Deep web and Dark Internet

roughhewnstupidInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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What is the invisible web?



All information that cannot be indexed
using general web search engines



Also known as the deep internet, deepnet,
or the hidden web

Search Engines



Programs that search documents for
specified keywords or phrases and returns
a list of documents where the keywords
were found

How Search Engines Work



Uses a
spider

program to fetch as many
webpages as possible



A program called an
indexer

then reads
these webpages and creates an index,
storing the URL and important content of
webpage



Each search engine has its own
ranking
algorithm

that returns results based on
their relevance to the user’s specified
keywords or phrases

Spider Programs



Starts by searching heavily used servers
and the most popular web pages



Visits all the links found in the webpages it
reads and sends them to the search engine’s
indexer in a process called
web crawling
,
which continues automatically



To be discovered, a webpage must be static
and linked to other pages



All pages that are indexed by a search
engine’s spider programs are known as the
visible web

The Invisible Web



Everything not found by a search engine’s
spider program is part of the invisible web



Most webpages on the internet are not
indexed by search engines



Some experts estimate that as much as
75% of the entire internet is invisible web
content


Content Found On The
Invisible Web




Webpages with no links on them, called
disconnected pages


Password protected webpages


Webpages generated from databases


Dynamically generated webpages


Real
-
time content


Webpages that require a registration form
to access


Webpages with non
-
html text, or any
coding that a spider program can not
understand

Advantages Of Invisible
Web Content



Specialized content focus


large amounts
of information focused on an exact subject



Contains information that might not be
available on the visible web



Allows a user to find a precise answer to a
specific question



Allows a user to find webpages from a
specific date or time

So what is actually on the Deep Web,

and how do we get there?

Deep Web (layer two)


-

Content that is only available through

specialized
anonymizing
software (Tor).
This

includes
anonymity networks and darknets

(
anonymous P2P). This are is a sort of
safe
-

haven
for speech and content which has been

banned
from the surface web
.


-

examples: Anonymous chat/
imageboards
.

CP, drugs,
illeagal

transactions, weapons, DRM

removal software, pirated software/media/

books, black markets

Accessing the Deep Web

.onion:


-
onion
is a
domain
host suffix
designating
an anonymous

hidden
service reachable via the Tor
network.



-
The purpose of using such a system is to make both the

information
provider and the person accessing the

information
more difficult to trace, whether by one

another
, by an intermediate network host, or by an

outsider
.



-
.onion
adresses

are 16
-
character non
-
mneumonic


hashes, compromised of alphabetic and numeric strings.



-
The "onion" name refers to onion routing, the technique

used
by Tor to achieve a degree of anonymity.


Accessing the Deep Web

Tor:


-


The Tor software protects you by bouncing your
communications around a distributed network of relays run by
volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your
Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, it prevents the
sites you visit from learning your physical location, and it lets you
access sites which are blocked
.”


www.torproject.org



-
Tor is a network that supports onion
routing; a
way to help
make your traffic anonymous
. Because the Deep Web is
compromised of information that doesn’t show up on search
engines, or has no domain name registry, you must know exactly
where you are going to get there.


The first step is to download, install, and run the Tor Bundle. This will bring up your new
anonymous browser (through Firefox) in order to get started.

Guided Journey Through the Deep Web

The deep web is vast, as we covered before, and most is private.
Here we will go through some examples of websites on the Deep
Web, how online currency works, and the various resources the Deep
Web encompasses (not all entirely legal)


This content can be disturbing. Obviously with great resources such
as free library databases, and banned books, comes information that
is considered scat. Being a safe
-
haven from the censorship of the
surface web, there is a lot of CP, arms/drug trade, and other illegal
information on the Deep Web. It’s up to you as an individual to steer
clear of what you don’t want to see.


In addition, one must also be skeptical. There are even sites
dedicated to contract killing, but one can’t be sure that these
websites are even serious.

The next step is to access the Hidden Wiki, which most people consider the home page of the Deep Web.
Here you can begin your journey and discover many different types of sites and networks, ranging from tame
to very illegal. There are black market type sites, hacking information sites, huge file databases, political
advocacy sites, and even sites to hire people to engage in illegal activity.

One of the other “main pages” of the Deep Web is TorDir. TorDir is a site that uses a special crawler for the
Deep Web, so that it may act similar to Google in that it categorizes web sites, and allows you to view many
different and obscure .onion sites that fall into each category.

Through the Hidden Wiki you can find pages like this, which are semi
-
organized lists of different .onion sites.
Many different sites are listed and separated based on function, such as buying/selling/trading,
communication, hacking, or intel exchange.

Currency of the Deep Web

Bitcoins:


-
an

electronic cash

system using

peer
-
to
-
peer networking,

digital
signatures

and

cryptographic proof

to enable irreversible payments
between parties without relying on trust. Payments
are issued
and
transferred by the

Bitcoin

network
.



-
Participants begin using
Bitcoin

by first acquiring a
Bitcoin

wallet and
one or more
Bitcoin

addresses.
Bitcoin

addresses are used for receiving
Bitcoins
, similar to how e
-
mail addresses are used for receiving e
-
mail.


-
In
April 2012, 1 BTC traded at around $4.80. Taking into account the total
number of Bitcoins in circulation, the market capitalization of the
Bitcoin

network stands at over 40 million
USD



This is an example of one of the many online black markets. This one did not require a paid
membership. There are many different ways to spend bit coins, such as on apparel, money
transfers, drugs, books, and even digital goods.

This is an example of someone’s own personal page, with content picked out due to it’s
controversial nature. Here you can find anything from banned readings, to
trefelling
. There is
content on making one’s own explosives, and many different military type documents and
guidebooks.

There is a huge portion of the Deep Web that is not malicious at all. This is a huge database of
banned, black listed, and forbidden books which you can read and download. Books have been
burned in the past and banned for their controversial subject matter, and this is a way for
history to be preserved.

Another scholarly database, this .onion site is a compilation of financial, business, real estate,
and even marketing tools and texts free to anyone who wants to download them. The Deep
Web is a great archive for educational material.

The Deep Web is full of malicious content. On this Russian
-
based community hacking website,
one can purchase credit card information, PayPal account information, bank accounts, and even
the service of DDoSing a website. This is when the website is overloaded with information sent
to it, and eventually is forced to shut down.

Dangers of the Deep Web



If you decide to look into the Deep Web on your own volition,
make sure to be careful.




-
Have anti
-
virus protection.



-
Be intelligent about what links you click. The Deep

Web is a haven for Phishers.



-
If you don’t want to see any disturbing images or

content, simply browse as text
-
only.