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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Tutorial 4:

Information Resources on the
Web


Session 4.1


Find
current news


Get
up
-
to
-
date
weather information


Obtain
maps and
destination information


Locate
people and businesses


Purchase
items
online

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

2

Objectives

Objectives


Session 4.2


Understand copyrights, fair use, public domain, and
plagiarism


Learn how to cite Web resources


Find library and text resources on the Web


Locate multimedia elements on the Web, including
images, audio, and video


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Session
4.1
Overview

Types of Information on the Internet

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Finding Current and Specific
Information on the Web


Finding Recent Information


Search
engines usually
include more recent listings
than
directories


Use a search engine that allows date
-
range restrictions


5

Finding Current and Specific
Information on the Web


Getting Current News


The Web has a variety of sources
for current
news


You
can search
a site
for specific
news stories


A
news aggregation Web site
collects and displays
content
from
a variety of online news
sources (wire
services, print
media,
broadcast outlets
,
blogs)
and displays it in one place


A
wire service

is an organization
that gathers and distributes news
to newspapers, magazines,
broadcasters,
Web sites, and
other organizations that pay a fee
to the wire
service

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Finding Up
-
to
-
Date Weather
Information


There are many sites devoted to weather forecasts,
including local news sites


Web sites offer
a wealth of other features and
information, including live radar, graphs
,
10
-
day
forecasts, trip planners, severe weather reports,
satellite views, desktop
weather apps
, and video
forecasts



New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

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Obtaining Maps and Destination
Information


Maps can:



Show an overview of a region or state


Be zoomed to detailed maps


With online maps you can:


Get directions to a specific location


Observe current traffic and weather conditions


Look at a satellite view instead of a street map


See photos of the location


Find businesses in the area


See activities and attractions in an area


Identify services


Find information such as gas prices and parking

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Obtaining Maps and Destination
Information


Travel guide sites include:


Descriptive and
comprehensive
information about a
location


Reviews of hotels and
restaurants


Trip ideas


Travel deals


Calendars of events


Discussions, photos,
and blogs

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

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Can use these sites to plan
a trip:


Select a destination


Learning about history
and attractions


Find hotels and
restaurants


Make flight and hotel
reservations

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Finding People and Businesses


Most online
directories provide
access to both
people and business
contact information


You can search for:


An individual by
name, postal
address, email
address, or phone
number


A specific
business by name
or by category in
a geographic area

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Finding People and Businesses


Some sites provide other
features, including:


Maps and driving directions


Reviews of businesses


Area code and zip code
lookup


A person’s age and
information about his or her
relatives



A background check


Property value, sales history,
property details, and
neighborhood information


Most directory sites charge a
fee to access the detailed
information

11

Finding Products and Services Online


E
-
commerce
(electronic commerce) refers to the
process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering,
servicing, and paying for products and services
online


Retailers have a presence on the Web


Some retailers have both a physical location and a
Web site; others are online only without a
storefront/brick
-
and mortar store.


Individuals also sell their products and services on
the Web

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Finding Products and Services Online


The most prevalent
e
-
commerce site is
Amazon.com


Individuals sell
items on the Web
using sites such as
eBay and craigslist



New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Session
4.2
Overview

Web Page Citation Guidelines

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Understanding Copyright


Many Web page elements and other items online are
forms of
intellectual property
, which includes all
creations of the human mind


Intellectual property rights include the protections
afforded to individuals and companies by governments
through governments’ granting of copyrights and
patents, and through registration of trademarks and
service marks


Once the term of a copyright has expired, the work is in
the
public domain
, which means anyone is free to copy
the files without requesting permission from the source


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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Understanding Copyright


Many Web page elements and other items online are forms of
intellectual property
, which includes all creations of the
human mind


Copyrights are granted by a government to the author or
creator of an original work


Creations that can be copyrighted include virtually all forms of
artistic or intellectual expression


The tangible form of the work can be words, numbers, notes,
sounds, pictures, and so forth


Copyright protection exists whether the work is published or
unpublished


In the U.S. (since 1978), the copyright is in effect for the life of
the author plus another 70 years

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Understanding Copyright


Determining Fair Use


U.S. copyright law allows
people to use portions of
copyrighted works without
obtaining permission from
the copyright holder if that
use is a fair use


The fair use of a
copyrighted work includes
copying it for use in
criticism, comment, news
reporting, teaching,
scholarship, or research

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Courts generally consider the
following four factors when
determining fair use:

1.
The purpose and character of
the new work

2.
The nature of the copyrighted
work

3.
The amount and substantiality
of the portion used in relation
to the copyrighted work as a
whole

4.
The effect of the use on the
potential market, or value, of
the copyrighted work

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Understanding Copyright


Works in the Public Domain


Once the term of the copyright has expired, the
work moves into the
public domain
, which means
that anyone is free to copy the work without
requesting permission from the last copyright
holder


A copyright can protect a particular expression of
a creative work in addition to the work itself


Authors or creators can place their work into the
public domain voluntarily at any time

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Understanding Copyright


Understanding Plagiarism


Failure to cite the source of material that you use is called
plagiarism


Plagiarism
is a serious legal violation that can lead to a
failing grade, being expelled from school, being fired from
a job, or being subjected to a hefty fine or prosecution


Plagiarism can be:


As simple as including a sentence or two from someone
else’s work without using quotation marks or
attribution


As blatant as duplicating substantial parts of someone
else’s work and claiming it as your own


More subtle, such as paraphrasing someone else’s
content without the proper citation of the source

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Citing Web Resources


All works you reference in a report or paper

whether they
are protected by copyright, in the public domain, or
considered fair use

need to be documented


To address the issue of documenting dynamic Web pages,
digital intellectual content such as online journals, articles,
reports, and white papers are assigned a unique
alphanumeric string of characters, called a
digital object
identifier (DOI)


The DOI identifies the content and provides a persistent link
to its location (or locations) as long as the content exists
somewhere on the Internet


The two most widely followed standards for academic
research citations are those of the American Psychological
Association (APA) and the Modern Language Association
(MLA)

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Citing Web Resources



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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Libraries offer content (books, periodicals, journals,
and so forth) in a wide variety of formats


An increasing number of books are available as e
-
books


Libraries can subscribe to huge databases that offer a
wealth of information


Other print resources

such as periodicals, scholarly
journals, and government resources

have become
available on the Web


Web resources can remain current and easily
accessible to their audiences

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Online References


Many references, including dictionaries, thesauri,
encyclopedias, atlases, almanacs, quotations,
grammar checkers, rhyming dictionaries, and
language
-
translation sites


Some require a subscription fee, but many free online
reference tools exist


The Web also includes sites that offer full
-
text copies
of works that are no longer protected by copyright


The Internet Archive’s
Wayback

Machine provides
researchers with a series of snapshots of Web pages
as they were at various points in history

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online

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th

Edition

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Periodical Databases


Periodicals

magazines, journals, and other articles

related to almost any industry, field, or topic abound


Originally were available only in printed format at
libraries; now thousands are available on the Web


If you know what periodical you want to search, you
could go directly to its Web site


If you are more interested in articles related to a
particular topic, then you can use a periodical
database to locate them


You can browse indexed articles by topic or you can
search for articles based on a keyword

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Online and Virtual Libraries


Most libraries now provide online access to their
collections and services; you can:


Search the library catalog and reserve or hold
books


Access articles from newspapers and magazines


Search databases to which the library subscribes


Access general reference resources


Many libraries also provide access to Web
-
based
books and videos, as well as make available e
-
books,
e
-
journals, and digital
audiobooks


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Online and Virtual Libraries (continued)


Another way to access library information is
through a
virtual library
, which is a Web site that
provides online access to library information
services


Some virtual libraries are also
portal sites

that link
to a variety of library and reference sites on the
Web


The portal site can be general and provide access
to a wide variety of Web sites, or it can be
specialized and provide access to related sites

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Online and Virtual
Libraries (continued)


One free virtual library
resource is
LibrarySpot.com; it
includes many of the
same materials you
would find in a public
or school library


Unlike a brick
-
and
-
mortar library, these
libraries are open 24
hours a day and seven
days a week


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th

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Government Sites


The United States government collects and
creates a wide variety of information and provides
many services


Much of this information is available on the Web


You can go to local, state, and federal government
agency sites to locate specific information




New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

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Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online

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th

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Government Sites
(continued)


The THOMAS section
of the Library of
Congress Web site is a
serious research tool
that provides access to
the full text of bills that
are before the U.S.
Congress, the
Congressional Record,
and Congressional
Committee Reports


Accessing Text
-
Based Resources Online


Government Sites


You can use a portal site to access any
government
-
related information from a central
place


USA.gov


The official Web portal for the U.S. government


Provides access to all official U.S. government
services and information in one place


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Multimedia on the Web


Multimedia
is anything you can see or hear,
including text, pictures, audio/sound, videos, films,
or animations


The use of multimedia elements on Web sites has, in
many instances, improved the functionality and
usefulness of the Web


The Web is also a great resource for users seeking
specific multimedia such as graphics, photos, videos,
and music to use for their own purposes and
entertainment


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition

Multimedia on the Web


Finding Graphic Images on the Web


Images are commonly in one of three file formats:


JPEG images for photographs


GIF images for line drawings


PNG images for more complex graphics


To find graphic images on the Web, you can:


Use a search engine to locate images related to your
search term


Search stock photography sites;
Stock images
are
professional photographs, line drawings, and other
graphics that are available for purchase


Find photographs to use through photo
-
sharing sites

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Multimedia on the Web


Finding Audio Files on the Web


You can find audio files on the Web


“Audio” refers to sounds of any type: instrumental music,
songs with vocals, speeches, audio books, and sound
effects



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th

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Multimedia on the Web


Finding Audio Files on the Web (continued)


You can find audio on the Web in a variety of places


Some artists and bands sell and distribute their music on
their own


Many online stores sell digitized music


Digital music subscription services


Digital audio books are popular download items


Purchase directly from publishers, from
etailers
, or on sites
devoted to audio books


Some are in the public domain and have been recorded so
that people can listen to them for free


Some are protected by copyright and must be purchased or
used as part of a subscription service


Some libraries offer for checkout just like printed books in
their catalog

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th

Edition

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Multimedia on the Web


Finding Audio Files on the Web (continued)


Some sites place restrictions on the number of copies
you can make of each song


A few sites restrict you from converting files into other
formats, or they restrict the types of devices on which
you are permitted to play the song


The restrictions are implemented in the files
themselves, using systems of encoding called
digital
rights management (DRM)


Different online music vendors use different DRM
systems


Their files might not be compatible with each other


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Multimedia on the Web


Finding Video Files


The term
video
refers to content that has a progression of
visual images and can include audio


In a
streaming transmission
:


The Web server sends the first part of the file to a Web
browser or a media player program, which
uncompresses

and then plays the file


While the first part of the file plays, the server is
sending the next segment of the file


Streaming transmission allows you to access large audio or
video files in less time than the download
-
then
-
play
procedure because the streamed file begins playing before
it finishes downloading

New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Multimedia on the Web


Finding Video Files


Video files are available in a variety of formats


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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Multimedia on the Web


Finding Video Files


You can find videos
on the Web in a
variety of ways:


Some sites are
devoted to video
distribution


Other sites
provide stock
videos


You can use a
search engine to
find video files on
the Web


New Perspectives on the Internet, 9
th

Edition

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