not us
u-
ally the case with paper
-
based questionnaires which may be presented uniformly on
papers.


Although the web
-
based questionnaires have the above mentioned short
-
comings but
the advant
ages of using the web
-
based questionnaire outweigh the paper
-
based que
s-
tionnaires to some considerable extent.


2.3

Review of
Languages/Technologies

As is known, there are many languages
in the world of programming, for example, Java, PHP,
HTML, C + + and ot
her languages


are
used in the design of applications, web development,
design and web applications. Therefore,

there are a large number of languages to choose from
but it is also necessary to choose
appropriate and affordable languages and web standards
t
hat
will be suitable for

the design and development
of particular we
b
sites.

2.3.1

Languages
used i
n the design of the site

The languages that were used in the design of this website include:

HTML
,
XHTML
, Casca
d-
ing Style Sheets, PHP and MySQL. These languages were used because they are affordable,
open source and a considerable experie
nce in their usage.

2.3.2

Mark
up Languages

2.3.2.1

HTML

H
TML refers

to Hyper Text Markup Langauge
. HTML is mainly used to create and design
web pages. “HTML tags” e.g. <head></head> are used to format and define the structure of
web pages or documents.





-

10

-

2.3.2.2

XHTML

XHTML

(
EXtensible HyperText Markup Language
)

which is
quite
similar to HTML 4.01.

XHTML was used in designing the structure of the website because it is a stricter and cleaner
version of
HTML [
5
]

and this involves
defining the HTML on the page as an XML applic
a-
ti
on. This allows the content on the HTML page to be marked up the right way and correctly
.
The main advantage of using X
H
T
ML in the website design is that it is not only used to di
s-
play data but also to describe data.

There are three XHTML document types an
d these are Strict, Transitional and Frameset
. The
Strict document type was
the main document type
used in the website design.

2.3.3

Style Sheets

2.3.3.1

Cascading Style
Sheets

C
ascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used
by web developers
to give more control
over the a
p-
pear
ance, display and format of web pages defined in markup languages. They are used to
structure the layout of web pages, add colours and fonts to web pages and documents.

External style sheets were used in the overall design of the website to give more contr
ol and
flexibility over the elements and content of the web pages.

2.3.4

Server Side Scripting

2.3.4.1

PHP

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a powerful server
-
side scripting
language which is used to
desi
gn and create dynamic web pages as well as data
-
based driven websit
es.


There are three ways in which PHP can be used
:

I.

Server
-
side scripting

PHP was

mainly d
esigned to
build
dynamic web content, and it is
one of the pr
o-
gramming languages
best suited for the
task [6
]
.

PHP
is most notable
for
designing
and generating
doc
ument
s such as XML
, graphics, PDF files

and other file formats’
[6
]
.

Server

side scripting was used to build and design the
website for

this project.


II.

Command
-
line scripting

PHP can

also be
used
to
run scripts from
a command
-
line interface which is similar

to
other

languages and technologies that use command
-
line scripting e.g.


Perl

or the
UNIX

shell
[6
]
.

Command
-
line scripting in PHP can be used
for
administration task
,
such as back
ing
up and log pars
ing in systems.


-

11

-


III.

Client
-
side GUI applications

This is
also known as PHP
-
gtk [
7
] which is used for creating standalone Graphical
User Interface (GUI) applications.



PHP was chosen as the preferred server
-
scripting language because it is readily available, free
and open source as well as its seamless integrati
on and compatibility with MySQL database.

2.3.5

Database

2.3.5.1

phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin
is a popular open source
tool

created in PHP with a user interface usually a
Browser
used to managed the administration of MySQL . It is used to perform different tasks
by
creating,
updating,
adding and
,

deleting data

and
tables from the d
a
tabase
. It can also be
used to manipulate and execute MySQL statements.


phpMyAdmin was used as the preferred database because it is free, open source and also
co
n-
tains the popular MySQL database wh
ereby
complex queries

and management of MySQL are
simplified
through its user interface
.



2.3.6

Alternative
Technologies

Apart from the languages mentioned above, other scripting languages were considered when
choosing the appropriate languages and technologie
s for the design of the website. The alte
r-
natives considered are stated below.

2.3.6.1

ASP /ASP.NET


Active Server
Pages (ASP /ASP.NET
)
is a Microsoft server
-
side technology used to create
web services, applications and dynamic web sites.
Although, ASP and ASP.NET

are both r
e-
ferred to Active Server Pages they are not the same. ASP.NET is a completely different server
-
side scripting technology from ASP.


ASP/ASP.NET were server
-
side scripting technologies also considered for this project but li
m-
ited knowledge and ex
perience in their use and capabilities made them unsuitable for this
project.

-

12

-

2.3.6.2

ColdFusion

ColdFusion is a Server
-
side scripting language which is developed by Adobe Systems Inco
r-
porated which can be used to design and create dynamic and interactive web serv
ices and
applications effectively and quickly.

It has also been described as one of the easiest progra
m-
ming environments this is because it requires less code than other scripting languages such as
ASP and PHP’. [
8
] However, its high cost and limited expe
rience of its capabilities also makes
it unsuitable for this project.


2.3.6.3

Java Servlets

A S
ervlet is a Java class that is used to
extend the functionality of a web server. [
9
] They can
also be

used to add
dynamic content
and generate dynamic web pages
,

and a
re based on the
Java platform. Although Java servlets are useful for creating dynamic web pages, the use of
Servlets and a Java
pla
t
form was

unsuitable for this project.

-

13

-

3

Analysis

and Use Cases

3.1

Introduction

In other to analyse the potential users of the web
site and what kind of tasks to be carried out or
performed within the website. It is important to create the potential use case scenarios to be
performed within the whole system. Therefore, the potential user of the system in this regard
is
the practitione
r whose task
will be
to log into the system in other
to browse his a
c
count and
complete questionnaires
used
which will be used to measure or evaluate his/her pe
r
fo
r-
mance against that of
co
l
leagues
.


Although, the potential users of the system are the prac
titioners, administrative priv
i-
leges are also given to administrators in other to access the administrative pages.
Therefore a use case is also specified
for the administrator, in which the administrator
becomes the actor in this case.

3.2

Use Cases

The use ca
ses can be analysed using the following
factors

in the context of

flow of
events’
[10
]

within the system which is a website and a database in this context.




Use Case:

This refers to the name of the use case or the particular use case scenario to
be co
n
sid
ered.



Brief Description:

This is a description of a particular use case scenario.



Actor:

This refers to the user of the system to be considered in a particular use case.



Pre
-
Conditions:

This refers to the conditions or requirements to be met in a particula
r
use case.



Main Flow:

The main flow in this case is used to describe or give a detailed analysis
of pro
c
esses involved and tasks to be performed by the actor in

the system.



Alternative Flow:

The alternative flow is used to describe alternative steps requi
red in
the use case if something goes wrong in the main flow.



Post Conditions:

The Post conditions describe the state of the system after a succes
s-
ful use case scenario
.




-

14

-


3.2.1

Log in







Figure 3.

This diagram illustrate
s

t
he log in use case


Use Case

Log In

Bri
ef description

This use case
enables
a
Practitioner
to log in

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

A Practitioner
must be registered user of the
website i
n other
to a
c-
cess the website. This means that the practitioners’
u獥r 湡ne
s

慮搠
灡p獷srd
s

m畳u⁥ ist⁩
渠nhe⁤
a
ta扡b攮

Main flow

The use case
starts
when
a practitioner decides
to
access
his
/her

a
c-
count

over a network. The practitioner
must

have

a web browser

in
other to access the website and to type

in
his/her
log in
details
to be
sub
mitted

in a database
. There is a call to the database to
check

if
the
details

submitted

and match

will
allow

the user

to access his/her a
c-
count
.

If the details are correct the user is able to log in.

Alternative flow

If
an incorrect detail

is

provided by the practitioner
,

th
e
practitioner
is r
e
directed back to the log
-
in page and
no session
with the server is
established
.

If the user is a new user he is directed to the registration
page.

Post condition

In the event of a successful use case,
a session is established

and
the
p
ractitioner will be able to
complete questionnaires,
use other fe
a-
tures of the website related to his/her
ac
count
,
c
hange their
passwords or log out.



practitioner

Log In

-

15

-

3.2.2

Registration







Figure 4.

This diagram illustrate
s

User Registration use case


Use Case

Register

Brief descr
iption

This use case allows a
new user to register

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

A Practitioner must be
a new
user
to register
in other to

use the we
b
site

with

the

new account
.


Main flow

The use case

starts
when
a practitioner decides
to
register i
n other to use
the website
.
The practitioner
must
complete the registration
form
which is
includes

5 fields
; first name, sur
name, username
,
password and co
n
form
password

.T
he
se

details

are

submitted to the database
.
If the details

pr
o-
vided
are correct

the
practitioner
is red
i
rected back to the log in page.

Alternative flow

If the details provided by the practitioner are incorrect
,

an error or e
r
rors
are shown and the user remains on the registration

page
.

Post condition

In the event of a successful
use ca
se,
the Practiti
o
ner is able to log in.








practitioner

Register

-

16

-

3.2.3

C
are Patient Feedback






Figure 5.

This diagram illustrate
s

Care Patient Feedback
use case


Use Case

Care Patient Feedback

Brief description

This use case allows a
practitioner to complete
the Care Patient Fe
e
d-
back Questionnaire.

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

A Practitioner
must be registered user of the
website i
n other
to co
m-
plete the

Care Patient Feedback Questionnaire
.

Main flow

The use case
starts
when
a practitioner logs in
his
/her

account
. The
Pr
actitioner is able to complet
e the Care Patient Feedback Questio
n-
naire

consisting of 10 questions
.

E
ach question has 6
options selected
which are selected with a radio button. The options are
Poor
, Fair,
Good, Very Good
,

Excellent

and Does not A
pply

which
are
sub
mitted
to the dat
a
base
.


Alternative flow

If the details provided by the practitioner are incorrect when comple
t-
ing the Questionnai
re or when the

Questionnaire is submitted to the
database

or uncompleted
,

an error or errors

message
s

are shown and
t
he
practitioner remains

on the Questionnaire page.

Post condition

In the event of a successful
use case
, the
practitioner will be able to
co
m
plete other

questionnaires,
browse his
/her

ac
count, change their
passwords or log out
.



practitioner

Care Patient
Fee
d
back


-

17

-

3.2.4

Practitioner Demographic

Questionnaire







Figure 6.

This

diagram illustrate
s

Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire
use case


Use Case

Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire

Brief description

This use case allows a
practitioner to complete the Practitioner Dem
o-
graphic Questionnaire.

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

A Practitioner
must be registered user of the
website i
n other
to co
m-
plete the
Practitioner Dem
o
graphic Questionnaire.

Main flow

The use case
starts
when
a practitioner logs in
his
/her

account
. The
Practitioner is able
to complete the Practitioner Demographic Que
s-
tionnaire consisting of 8 questions
.

These include the
Practitioner
’s

C潤攬od敮e敲ⰠAg攬eeig栠敤畣
atio渠煵慬ifi捡ti潮Ⱐmr潦敳獩潮

EA
te硴
field

i猠畳敤eif

t桥r攠
i猠
an “
潴桥r


潰ti潮

湯t i渠t桥 摲潰
-
摯d渠m敮甩

t
桥h
C
li湩c


慲敡
th攠偲m捴iti潮or
w潲k
s



慮搠if⁴桥hmr慣titi潮or i猠


l散ti湧⁃Ao䔠b敡獵se
⸠qh敳攠e整ails

ar攠
獵b
mitt敤et漠t桥⁤慴
a
扡be
.

Alternative flow

If the details provided by the practitioner are incorrect when comple
t-
ing the Questionnaire or whe
n the Questionnaire is submitted to the
database an error or errors
messages
are shown and the practitioner
r
e
mains on the Questionnaire page.

Post condition

In the event of a successful
use case, the
practitioner will be able to
co
m
plete other questionna
ires,
browse his
/her

ac
count, change their
passwords or log out.

practitioner

Practitioner


Demograp
h
ic


Questionnaire


-

18

-


3.2.5

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire






Figure 7.

This

diagram illustrate
s

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire
use case

Use Case

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire

Brief description

This use cas
e allows a
practitioner to complete the Practitioner Fee
d-
back Questionnaire.

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

A Practitioner
must be registered user of the
website i
n other
to co
m-
plete the Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire.

Main flow

The use case
sta
rts
when
a practitioner logs in
his
/her

account
. The
Practitioner is able to complete the Practitioner Demographic Que
s-
tionnaire consisting of
3 questions

These are;

how easy did you find
CARE measure, how useful do you find the CARE measure and do
you pla
n on using the CARE measure
.

These questions
are
sub
mitted
to the d
a
tabase
.

Alternative flow

If the details provided by the practitioner are incorrect when comple
t-
ing the Questionnaire or when the Questionnaire is submitted to the
database,

an error or er
rors are shown and the practitioner remains on
the Questionnaire page.

Post condition

In the event of a successful
use case, the
practitioner will be able to
co
m
plete other questionnaires,
browse his
/her

ac
count, change their
passwords or log out.


practitioner

Practitioner


Feedback


Questionnair
e


-

19

-

3.2.6

Admin

Page










Figure 8.


This diagram illustrates the
Admin

use case


Use Case

Admin Page

Brief description

This is an admin

page, other practitioners

who are not administr
a
tors

cannot a
c
cess this page
.

Actor

Administrator

Pre
-
conditions

An Administrator must

be
a
registered user of the website in other to
access
and make changes in the database
.

Main flow

The use case starts when a
n

administrator
decides to

make changes in
the database. An Administrator is able
to make

some changes in the
database by using
the menu options in the web page to view and see
registered practitioners, delete, create and empty data in the
patient,
practi
tioner and feedback tables.
These
changes are reflected in the
database.

Alternative flow

If
there is an incorrect query to the
database, the administrator is i
n-
formed by an error message or error messages are displayed.

Post condition

In the event of a successful use case, the administrator will be able to
create, delete and empty the data stored in the database as well as
viewin
g the registered practitioners currently in the database, browse
his/her a
c
count, change his/her password or log out.







Admin

Admin Pages

-

20

-


3.2.7

Change P
assword






Figure 9.

This

diagram illustrate
s

Change of password use case


Use Case

Change Password

Brief description

This use
case allows Practitioners to change their password

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

Practitioners
must be registered user
s

of the
website i
n other
to change
their password.

Main flow

The use case
starts
when
a practitioner decides
to
change the pas
s
wor
d
already in the database
.
The practitioner
must
complete a form to
change his/her password

which
consist of
3fields
;

old password, new
password and
confirm

a new
password. T
he details

submitted are

u
p
da
t-
ed in the database. If the details pr
ovided are corr
ect the practitioner is
red
i
rected back to the log in page.

Alternative flow

If the details provided by the practitioner are incorrect when comple
t
ing
the form or when the form is submitted,

an error or errors are shown and
the practitioner is redirected
back to the page to enter the correct details.

Post condition

In the event of a successful
use case
,
the Practitioner

is able to log

back

in
to the website
.


practitioner

Change
Password

-

21

-

3.2.8

Log Out







Figure 10.

This diagram illustrate
s

t
he Log out use case


Use Case

Log
Out

Brief description

This use case
enables
a
Practitioner
to log
out

Actor

Practitioner

Pre
-
conditions

Practitioners
must be registered user
s

of the
website i
n other
to log out of
the website.

Main flow

The use case
starts
when
a practitioner decides
to
leave
account

the w
e
b-
site. If a practitioner decides to leave the website the session e
s
tablished
when logged in must be unset or destroyed.

Post condition

In the event of a successful
use case
, the
practitioner is logged out and
se
s
sions unset.









practitioner

Log Out

-

22

-

4

Website
Design

4.1

Web
site Design Requirement

The website design requirement refers to the objectives that must be met in the design of the
website. In the website design requirement it is always important to consider

and understand
the users of the website and how their roles
in the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to
categorise the website design requirement into:

I.

User Requirements

II.

Technical requirements

4.1.1

User Requirements

To design a user
-
friendly website
and to get a general idea on
how the website is going to be
us
ed by the user it is important to determine what the user wants. In this case, the design of the
website was determine from the perspective of the
client and other P
rac
titioners
, their r
e-
quirements, content and ideas to be used in the design process.

In ot
her to understand the client requirements, there was continuous and constant contact with
the client
. As a way of keeping
in contact with the client, q
uestions were also asked to get the
cl
i
ent’s desired design choices, content to add to the web pages and
the role of the client and
other practitioners when using the we
b
site.

4.1.2

Technical requirements

Technical requirements also need to be considered in the requirement phase of the design pr
o-
cess. A number of technical requirements ranging from determining the
structure and co
n
tent
of the website to the type of technique/ techniques to use in the web design process were also
considered. The technique requirements for the website design are:



Getting and d
etermining the
initial content to be included in the websit
e and the stru
c-
ture of the website from feedbacks from the client and supervisor.



The design of an initial sketch of the whole website to determine how elements within
the website and other content will fall into place during the design process.



Choosing
a

suitable web
-
server to host the files to be published. The departmental

l
o-
cal server or local
host (
shark.cs.stir.ac.uk) was
chosen as the main server to publish
files and also to manage the d
a
tabase.

-

23

-



Choosing the most suitable and appropriate design and
programming languages
as
well as
web techniques
for the
design

of the website
.
In this

case, HTML, XHTML,
PHP and MySQL were used because they are free, open source and readily available.



Choosing a suitable a programming editor. Notepad
++ and TextPad were

used b
e
cause
they were readily available and also to minimize errors during the design process.



The creation of demo

files and databases to get a general idea
of user

navigation
wit
h-
in the website, access to content and organization.





















-

24

-

4.2

Website’s
Layout

and Structure

The layout or structure of a website is very important in other to design a good web site. A
well defined website structure or layout brings about efficiency. This enables users to get or
find the necessary information requir
ed within the website quickly.





















Figure 11.

The Structure of the website



THE


CARE MEASURE

WEBSITE

Home

Page


Log In Page

Registration Page


How to use the


Website

Care
Patient


Feedback


Form



Practitioner

Demograp
h
ic

Questio
n
naire

Practitioner

Feedback

Questio
n
naire

Profile Page


Practitio
n
ers

Result

Page






Change

Password

Page






Log Out









Admin


Page







Help

Page





Enter More


Data



-

25

-

4.2.1

Main Web Pages

4.2.1.1

Index
/Home P
age

The index page is the first page or initial page a user sees when users access the website.

It is
t
he main w
eb page of the website. This means that this is the first page a user is going to see
when

the
user tries to a
c
cess the website over a web server
.

4.2.1.2

How to use this

website Page

Users ar
e directed to the How
-
to
-
Use
-
this
-
website Page through the Index/Home Pa
ge. This
Page gives users
some information on how to use the website.

4.2.1.3

Log I
n Page

A

user can access the
log
-
i
n page
from the home
page

and can also access the web page d
i
rec
t-
ly from the address bar
.

The page requires a user to use his/her password and user
name to
access the website for existing users but there is a link to re
-
direct new users to the registration
page in other to regi
s
ter.

4.2.1.4

Registration
Page

A new user is redirected to the registration page from the log
-
in page. The page allows new
users to r
egister in other to access the website. The user is registered with a username and
password. The user is then redirected back to the

log
-
in page in other to log
-
into the website.

4.2.1.5

Welcome
/Home

Page

The welcome Page is the first page the user is presented wi
th after a successful login into the
system. The user is greeted with a welcome message and the username given during the regi
s-
tration process.

4.2.1.6

Profile Page

The
Profile page

is
designed to enable users view the information they submitted during regi
s-
tratio
n and the information displayed only contains details related to the particular individual
logged in at the time. This is to allow users know and see what details were stored at the point
of registration.

4.2.1.7

Enter more data Page

The Enter more data Page prov
ides the links used to access the questionnaire forms and the
r
e
sult page.

-

26

-

4.2.1.8

Care Patient Feedback Page

The Care patient feedback page is a questionnaire page for patients which is completed by the
practitioners using radio
-
buttons and submitted into the dat
abase.

4.2.1.9

Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire Page

The Practitioner Demographic Questionnaire Page is al
so a Questionnaire page which can be
accessed from
the
Enter more data
page
.

The questionnaire requires a practitioner to complete
some details
related
to the practitioner
which are submitted and stored in the database.

4.2.1.10

Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire

The Practitioner Feedback Questionnaire is a feedback page which a practitioner must co
m-
plete in other to access the result page or the get the results
of questionnaires already
completed on the other pages.

4.2.1.11

Result Page


The result page is the final page
displayed
to the practitioners after completing most of the
questionnaires within the web page. This page enables the practitioners to see the results of

the
questionnaires completed so far.

4.2.1.12

Change Password Page

The change password page allows registered users to change their
passwords and

the

corr
e-
sponding password is
u
p
dated in the database.

4.2.1.13

Help page


The Help page is similar to the
How to use this webs
ite Page
. It is used to give the user info
r-
mation on how to use the website when the user is logged into the website.

4.2.1.14

Log Out Page

The log out page is displayed when a practitioner decides to leave the website or sign out of
the system. There is a link to
redirect the user back to the website if they choose to sign into
the system again.

4.2.2

A
ccess denied Page
s

The
access denied page
s are
shown to or displayed on a user’s browser if a user tries to access
other pages within the website without logging in to the

website

or system
. This is used to
-

27

-

prevent unauthorized access to individual
web pages which also serve
to protect re
gistered
users data and
the
database.

An access denied page is also displayed to a practitioner without administrative privileges
when the

practitioner trying to a
c
cess the admin pages.


4.3

Page
Design

To design a good website there are some key elements or choices that need to be considered to
make the website appealing, accessible, presentable and user
-
friendly. These key elemen
ts are
colour

choices, text, page layout

and navigational features.

4.3.1

Colour

Colours were required to make the website presentable, user
-
friendly and to improve the look
and feel of the website. Colour choices were
indeed considered
when designing
the

web pages
in other
to give a simplistic design and to give the website a uniform look. Four main colour
s

in the forms of Black,
Green,

Orange and Blue were

considered as
in the general website d
e-
sign

so as to avoid too many co
l
our combinations.

4.3.2

Text

Legible and simple
texts
as well as fonts were

used in the design o
f pages within the website.
Simple text and fonts were used so as not to distract the user when accessing or using the we
b-
site fe
a
tures.

Dark and bold texts were used on light backgrounds in the web pages to make
the content of the page readable.

4.3.3

Page Layout

It is important to consider the layout of web pages across the website. Factors to consider in
the design of a page include simplicity

in terms
of content to be presented on

the web page
,
size of
the
page and c
larity of the web page. These factors are essential in other to prevent
clustered el
e
ments and content on the page as well as poorly organized displays.

In the general page design of the website these design choices were considered

in the design
phase
:



Sim
plistic design and content of the web pages was considered to give the web pages
a nice look and feel
, present content of the pages in a clear and organize manner

and to
prevent busy web pages which may be confusing to the user.

-

28

-



The page size was also cons
idered whereby the pages

and content

within the website
were centralized. This was necessary as a design choice because browsers and mon
i-
tor’s used by users may vary and web

content

displayed on the left and right

sides of
the pages may be cut off from som
e users


browsers
or monitors when displayed.

4.3.4

Navigational Aids

Suitable navigational aids such as links were considered in the website design to enable user’s
access content of the web pages and to move from one page to another.

Mouse over and s
e-
lected li
nks are also highlighted to assist the user when navigating within the site.

4.4


Database

Design

Considering the website is to hold
users’

data
and data submitted by users to be stored ele
c-
tronically. A database was designed to store users’ data and to provid
e a greater control over
the addition, retrieval and updating of data and tables in the database.
















Figure 12.


The Website’s database and tables associated with the database.




DAT
A
BASE



USER



PATIENT


PRACTITIONER




FEEDBACK

-

29

-

4.4.1

Database Tables

There are four main
tables designed in the database a
nd each table is designed to hold u
s
ers’
data and information. Each table is given its own unique and primary key which can be used
during SQL queries and Insertion of data.

The four main tables are explained below.

4.4.1.1

User Table

The
User
table holds users’ r
egistration details including usernames and passwords
. The User
table in the database can be described as the main table in the database which is used to refe
r-
ence other tables in the database.

4.4.1.2

Patient Table

The
Patient

table is created to hold data submi
tted from the
Care Patient Questionnaire Fee
d-
back

form.

The
user

I
d

from the
User

table is used to reference the
Patient

t
able. This is used
to create a relationship between the two tables.

4.4.1.3

Practitioner Table

The
Practitioner

table is created to hold data
submitted from the
Practitioner Demographic
Questionnaire

form.

The
user Id

from the
User

table is used to reference the