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rucksackbulgeΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

1 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Teaching Nanoelectronics


Paolo Lugli


Institute for Nanoelectronics

Munich, Germany






2

Outline


The Institute for Nanoelectronics at TUM



What is Nanoelectronics ?



Evolutionary vs. disruptive approaches


More Moore


More than Moore


Beyond Moore



How do we teach Nanoelectronics ?



Diplom, Bachelor and Master of Science in Electronics and Information
Technologies (EI) at TUM


International Master Programs at TUM


Joint Master Program at NTU
-
Singapore


New Joint EI
-
PH Master Program in “Nanoscience and Nanoengineering”
at TUM



Conclusions

Institute for

Nanoelectronics

www.nano.ei.tum.de

Experimental activities

Nanoimprinting

Ni stamps

Si masters

100 nm

50 nm

30 nm

10 nm

Nanoimprinting with
MBE mold (for sub 10
nm resolution), with
homemade imprinter

Commercial imprinter (up to 2,5”,
down to 50 nm resolution)



Photonic crystals



Nanopatterning for


quantum wire growth



Metallic molds



Patterning of organic


films

. Sub
-
wavelength


grating


Fabrication of organic devices

400
500
600
700
800
0
20
40
60
80
100
85% @ 550nm
EQE [%]
Wavelength [nm]
OPD external quantum efficiency

S

D

PEDOT

gate

Plastic substrate

PVA

Electro
-
optical nanodevice characterization

0
1
2
0,0
500,0n
1,0µ
1,5µ
V
gs
-20 V
-15 V
-10 V
0 V; -5 V


drain current I
ds
[A]
source drain bias U
sd
[V]
Si nanowire FET

IR emission of a Quantum
Cascade Laser

Institute for

Nanoelectronics

www.nano.ei.tum.de

Modelling/simulation activities

Multiscale approach for Nanoelectronics: from Devices to Architectures

Device
-
level models



Drift
-
Diffusion simulation for


organic devices (TFTs, OLEDs,


photodiodes, solar cells)



Ab
-
initio modeling of single


molecule diodes and CNTs



Monte Carlo simulation of


quantum devices

Au

Architectures



Passive Crossbar non


Volatile Memories



Capacitive / Ferroelectric


Memories



Quantum Cellular Automata


logic architectures

SPICE
-
level models



DC circuit models for


nanodevices



Coupling quantum circuits to


resonators



Design of hysteretic devices



Analysis of active matrix


array for imagers

Quantum
circuit

in
V
out
V
in
C
out
C
C
R
L
C
q
R
q
L
M
Nanoelectronics

5



Nanotechnology is the design and construction

of
useful technological devices whose size is a few billionths
of a meter



Nanoscale devices

will be built of small assemblies of
atoms linked together by bonds to form macro
-
molecules
and nanostructures


Nanoelectronics encompasses
nanoscale circuits and
devices including (but not limited to) ultra
-
scaled FETs,
quantum SETs, RTDs, spin devices, superlattice arrays,
quantum coherent devices, molecular electronic devices,
and carbon nanotubes.



Negative resistance devices, switches (RTDs,
molecular), spin transistors



Single electron transistor (SET) devices and circuits



Quantum cellular automata (QCA)

Limits of Conventional CMOS technology



Device physics scaling





Interconnects



Nanoelectronic alternatives?

Issues





Predicted performance improves with decreased
dimensions, BUT



Smaller dimensions
-
increased sensitivity to fluctuations



Manufacturability and reproducibility



Limited demonstration system demonstration

New information processing paradigms



Quantum computing, quantum info processing (QIP)



Sensing and biological interface



Self assembly and biomimetic behavior

6

Motivation for Nanoelectronics


7

The roadmap

Semiconductor technology trends (ITRS 2006)

8

Materials for Si
-
nanoelectronics

At the origin of Si microelectronics only few elements were necessary for the whole
processes. Current technology requires a much larger number of materials.

Source: Intel

9

Source: Intel

10

More Moore
-
> Beyond Moore

11

Robert Chau, Intel, ICSICT, 2005

Critical issues

1988

10
-
1

Year

Channel Electrons

1992

1996

2000

2004

2008

2012

2016

2020

10
0

10
1

10
2

10
3

10
4

16M

64M

256M

1G

4G

16G Memory Capacity/Chip

4M

12

Nano
-
Device Structure Evolution


13

Source: Intel

L
g

= 1.3µm;
Ø =
26 nm;
t
ox
= 300nm SiO
2





Normally
-
off


Schottky contacts

-2,0µ
-1,5µ
-1,0µ
-500,0n
0,0
-2
-1
0
-V
gs
-20 V
-15 V
-10 V
+5V; 0 V; -5 V


drain bias
V
ds
[V]
drain current
I
d
[A]
20V
;

Weber, W.M. et al.
IEEE
Proc
. ESSDERC 2006
, p. 423 (2006)

gate

S

D

V
d

V
g

I
d

NW

Si
-
NW
transistor
:
output

characteristics

15

Possible Quantum Dot Applications

Photodetector

Input

Quantum dots

or

single electron transistors

as processing elements

CMOS Drivers providing fan
-
out

Single “cell” of a Cellular Architecture


Single Electron Memory


Nanoelectronic Integrated

Circuit (NIC)


Quantum Cellular Automata


Quantum Computation (QBITs)

“1”

“0”

1

2

3

4

0

source

drain

nanocrystals

gate

SiO
2

gate

Memory

node

Si channel

SiO
2

Quantum

dots

Tunneling

barriers

Quantum

dots

16

17

Beyond Moore

Beyond CMOS logic and memory device candidates:



Nanowire transistors



CNT transistors



Resonant tunneling devices



NEMS devices



Single electron transistors



Molecular devices



Spintronic devices


All those candidates (some of which not yet demonstrated) still suffer
from major reliability and stability problems



18

Molecular components

OPV11 molecules with simplified phenyl side chains
synthesized by the group of Prof. Dr. E. Thorn
-
Csányi at
the University of Hamburg)

In collaboration with G. Abstreiter, WSI, M. Tornow, TU Braunschweig

20 nm embedded
GaAs layer after
etching and
deposition of 3 nm Ti
and 7 nm Au.

5 nm embedded
GaAs layer after
etching and
deposition of 2 nm Ti
and 6 nm Au.

S. Strobel et al., SMALL 5, 579
-
582 (2009)

19

Cross bar non volatile memory

V
The current
-
voltage characteristics of molecules is typically hysteretic, with step
-
like
nonlinearities and possibly non
-
symmetric (rectifying) behavior.

A crossbar memory


probably the simplest possible functional circuit


is one of
the proposed application of single molecule electronics

G. Casaba et al., IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 8, 369 (2009)

Problems with single molecule devices

-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
-500p
-400p
-300p
-200p
-100p
0
100p
200p
300p
400p
500p

0Down (P03:S05-08-)

1Up (P03:S05-08-)

1Down (P03:S05-08-)

2Up (P03:S05-08-)

2Down (P03:S05-08-)

3Up (P03:S05-08-)

3Down (P03:S05-08-)

4Up (P03:S05-08-)

4Down (P03:S05-08-)

5Up (P03:S05-08-)

5Down (P03:S05-08-)

6Up (P03:S05-08-)

6Down (P03:S05-08-)

7Up (P03:S05-08-)

7Down (P03:S05-08-)

8Up (P03:S05-08-)

8Down (P03:S05-08-)

9Up (P03:S05-08-)

9Down (P03:S05-08-)

10Up (P03:S05-08-)

10Down (P03:S05-08-)

11Up (P03:S05-08-)

11Down (P03:S05-08-)

12Up (P03:S05-08-)

12Down (P03:S05-08-)

13Up (P03:S05-08-)

13Down (P03:S05-08-)

14Up (P03:S05-08-)

14Down (P03:S05-08-)

15Up (P03:S05-08-)

15Down (P03:S05-08-)

16Up (P03:S05-08-)

16Down (P03:S05-08-)

17Up (P03:S05-08-)

17Down (P03:S05-08-)

18Up (P03:S05-08-)

18Down (P03:S05-08-)

19Up (P03:S05-08-)

19Down (P03:S05-08-)

20Up (P03:S05-08-)


Current [A]
Voltage [V]
G17-1c, P03, S05, über Nacht
A large variation is found in the IV characteristics between succesive sweeps.

Reasons can be due to:




Configurational changes in single


molecules



Variation in the number of


molecules attached to the


electrodes



Changes in the bond of a single


molecule to the metal contact






Such variability has to be dealt

at a circuit/architecture level

Molecular transistor

Back gate
: a molecule attached to source
and drain electrodes on an oxidized metal
or heavily doped Si gate (substrate). This
is the same configuration of the Thin Film
Transistors


Electrochemical gate
: a molecule bridged
between source and drain electrodes in an
electrolyte in which a gate field is applied
by a third electrode inserted in the
electrolyte.


Chemical gate
: current through the
molecule is controlled via a reversible
chemical event, such as binding, reaction,
doping or complexation.

Once a conducting molecule is set between 2 contacts, an additional electrode has
be introduced as gate. There are various possibilities:

Coupled nanomagnets

Fabrication and pictures by A. Imre

Investigations of permalloy nanomagnets (thermally
evaporated and patterned by electron beam
lithography) confirm the simulation results

Simulation

AFM

Simulated field

MFM

Courtesy of W. Porod, Notre Dame University

Planar Majority Gate Design

Output

points

down

only

if

both

inputs

are

pointing

up



乁乄

条瑥
.



Difficult

to

design



ferro
-

and

antiferromagnetic

couplings

to

the

central

dot

should

be

equally

strong


Electrical

inputs

are

difficult

to

fabricate



horizontally

lying

dots

provide

a

hard
-
wired

input
.

No

output,

we

just

imaged

it

with

the

MFM


Design

is

based

on

Parish

and

Forshaw
:

Magnetic

Cellular

Automate

Systems

IEE

Proc
.
-
Circuits

Devices

Syst
.
,

Vol
.

151
,

No
.

5
,

October

2004


Programming input
(bias to center dot)

Input A

Input B

Output

Imre et. al.
Science

2006

3

200 nm
Working majority gate with nanomagnets

24

Imre et. al.
Science

2006

SEM images

MFM images

Logic with nanomagnets

25

In collaboration with M. Becherer and D. Schmit
-
Lansiedel (TUM) , W. Porod (Notre Dame)

Outputs

Inputs

Information propagation

The challenges:

How to make signals propagating?



Integrated clocking

How to write in the magnets?




Localized field from wires

How to read out the magnets?




Hall sensor

M. Becherer et al., IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY 7, 316 (2008)

26

More than Moore

Interfacing to the real world

If the interaction is based on a non
-
electrical phenomenon, then specific
transducers are required. Sensors, actuators, displays, imagers, fluidic or bio
-
interfaces (DNA, Protein, Lab
-
On
-
Chip, Neuron interfaces, etc.) are in this
category


Enhancing electronics with non
-
pure electrical devices

New devices can be used in RF or analog circuits and signal processing.
Thanks to electrical characteristics or transfer functions that are unachievable
by regular MOS circuits, it is possible to reach better system performances. RF
MEMS electro
-
acoustic high Q resonators are a good
example of this category.


Embedding power sources with the electronics:

Several new applications will require on
-
chip or in
-
package micro power
sources (autonomous sensors or circuits with permanent active security
monitoring for instance). Energy scavenging micro
-
sources or micro
-
batteries
are examples of this category.

27

27

Why organic electronics ?


Easy to process (low costs)



Large area application



Flexible substrates



Chemical tunability of
conjugated polymers
(absorption spectrum)



Easy integration in different
devices



Ecological and economic
advantages

Example of organic sheet
-
image scanner

Inkjet
-
Printed solar cell from Konarka

OLED Display

For Mp3
-
player

OLED TV from Sony

28

IV-Characteristics BHJ OPV
1,00E-06
1,00E-05
1,00E-04
1,00E-03
1,00E-02
1,00E-01
1,00E+00
1,00E+01
1,00E+02
-4,0
-3,0
-2,0
-1,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
V
I [mA/cm
2
]
Dark
Illuminated
P
3
HT
PCBM
Top Electrode
P
3
HT
:
PCBM Blend
PEDOT
:
PSS
ITO
Substrate
Organic Photodetectors on glass


OPD with on/off ratio of more than 10
4

@
-
1 V

ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/AL

0.6 nm LiF, 100 nm Al

140 nm P3HT:PCBM (1:1)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
Wavelength [nm]
Amplitude [normalized]
Bulk heterojunction photodetector

S. Tedde
et al.
,
Fully Spray Coated Organic Photodiodes
, Nano Letters 9 (3), 980 (2009)

29

Organic Photodetectors on plastic

In collaboration with Siemens CT MM1

Multibarrier PET Foil

Au or ITO

PEDOT:PSS

P3HT:PCBM blend

Ca

Ag

Thin Film Encap.

I/V

400
500
600
700
800
0
20
40
60
80
100
85% @ 550nm
EQE [%]
Wavelength [nm]
The combination of organic semiconductors with a CMOS
-
chip offers
advantages compared with a conventional CMOS
-
sensor:



high photosensitivity
-
> fill factors up to 100 %


wavelength tunability
-
> sensors for infrared/ultraviolet region


inexpensive fabrication


subwavelength grading for optimized performance and polarization sensitivity

PCBM:P3HT

glass
-
substrate

ITO

Al 100 nm

PEDOT

LiF

1nm

ITO 100 nm

Requirements for combination CMOS
-
organic:



work function of the metallization of CMOS
chip must be aligned to organic semiconductor
energy levels
-
> e.g. Aluminium



deposition process of organic semiconductors
should be possible on rough/patterned surfaces

Standard organic photodetector

Integration
with

CMOS

In collaboration with Uni. Trento and Fondazione Bruno Kessler

30

-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
1E-7
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
10
inverted diode
(dark/light=100 mW/cm²)
noninverted


Current density (mA/cm²)
Voltage (V)
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70


Transmission(%)
wave length (nm)

IV
-
curves (dark/light):




on/off
-
ratio can be even better than of
standard device



lower dark current



lower light current (due to higher
absorbance of gold electrode compared with
ITO)



higher serial resistance

Transmission of gold
-
electrode (20 nm)


Preliminary

results

on
inverted

structure

D. Baierl et al., to be published in Organic Electronics

31

32

Conclusions


Nanotechnology provides a variety of interesting and


promising nanostructures


Integration with CMOS will be the first step in the profitable

use of nanostructures, once process compatibility is proven


Critical issues such as reliability, stability and lifetime are


going to become routine and will have to be addressed at a

circuit/architecture level


Novel circuits and architectures are going to be needed for a


full exploitation of nanocomponents


Institute for

Nanoelectronics

www.nano.ei.tum.de

Teaching
activities





Lectures




NANOLECTRONICS
(6. Sem. Bach. EI)




NANOSYSTEMS
(1. Sem. MSc. EI,)



MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS
(2. Sem. MSc. EI)



COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN NANOELECTRONICS
(2. Sem. MSc. EI)



SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DEVICES
(1. Sem. MSc. EI)



NANOTECHNOLOGY
(1. Sem. MSc. EI, MSc. “Microwave Engineering”,


MSc “Communication Engineering”, MSc. in “Engineering Physics”)



Labs




Nanoelectronics (6. Sem. Bach. EI.)



Simulation of semiconductor nanostructures (MSc. EI)



Characterization and simulation of molecular devices (MSc. EI.)



Design of molecular circuits (MSc. EI)



Nanobioelectronics (MSc. EI)

Institute for

Nanoelectronics

www.nano.ei.tum.de

International Initiatives

Joint Bachelor Program in EE with Georgiatech


Joint Master Program NTU/TUM on "Integrated Circuit Design„


Joint Master Program NTU/TUM on „Microelectronics„


Int. Master in „Communication Engineering“ (section on „Comunication Electronics“)


Int. Master in „Nanoscience and Nanoengineering“ (starting 2011)


Joint Ph.D. Program (
BI
-
NATIONALLY SUPERVISED DOCTORAL THESIS)

with
University of Trento (Italy)


Joint Ph.D. Program (
BI
-
NATIONALLY SUPERVISED DOCTORAL THESIS)

with
Universita‘ delle Marche (Italy)


Research cooperations with several european and international companies, research
labs and universities (STMicroelectronics, IBM, Arizona State University, MIT, Notre
Dame University, University of Illinois U.C., Nanyang Technological University,
Universita‘ di Roma „Tor Vergata“, Universita‘ di Modena, …)

35

Bachelor EI (since Oct. 2008)

Menu „Nanoelectronics“ (30 Credits; 5. and 6. Semester)


Nanoelectronics





5 Sem

6 Credits

CMOS
-
Technologie




5 Sem

3 Credits

Schaltungssimulation




5 Sem

3 Credits

Praktikum Elektronische Bauelemente


5 Sem

3 Credits



Nanotechnology





6 Sem

6 Credits

Halbleitersensoren




6 Sem

3 Credits

Optoelektronik





6 Sem

3 Credits

Projektpraktikum Nanoelektronik


und Nanotechnologie



6 Sem

3 Credits


36

MSc EI (starting Oct. 2010)

37

MS Communication Engineering

Mandatory Modules

Sem.

Adaptive and Array Signal Processing

1

Broadband Communication Networks

1

Digital IC Design

1

Engineering Management

1

Information Theory and Source Coding

1

Advanced Topics in IC Design

2

Electronic Design Automation

2

Mixed Signal Electronics

3

Aspects of Integrated System Technology and Design

3

Testing

of

Digital
Circuits

3

A paid

internship

of 10 weeks duration in a
German company is intended for the
semester break between the 2nd and the 3rd
semester.


Elective Modules

Sem.

Nanotechnology

1

Time
-
Varying Systems and Computations

1

Mobile Communications

1

Mathematical Methods of Information Technology

1

Advanced MOSFETs and Novel Devices

2

Image and Video Compression

2

HW/SW Codesign

2

Nanoelectronics

2

Physical

Electronics

2

Advanced Network Architectures and Services 1

2

System on Chip Solutions in Networking

2

IC Manufacturing

3

MIMO Systems

3

Optimization in Communications and Signal Processing

3

Computational Methods in Nanoelectronics

3

Advanced Network Architectures and Services 2

3

38

MS MicroWave Engineering

Mandatory Courses

Sem.

Electromagnetics 1

1

Fundamentals in Communication Theory

1

Microwave Semiconductor Devices

1

Quantum Nanoelectronics

1

Integrated Systems

1

Electromagnetics 2

2

Advanced MOSFETs and Novel Devices

2

Nanoelectronics

2

Selected Topics in Nanotechnology

2

Electromagnetics 3

3

Nanotechnology

3

Computational Methods in Nanoelectronics

3

Seminar on Topics in RF
-
Engineering and
Nanoelectronics

3

39

MS Engineering Physics


Among the elective lectures in Material Science
students can choose , among others,


“Semiconductor Nanoscience and Technology I”,

“Bio
-

and Nanoelectronic Systems I and II”,

“Introduction to surface and interface physics”,


as special physics lecture, or



“Molecular Electronics”,

“Nanotechnology”,

“Selected Topics in Nanotechnology”


as engineering lecture


Energy Science:
provide a specialized education in
Energy Science with lectures ranging from fission,
fusion to all kinds of renewable energies.


Materials Science:
dedicated education in Materials
Science including lectures in bio
-
physics, low
dimensional electronic systems, quantum optics,
solid state spectroscopy and many more.

40

International MS Programs in Singapore

A series of Joint International MS Programs are
offered by TUM together with NTU :




Microelectronics



Integrated Circuit Design



Aerospace Engineering
(from Aug. 2009)


and with NUS




Industrial Chemistry


in Singapore



41

NTU
-
TUM MS Microelectronics

42

NTU
-
TUM MS Microelectronics

43

NTU
-
TUM MS Integrated Circuit Design

44

PCP/SPUR Programme

Master Programmes under Professional Conversion Programme (PCP) with SPUR
(Skills Programme for

Upgrading

and Resilience)

funding


GIST

and the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (
WDA
) are jointly rolling out four
Master of Science programmes targeted at Professionals, Managers, Executives,
Technicians (PMETs) who would like to convert or upgrade their skills under the
Professional Conversion Programme (PCP).



This coming May, the Master of Science in Integrated Circuit Design will commence for
PMETs who are seeking a career in the Integrated Circuit Design industry. Trainees* need
only pay

net fees of *S$3210 (inclusive of GST) to get a world class education from
leading Universities (NTU and TUM).






Programmes which are offered

under SPUR funding:




Master of Science in Industrial Chemistry


TUM / NUS

Master of Science in Microelectronics




TUM / NTU

Master of Science in Integrated Circuit Design

TUM / NTU

Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering




TUM / NTU

45

MS Nanoscience and Nanoengineering

module name

Sem

ECTS

Physics for Nanoscience
1

1

6

Circuit theory for Nanoscience
2

1

6

Materials and Chemistry for
Nanoscience
1

1

6

Signal processing
2

1

6

Fundamental IT skills

1

3

Block Practical

1

3

Seminar

1

3

Electronics Lab

1

3

Management / Soft skills

1

6

Nanoscience

2

6

Advanced condensed matter

2

4

Computational methods in
nanoscience

2

5

Nano biotechnology

2

3

Intro. Organic Chemistry

2

3

Elective Modules

2

6

Advanced nanoscience seminar

2

3

Nanosystems

3

3

Nanoelectronics

3

3

Nanophotonics

3

3

Elective Modules

3

6

Project work / Internship

3

15

Masters Thesis

4

30



International MS program in English



Initial selection of candidates


In the first semester, 12 credits will be
devoted to the attempt of providing a
common background for all. Thus, students
with a Bachelor in Physics will be required to
take two modules of basics engineering
courses (
2

in the table) while students with
an EI Bachelor will take two basic physics
modules (
1

in the table).


Modules with 3 ECTS corresponds to a
standard course with 2 hours lecture and 1
hour recitation. Modules with larger numbers
of credits combine lectures with practical
works, seminars or, in some cases,
homework.


46

Conclusions


Nanoelectronics is slowly entering the EE curricula at both
Bachelor and MS level


Interdepartment and interfaculty curricula are necessary,
especially between EE, Physics, Material Science, Chemistry and
Biology


Very interesting opportunities offered by international
cooperations


Great potentials for nanoelectronics in the areas of energy,
medicine and automation, both for teaching and research


47

Thanks for your attention!

48

Acknowledgments

Centre for
Nanotechnology and
Nanomaterials
Institute for Nanoelectronics

n
ano

MDM

U

Tor Vergata