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英文學術論文寫作

Academic Writing in English

藍武王教授

Prof. Lawrence W. Lan


藍武王教授學術經歷

Professor Lan’s Academic Appointments


期刊編輯委員
Journal’s Editorial


2008
-
present
:

Associate

Editor,

International

Journal

of

Applied

Evolutionary

Computation

2004
-
present
:

Associate

Editor,

Transportmetrica

(SSCI,

SCI)

1999
-
present
:

Editorial

Advisory

Board,

Journal

of

the

Eastern

Asia

Society

for

Transportation

Studies

2008
-
2009
:

Guest

Editor,

International

Journal

of

Environment

and

Sustainable

Development

2006
-
2007
:

Guest

Editor,

International

Journal

of

Sustainable

Transportation

(SSCI)

1996
-
2002
:

Editorial

Advisory

Board,

Journal

of

the

Chinese

Institute

of

Engineers

(SCI,

EI)


期刊審查委員
Journal’s Referee


Transportation Research Part A, Transportation Research Part C, Transportation, European
Journal of Operational Research, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,
Transport Reviews, Journal of Advanced Transportation, Transportmetrica, International
Journal of Sustainable Transportation, International Journal of Environment and Sustainable
Development, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Transportation
Research Record, Asian Journal of Control, Canadian Journal of Economics, Engineering
Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers,
International Journal of Applied Evolutionary Computation,

運輸學刊
,
運輸計劃季刊
,
都市與
計畫
,
中國土木水利工程學刊
,
交大管理學報
,
管理科學學報
,
全球運籌學刊



藍武王教授期刊論文


(
明道大學名義發表

獩湣攠㈰s㜯㠯ㄩ


大綱

Outline


讀者

Audience


標題

Title


格式

Format


摘要

Abstract


緒論

Introduction


文獻探討

Literature
review



研究方法

Methods


研究結果

Results


討論

Discussion


結論

Conclusions


謝辭

Acknowledgements


參考文獻

References


附錄

Appendices


讀者

Audience


“Over

20

million

researchers

in

90

countries

base

their

research,

planning,

and

budget

decisions

on

the

content

and

analytics

they

find

in

ISI

Web

of

Knowledge

SM
.


引文索引

Citation Indexes


SCI

(
Science
C
itation
I
ndex
):


引文索引

6,620 journals
across 150 science and technology disciplines.



SS
CI

(Social
Science
C
itation
I
ndex
):
社會


引文索引

1,985 social science journals across 50 disciplines.



A&HCI (Arts & Humanities Citation Index):
藝術人文
引文索


Over 1,100 of the world's leading arts and humanities
journals.


Source:

ISI Web of Knowledge

(2009)



ISI

(
Institute for Scientific Information

)

--
f
ounded by
Eugene Garfield

in 1960.

--
acquired by
Thomson Scientific

in 1992.

--
now
Thomson Reuters
(the world’s leading source
of intelligent information for businesses and professionals)



JCR (
Journal Citation Reports
)

--
since 1975

--
via
ISI
Web

of Knowledge

database service:

引文索引
論文資料庫

SCI
/SSCI/A&HCI Database

Welcome page of JCR

ISI
Web of Knowledge


http://admin.isiknowledge.com/SessionError.cgi?CSID

=&DestApp=JCR&Error=SESSION+NOT+ACTIVE


Establish a new session to access to JCR

SCI 2008 + view all journals

SSCI 2008 + view all journals

SSCI 2008 + view a group of
journals by subject category


Anthropology


Area studies


Business


Business, finance


Communication


Criminology & penology


Economics


Education & educational research


Education, special


Environmental studies


Ergonomics


Ethics


Ethnic studies


Family studies


Geography


Gerontology


Health policy & services


History


History and philosophy of science


History of social sciences


Hospitality, leisure, sport &
tourism


Industrial relations & labor


Information science & library
science


International relations


Law


Linguistics


Management


Nursing


Planning & development


Political science


Psychiatry


Psychology




SSCI 2008 + view a group of journals by


subject category:
Education & Educational Research

SSCI 2008+ view a group of journals by


subject category:
Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism

SSCI 2008+ view a group of journals by subject
category:
Transportation

SCI 2008 + search for a specific journal

European Journal of Operational Research

Impact
F
actor
s
(EJOR)

Rank in category

(EJOR)

標題

Title


可以不是完整的句子


反映文章特色


反映研究




不超

100

字母


排版後
不超

2




自關鍵詞及摘要命名


References
之題目中加以修改


少用
~A Study of~ (~
之研究
~)


可用副標題
:

例如


Chiou, Y.
-
C. & Lan, L.W. (2005).
Ordering and Warehousing
Strategies for Multi
-
item Multi
-
branch Firm’s Logistics: Clustering
Approaches
, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation
Studies, Vol. 6, pp.2809
-
2821.

關鍵詞

Keywords



3~10
個,依期刊規定




依期刊規定選詞
(

Index Medicus

MeSH

)


如果表中找不到,可用新

或相近
的詞

格式

The IMRD
Format


Abstract (keywords)


Introduction
(literature
review)


Methods


Results


Discussion


Conclusions (and
Implications)


Acknowledgements


References


Appendices


Source:

Swales, J.M. & Feak, C.B. (1994). Academic Writing for Graduate
Students: A Course for Non
-
native Speakers of English. Ann Arbor: The
University of Michigan Press.

格式

(
範例
)

Format

Abstract

Keywords
:


Traffic flow


Cellular automaton


Refined cell


Limited deceleration


Piecewise
-
linear movement

1. Introduction

2. Model

3. Validation

4. Application

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgements

Appendix

References

Source:

Lan, et al. (2009). A refined cellular automaton model to rectify
impractical vehicular movement behavior,
Physica A 388
,

3917
-
3930
.

摘要


Abstract


200
-
300

,不分段


APA
建議
實證研究
之摘要包含五
要素



Problem under investigation (background,
importance and objective)


Participants (subjects)


Methods


R
esults

(findings)


Conclusions (implications, applications)

Source:

American Psychological Association (2001).

Publication Manual of
the American Psychological Association, 5th ed., Washington, DC.

A refined cellular automaton model to rectify impractical vehicular
movement behavior

[
1
.

Problem]

When

implementing

cellular

automata

(CA)

into

a

traffic

simulation,

one

common

defect

yet

to

be

rectified

is

the

abrupt

deceleration

when

vehicles

encounter

stationary

obstacles

or

traffic

jams
.

To

be

more

in

line

with

real

world

vehicular

movement,

this

paper

proposes

a

piecewise
-
linear

movement

to

replace

the

conventional

particle
-
hopping

movement

adopted

in

most

previous

CA

models
.

[
2
.

Method]

Upon

this

adjustment

and

coupled

with

refined

cell

system,

a

new

CA

model

is

developed

using

the

rationale

of

Forbes'

et

al
.

car
-
following

concept
.

[
3
.

Subject]

The

proposed

CA

model

is

validated

on

a

two
-
lane

freeway

mainline

context
.

[
4
.

R
esults
]

It

shows

that

this

model

can

fix

the

unrealistic

deceleration

behaviors,

and

thus

can

reflect

genuine

driver

behavior

in

the

real

world
.

The

model

is

also

capable

of

revealing

Kerner's

three
-
phase

traffic

patterns

and

phase

transitions

among

them
.

[
5
.

Application]

Furthermore,

the

proposed

CA

model

is

applied

to

simulate

a

highway

work

zone

wherein

traffic

efficiency

(maximum

flow

rates)

and

safety

(speed

deviations)

impacted

by

various

control

schemes

are

tested
.

摘要

(
範例
)



Abstract
Source:
Lan, et al. (2009)

摘要

(
範例
)



Abstract
Source:
Tseng, M.L. (2009)


Evaluation of new product development in firm’s knowledge management
capability: A novel approach

[
1
.

Problem]

New

product

development

(NPD)

in

firms’

knowledge

management

capability

(KMC)

is

vital

for

enterprises

in

making

continuous

improvements

to

maintain

sustainable

competitive

advantages
.

Evaluation

of

NPD

in

firms’

KMC,

however,

is

a

challenging

task

due

to

the

intertwining

cause
-
effect

complexity

of

the

criteria

and

the

linguistic

vagueness

of

some

qualitative

information
.

To

deal

with

this

issue,

this

paper

proposes

a

novel

approach

fuzzy

decision

making

trial

and

evaluation

laboratory

(FDEMATEL)

method

to

evaluate

the

interactive

aspects

of

NPD

in

KMC
.

[
2
.

Method]

The

rationale

of

the

proposed

approach

is

to

combine

fuzzy

logic

method

with

decision

making

trial

and

evaluation

laboratory

(DEMATEL)

method,

wherein

fuzzy

logic

method

accounts

for

the

linguistic

vagueness

of

qualitative

criteria

and

DEMATEL

converts

the

relationship

between

the

causes

and

effects

of

criteria

into

an

intelligible

structural

modeling

system
.

[
3
.

Subject]

For

the

empirical

case

study,

five

interactive

aspects

of

NPD

in

KMC

for

a

PCB

manufacturing

corporation

in

Taiwan

are

evaluated
:

infrastructure

capability,

process

capability,

marketing

capability,

R

&

D

capability,

innovation

decision

capability
.

[
4
.

R
esults
]

The

results

show

that

“monitoring

market

forces”

and

“security”

are

the

most

influencing

cause

criteria

while

“technology”

is

the

most

important

effect

criterion
.

[
5
.

Conclusions]

Managerial

implications

and

applications

are

discussed
.

摘要

(
範例
)



Abstract
Source:

Xu, et al. (2009)

Background
:

In

addition

to

western

medicine,

acupuncture

was

regarded

as

a

complementary

and

alternative

medicine

(CAM)

to

obese

adults’

and

children’s

weight

reduction,

a

major

contributor

to

the

global

burden

of

chronic

disease

and

disability
.

This

study

aimed

to

investigate

the

effects

of

electroacupuncture

on

weight

reduction

in

obese

rats’

experiment
.


Methods
:

Thirty

obese

rats

were

randomly

divided

into

three

groups
:

acupuncture

group

(AG),

sham

group

(SG),

and

control

group

(CG)
;

each

contained

10

rats
.

Electroacupuncture

was

carried

out

on

each

AG

rat

at

the

Tianshu

(ST
25
)

acupoint,

15

minutes

for

each

day,

33

days

in

total
.

Similar

acupuncture

was

also

conducted

on

each

SG

rat

at

two

non
-
ST
25

acupoints
:

one

located

5

mm

above,

3

mm

lateral

to

LI
11

(at

the

depression

of

lateral
-
anterior

area

of

proximal

radius),

and

the

other

located

3
mm

above

the

former

point
.

No

acupuncture

was

conducted

on

the

CG

rats
.

One
-
way

ANOVA

and

repeated

Schfee’

methods

were

used

for

statistical

analyses
.


Results
:

The

AG

rats

had

significantly

lower

weight,

fat(
%
),

TC,

TG,

FFA,

Lep,

TNT
-
α,

and

NPY

than

the

CG

rats

(P<
0
.
05
)
.

The

SG

rats

also

had

significantly

lower

weight,

TC,

Lep,

TNF
-
α,

and

NPY

than

the

CG

rats

(P<
0
.
05
)
.


Conclusions
:

Although

the

experiments

were

for

obese

rats,

the

findings

may

have

shed

some

light

on,

or

at

least

provided

useful

direction

for,

the

development

of

effective

acupuncture

schemes

to

control

human

overweight

and

obesity

to

ameliorate

the

health

and

lifestyles
.


Effects of electroacupuncture on obese rats’ weight reduction


緒論

Introduction


精神

Merits


建立在前人研究基礎上,發現其不足處,提出自己的
貢獻,改善其缺點

To propose novel methods or to
perform new experiments to improve or correct the
shortcomings found in previous works.


要素

Elements


背景

Background


問題

Problems


重要性

Significance


目的

Purpose


章節安排

Organization

Source:

彭登龍
(2008)
。學術英文寫作
--
研究論文寫作指導原則。一版,台北:
華立圖書
(

)
公司。

緒論

Introduction


發展步驟

Development steps


建立領域

Establishing a research territory


創造利基

Creating a niche


佔領利基

Occupying a niche


文獻探討

Literature review


作者組織法

Organization by author


主題組織法

Organization by topic

Source:

彭登龍
(2008)
。學術英文寫作
--
研究論文寫作指導原則。一版,台北:
華立圖書
(

)
公司。

文獻探討

Literature review


作者組織法

Organization by author


Freeman

et

al
.

(
1985
)

applied

the

index

number

method

to

measuring

and

comparing

the

total

factor

productivity

of

Canadian

Pacific

(CP)

and

Canadian

National

(CN)

railways

over

the

period

of

1956

81
.

Friedlaender

et

al
.

(
1993
)

used

the

least

squares

method

to

estimate

the

short
-
run

variable

cost

function

of

US

Class

I

railroads
.

Chapin

and

Schmidt

(
1999
)

used

the

DEA

approach

to

measure

the

efficiency

of

US

Class

I

railroad

companies

since

deregulation
.

Lan

and

Lin

(
2003
a)

compared

the

relative

productive

efficiency

of

worldwide

rail

systems

with

DEA

and

SFA

approaches
.


主題組織法

Organization

by

topic


The

methods

for

evaluating

efficiency

and

productivity

were

generally

classified

into

four

categories
:

index

number

(Freeman

et

al
.
,

1985
),

least

squares

(Friedlaender

et

al
.
,

1993
),

data

envelopment

analysis

(Charnes

et

al
.
,

1978
;

Coelli

et

al
.
,

1998
;

Oum

et

al
.
,

1999
;

Lan

and

Lin,

2003
a),

and

stochastic

frontier

analysis

(Aigner

et

al
.
,

1977
;

Oum

et

al
.
,

1999
;

Lan

and

Lin,

2005
)
.

Source:

Lan, L.W. & Lin, E.T.J. (2006). Performance Measurement for Railway Transport:
Stochastic Distance Functions with Inefficiency and Ineffectiveness Effects, Journal of
Transport Economics and Policy, 40(3), 383
-
408.


文獻探討

Literature review


主題組織法

Organization by topic


In the 1980s, the use of electronic communication started to
become popular in the United States in the teaching of
composition. This was based on claims that it (1) provided more
writing practice

(DiMatteo, 1990, 1991); (2) encouraged
collaborative writing

(Barker and Kemp, 1990); and (3)
facilitated
peer editing

(Boiarsky, 1990; Moran, 1991).


In general, most studies have found that successful language
learners used more learning strategies, and more facilitative
ones, than did poor learners, although the number of strategies
was less important than the relevance of the strategies to the
given language task (Bialystok, 1979; Chamot & Kupper, 1989;
Naiman et al., 1978; Oxford, 1990, 1993; Rubin, 1975, 1987).


In

facing

globally

competitive

and

changeable

environments,

enterprises

must

continuously

manage

their

organizational

resources,

efficiently

generate

the

products,

or

even

effectively

develop

the

new

products

so

as

to

maintain

competitive

advantages

(Johannessen

and

Olsen,

2003
;

Chuang,

2004
)
.

New

product

development

(NPD)

in

firms’

knowledge

management

capability

(KMC)

is

especially

vital

for

enterprises

in

making

continuous

improvements

to

sustain

competitive

advantages

(Lubit,

2001
;

Liu,

2004
)
.

The

main

contributions

of

firms’

KMC

to

competitive

advantages

include

improved

ability

of

innovation,

improved

coordination

of

efforts,

and

rapid

commercialization

of

new

products
.

The

effectiveness

of

firms’

KMC

plays

an

important

role

in

NPD
.

For

instance,

firms

normally

adopt

KMC

to

manage

their

NPD

strategies

in

order

to

shorten

the

time

for

a

new

product

coming

into

the

markets
....

重要性
<=>
建立領域

(
範例
)

Significance

Source:
Tzeng, M.L. (2009). Evaluation of new product development in firm’s
knowledge management capability: A novel approach. (working paper)

In

literature,

both

KMC

and

NPD

have

been

widely

studied

from

different

aspects
.

For

instance,

Gold

et

al
.

(
2001
)

and

Chuang

(
2004
)

expressed

the

contents

of

KMC

in

two

dimensions

with

seven

attributes
:

one

dimension

is

infrastructure

capability,

which

includes

attributes

of

technology,

structure,

and

culture
;

the

other

dimension

is

process

capability,

which

includes

attributes

of

acquisition,

conversion,

application,

and

security

.

In

conducting

an

illustrative

statistical

study,

Liu

et

al
.

(
2005
)

found

that

KMC

and

NPD

do

exhibit

positive

interactive

cause
-
effect

relationships

among

numerous

organizational

functions

and

among

different

departments
.

In

view

of

the

interactive

complexity,

evaluation

of

NPD

in

firms’

KMC

would

anticipate

multi
-
dimensional

difficulties
.

Besides,

some

of

the

qualitative

criteria

measured

in

linguistic

expression

are

vague

and

uncertain

in

nature,

which

makes

the

evaluation

of

NPD

in

firms’

KMC

even

more

challenging
.

背景
<=>
創造利基

(
範例
)

Background

Source:
Tzeng, M.L. (2009). Evaluation of new product development in firm’s
knowledge management capability: A novel approach. (working paper)

Obviously,

the

conventional

statistical

techniques

assuming

the

variables

being

independent

is

not

suited

to

evaluate

NPD

in

firms’

KMC
.

To

account

for

the

interdependent

cause
-
effect

relationships

among

the

criteria,

the

decision

making

trial

and

evaluation

laboratory

(DEMATEL)

method

developed

by

Fontela

and

Gabus

(
1976
)

is

perhaps

one

of

the

most

suitable

tools

.

On

the

other

hand,

it

is

generally

agreeable

that

human

perceptions

on

decision

criteria

in

many

practical

cases

are

judged

subjectively

because

human

preferences

are

uncertain

and

it

is

not

easy

to

assign

exact

numerical

values

to

describe

the

preferences

(Chen

and

Tzeng,

2001
;

Tseng,

et

al
.
,

2008
)
.

Namely,

if

some

of

the

evaluation

criteria

are

subjective

and

qualitative

in

nature

(e
.
g
.
,

linguistic

information),

it

is

difficult

for

the

decision

makers

to

express

their

preferences

using

exact

numerical

(crisp)

values
.

To

account

for

the

vagueness

and

uncertainty,

fuzzy

logic

method

can

be

an

appropriate

tool

(Opricovic

and

Tzeng,

2003
)
.



問題
<=>
創造利基

(
範例
)


Problems

Source:
Tzeng, M.L. (2009). Evaluation of new product development in firm’s
knowledge management capability: A novel approach. (working paper)

In

view

of

the

respective

advantages

of

both

methods,

this

paper

attempts

to

develop

a

novel

approach,

called

“fuzzy

decision

making

trial

and

evaluation

laboratory

(FDEMATEL)”

method,

to

evaluating

the

NPD

in

firms’

KMC
.

The

rationale

of

the

proposed

approach

is

to

combine

fuzzy

logic

method

with

decision

making

trial

and

evaluation

laboratory

(DEMATEL)

method,

wherein

fuzzy

logic

method

accounts

for

the

linguistic

vagueness

of

qualitative

criteria

and

DEMATEL

converts

the

relationship

between

the

causes

and

effects

of

criteria

into

an

intelligible

structural

modeling

system
.

In

the

case

study,

five

interactive

aspects

of

NPD

in

KMC

for

a

PCB

manufacturing

corporation

in

Taiwan

will

be

evaluated

.

研究目的
<=>
佔領利基

(
範例
)

Purpose

Source:
Tzeng, M.L. (2009). Evaluation of new product development in firm’s
knowledge management capability: A novel approach. (working paper)

The

remainder

of

this

paper

is

organized

as

follows
.

Section

2

addresses

in
-
depth

the

background

of

firms’

KMC

and

NPD

by

reviewing

some

relevant

literature
.

Section

3

presents

the

proposed

novel

approach

the

FDEMATEL
.

Section

4

subsequently

applies

the

proposed

approach

to

evaluating

a

case

firm
.

This

is

followed

by

managerial

implications

in

Section

5

and

conclusions

in

Section

6
.

章節安排

(
範例
)

佲条湩穡瑩潮

Source:
Tzeng, M.L. (2009). Evaluation of new product development in firm’s
knowledge management capability: A novel approach. (working paper)

研究方法

Methods


研究設計

Research design


Action research, experiment,

case study, participant observation,
interview, questionnaire, survey


對象
Participants/Subjects


Characteristics and background: e.g., number, age, gender, course
level, school year, major, ethnicity, nationality, etc.


工具

Instruments


Quantitative: e.g., 5
-
point Likert scale (1 as most strongly disagree and
5 as most strongly agree).


Qualitative: e.g., interview, belief questionnaire, audio tape
-
recorders to
record discussions.


Experimental devices & materials


資料蒐集程序

Data collection procedure


who, what, when, where, how.


資料分析

Data analysis


Statistical analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, ANOVA, t
-
test, etc.


Software: SPSS 9.0, LIMDEPT, SAS 5.1, etc.

研究結果

Results


以報導為主,將量化與質性的研究結果及發現做具體呈現
或以研究問題的標題方式呈現,不做討論或評論

Report
the results and findings without further discussion or
commentary


盡量利用圖表視覺輔助工具加以呈現,文中應依序介紹圖
表,並做簡要說明

Present the results and findings using
visual aids (table, chart, graph) and briefly explain the
visual aids in the text


所有的圖表要標示清楚
(
單位、座標等;圖名在下、表名
在上;應與內文說明靠近
) Clearly indicate the visual aids
and properly locate them in the text


重視事實呈現與報導能力

4.2 Results

For

the

purpose

of

comparison,

the

efficiency

and

effectiveness

scores

are

estimated

by

three

DEA

approaches

.

The

detailed

results

for

each

DMU

by

these

three

DEA

approaches

are

presented

in

Appendix

1
,

which

reports

the

average

scores

during

the

study

horizon

from

1995

to

2001
.

Table

2

further

summarizes

the

distribution

of

efficiency

and

effectiveness

scores

by

these

three

DEA

approaches
.

Based

on

the

results

and

some

extended

analyses,

we

draw

important

findings

as

follows
.

1
.

Efficiency

(effectiveness)

scores

by

BCC

model

are

relative

low

and

varied

among

regions

2
.

Some

efficient

(effective)

DMUs

are

rather

robust

(insensitive)

but

some

others

are

very

sensitive

to

data

change

3
.

The

total

slacks

and

average

slacks

by

three
-
stage

DEA

approach

are

smaller

than

those

by

BCC

model

4
.

The

significant

external

and

internal

factors

affect

the

input

and

consumption

slacks

5
.

Efficiency

(effectiveness)

scores

by

three
-
stage

DEA

approach

are

considerably

higher

than

those

by

BCC

model

6
.

Efficiency

(effectiveness)

scores

by

three
-
stage

DEA

approach

are

slightly

overestimated

in

comparison

with

our

proposed

four
-
stage

DEA

approach

Source
:

Lan,

L
.
W
.

&

Lin,

E
.
T
.
J
.

(
2005
)
.

Measuring

railway

performance

with

adjustment

of

environmental

effects,

data

noise

and

slacks
.

Transportmetrica,

1
(
2
),

161
-
189
.


結果
(
範例
)

標題方式呈現

t
t
+
1
t
+
2
t
+
3
t
+
4
t
+
5
speed
(
site
/
timestep
)
2
time
-
step
5
7
8
Piece
-
wise linear variation
t
t
+
1
t
+
2
t
+
3
t
+
4
t
+
5
speed
(
site
/
timestep
)
2
time
-
step
5
7
8
Particle
-
hopping variation
(
a
)
(
b
)
Fig. 2. Different definitions of vehicular speed update: (a) particle
-
hopping
variation (b) piecewise
-
linear variation.

Source:

Lan, et al. (2009). A refined cellular automaton model to rectify impractical
vehicular movement behavior,
Physica A 388
,

3917
-
3930
.

Our

first

proposal

is

to

revise

the

discrete

speed

variations

to

become

piecewise
-
linear

in

each

time
-
step
.

This

can

be

illustrated

in

Fig
.

2
.

It

is

our

opinion

that

the

particle
-
hopping

manner,

as

shown

in

Fig
.

2
(a),

adopted

by

most

existing

CA

models,

is

over
-
simplified
.

Therefore,

we

alternatively

suggest

that

vehicles

will

smoothly

vary

their

speeds

from

the

original

ones

at

the

beginning

to

the

desired

speed

by

the

end

of

each

time
-
step,

as

shown

in

Fig
.

2
(b)
.



(
範例
)

圖文相互呼應

Figure 9 Successive flow time
-
series in 1
-
D and its trajectories in 3
-
D
reconstructed spaces (flow: vehicles per hour per approach)

Source:

Lan, L.W., Sheu, J.
-
B. & Huang, Y.
-
S. (2008). Investigation of Temporal Freeway
Traffic Patterns in Reconstructed State Spaces, Transportation Research Part C:
Emerging Technologies, 16, 116
-
136.

From

Fig
.

9
,

it

is

found

that,

in

the

top

panel,

the

difference

in

flow

between

points

1

and

2

is

lower

than

between

points

3

and

4
,

therefore,

in

the

bottom

panel

the

distance

between

points

3

and

4

is

larger

than

between

points

1

and

2
.

In

addition,

in

the

bottom

panel,

one

circle

distance

of

trajectories

going

around

the

space

approximately

equals

the

variety

of

flow

from

00
:
00

to

24
:
00

in

the

top

panel
.

圖文
(
範例
)

圖文相互呼應

The technical efficiency and service effectiveness scores for each DMU

over eight years are reported in Appendices 1 and 2, respectively. The

distributions of
both efficiency and effectiveness scores are summarised in

Table 3.

The mean efficiency and effectiveness scores are 0.637 and 0.640,

respectively, indicating that there is considerable technical inefficiency

and service ineffectiveness in the railway transport industry.

Source:

Lan, L.W. & Lin, E.T.J. (2006).
Performance Measurement for Railway
Transport: Stochastic Distance Functions
with Inefficiency and Ineffectiveness Effects,
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy,
40(3), 383
-
408.


表文

(
範例
)

表文相互呼應

討論

Discussion


以高層次思考方式呈現,
依據研究結果與發現,加以
綜合、
解釋、分析、
評論

與詮釋


Summary, explanation, analysis, commentary, and
interpretation based on the results and findings


解釋
=>
依據研究結果加以解釋與引出結論


分析
=>
結果的意涵與進一步發現


詮釋
=>
結果的重要性、有無多種解釋、可能提出的問題等


討論與結論有時候亦可寫成同一章節


以研究結果的資料為根據,以合乎邏輯的方式,支持作者
自己的主張與看法


重視分析、綜合、與評論的能力

討論

(
範例


Discussion

5. POLICY IMPLICATIONS


Our

empirical

analysis

shows

that

the

total

slack

of

employee

is

1
,
344

persons

per

kilometer

of

lines

(
1
,
182
.
3

in

radial

and

161
.
5

in

non
-
radial),

which

is

larger

(in

terms

of

the

magnitude

of

value)

than

the

total

slacks

of

the

other

two

input

factors

(
82

passenger
-
cars

per

kilometer

of

lines

and

867

freight
-
cars

per

kilometer

of

lines),

hence,

reducing

the

excess

number

of

employees

is

perhaps

more

urgent

than

reducing

the

excess

number

of

freight
-
cars

than

reducing

the

excess

number

of

passenger
-
cars,

provided

input

factor

cutting

strategies

are

to

be

considered
.

Our

results

also

indicate

that

percentage

of

electrified

lines

is

a

significant

factor

affecting

the

magnitude

of

input

slacks

as

well

as

technical

efficiency
.

In

general,

the

efficient

DMUs

are

those

with

high

percentages

of

electrified

lines

.

The

policy

implication

suggests

that

a

railway

company

can

enhance

its

technical

efficiency

by

introducing

more

electrified

lines
.

Source
:

Lan,

L
.
W
.

&

Lin,

E
.
T
.
J
.

(
2005
)
.

Measuring

railway

performance

with

adjustment

of

environmental

effects,

data

noise

and

slacks
.

Transportmetrica,

1
(
2
),

161
-
189
.


結論

Conclusions


總結研究發現

Summarize the results and
findings


引申研究結果之涵意及可能之應用

Implications and applications


討論與結論有時候亦可寫成同一章節


指出研究限制或缺點、建議未來研究方向

Limitations of the research and
suggestions for future studies

結論

(
範例
)

Conclusions

Although

the

experiments

were

for

obese

rats,

the

findings

may

have

shed

some

light

on

the

development

of

effective

acupuncture

schemes

to

reduce

the

weight

for

overweight

or

obese

people
.

The

results

may

have

provided

promising

acupoints

to

treat

the

overweight

and

obesity

of

people

to

ameliorate

human

health

and

lifestyles
.

It

should

be

noted,

however,

that

the

following

factors

have

been

considered

influencing

the

effectiveness

of

acupuncture
:

acupoint

selection,

matching

compatibility,

timing

of

acupuncture,

skill

of

supplement

of

the

insufficiency

of

acupuncture,

depth

of

acupuncture

needling,

and

length

of

time

and

connection

between

non
-
acupoints

and

acupoints,

among

others

(Chen

et

al
.
,

1990
;

Ernst

et

al
.
,

2007
)
.

Thus,

more

in
-
depth

acupuncture

deserves

further

exploration
.

Future

study

can

also

conduct

the

similar

experiments

via

the

overweight

or

obese

volunteers

in

humans
.


Source:
Xu, B. et al. (2009). Effects of electroacupuncture on obese rats’
weight reduction. (working paper)

謝辭

Acknowledgements

Swales & Feak (1994): Financial support, thanks, disclaimer, other version, source



For providing me with the samples.


For the assistance in collecting the data or material.


For permission to quote from copyright sources.


For permission to use or reproduce the illustrations.


For the financial support.


For valuable advice.


For helpful suggestions.


For valuable comments and criticisms.


For reading the draft and making a number of helpful suggestions.


For reading the entire text in its original form.


But responsibility for the text (with any surviving errors) rests entirely upon
the author.


Even so, there will be mistakes of fact (interpretation, presentation, etc.) for
which I alone am responsible.

謝辭

(
範例
)

Acknowledgements

The

authors

are

indebted

to

editor
-
in
-
chief

for

giving

us

chances

to

clarify

and

revise

our

original

work
.

We

are

thankful

to

two

anonymous

reviewers

for

their

constructive

comments

and

suggestions

to

improve

the

quality

of

this

paper
.

This

study

is

part

of

the

research

projects

granted

by

the

ROC

National

Science

Council

(NSC
-
91
-
2211
-
E
-
009
-
048
,

NSC
-
92
-
2211
-
E
-
009
-
058

and

NSC
-
95
-
2416
-
H
-
009
-
020
-
MY
3
)
.

Source
:

Lan,

L
.
W
.
,

Sheu,

J
.
-
B
.

&

Huang,

Y
.
-
S
.

(
2008
)
.

Investigation

of

Temporal

Freeway

Traffic

Patterns

in

Reconstructed

State

Spaces,

Transportation

Research

Part

C
:

Emerging

Technologies,

16
,

116
-
136
.


參考文獻

References


多按先
後順序標註


注意格式


Book, book chapter, journal paper, conference paper, report, unpublished thesis,
internet information.


APA (2001): Author (year), title, location, publisher


正確無誤且相關



數量
不能


(
20

以上
)


需要有近
2
年文



最好

量自引

References
參考文獻

(
範例
)

Source:
Xu, et al. (2009). Effects of electroacupuncture on obese rats’ weight reduction.
(Working paper)



1
.

WHO,

http
:
//www
.
who
.
int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en/
.

Retrieved

on

October

10
,

2009
.


2
.

Cho,

SH,

Lee,

JS,

Thabane,

L,

Lee,

J
.

Acupuncture

for

obesity
:

A

systematic

review

and

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-
analysis
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Int

J

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.

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;

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Haslam,

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JP,

McTernan,

PG,

Kumar,

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.

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of

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Y,

ubiquitous

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elusive
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2004
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Lin,

G,

Ho,

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JC
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on

cardiopulmonary

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BMJ
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9
.

Vickers,

A,

Wilson,

P,

Kleijnen,

J
.

Acupuncture
.

2002
.




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參考文獻

(
範例
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&

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2006
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1987
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J
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1995
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.
J
.

and

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T
.

(
2000
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35
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53
.

Chang,

L
.
M
.

and

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P
.
H
.

(
2001
)

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financial

model
:

Taiwan

high

speed

rail

case
.

Journal

of

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and

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127
,

214
-
222
.

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Y
.
C
.

and

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L
.
W
.

(
2004
),

Financial

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on

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Urban

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December

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(
範例




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Source:

Lan, et al. (2009). A refined cellular automaton model to rectify
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Physica A 388
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3917
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3930
.

附錄

(
範例
)


Appendices

附錄

(
範例
)


Appendices

Some Useful Guide Books for Writing


The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed., Chicago and London: The
University of Chicago Press, 1982.


Hart’s Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press,
Oxford. 39th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.


MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: The
Modern Language Association of America. 3rd ed., 1988.


Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 3rd
ed., Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1983.


Turabian, K. L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and
Dissertations. 5th ed. Revised by Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum.
Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1987.


Webster’s Standard American Style Manual. Springfield, Mass.:
Merriam
-
Webster, 1985.