Strategic Management of IT in Construction

roomagitatedInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

8 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

79 εμφανίσεις

The Internet

History of the Net


1982


Internet protocol TCP/IP established from
predecessor NCP


1983


The Internet is made from it’s predecessor
ARPANET


1989


Tim Berners
-
Lee at CERN invents the World Wide
Web


1994


Mosiac software Netscape Navigator


1995


Sun launches Java.


1996


JavaScript launched by Netscape + Sun

World Wide Web


The most important protocol of the Internet
More and more business is moving to the
Web. It is the preferred medium for E
-
business


Web content spreading onto mobile devices,
such as phones and pocket PCs.


Web content


HTTP is the protocol of the web. Web content is
predominantly in
HTML

plus ancillary languages
(JavaScript, CSS, XML, etc.)



Dynamic HTML =
HTML + CSS + Scripts

Plug
-
ins: Flash,

Shockwave, etc.

Server
-
scripts:

CGI, ASP, etc.

HTML
(sta
ti
c)
DHTML
(interactive)
CSS
Scripting
(JavaScript,
VBScript)
Front
-
end and back
-
end technologies

Website development

Stage

Steps

1. Planning


Planning the site scope, architecture and navigation


Needs assessment: Staff, external consultants, hardware,
software, connectivity, project management
....


Development and maintenance budgets

2. Design


Designing the site look
& feel


Storyboards for key web page functionality

3. Development




Writing the content


Coding in HTML, CSS, scripts, server
-
scripts, multimedia, Java,
etc.


Development of a content management system, i.e. interfaces to
databases and transactions systems that will keep the contents
updated


Tests for functionality and error checks, possibly through an
intermediate 'stage server'

Website development

Stage

Steps

4. Hosting

Publishing the website to the Internet/Intranet/Extranet, either on
through external ISP or the company's own server

5. Maintenance

Setting up organisational unit
responsible
for maintaining the
website

support and keeping contents current.


Preproduction p
lanning is crucial

for success
.
One of the
first steps is to decide a goal for the website, and to set a
budget
to reach that goal


Web
sites should in principle be cross
-
browser compatible
,
unless the target audience is an internal Intranet only.


Intranet


An
i
ntranet is a website created for the internal use
of an organisation for communication among
employees.


It uses the same technologies as the public Internet
but is accessible only to authorized
staff
.


Web technogies are cheap: I
ntranets are much less
expensive to build than private networks and
provide a tool for keeping employees informed.

Intranet contents


HR procedures and policies, orientation and training, code
of conduct, etc.


Safety handbook of the organisation


Quality handbook of the organisation


Technical support from IT Dept


A company 'library' of electronic books that the company
has licence to use


General: Phone book, internal job postings, news, etc.


An intranet can also facilitate the exchange of information
and sharing of resources between member of a
workgroup

or
project
.


Advantages of Web use in construction:


Easily connect globally to a vast amount of
data


Enhanced coordination and communication


Promotion and marketing for the company


The web as a collaboration tool

through
project
-
specific web sites.


Development tools
relatively
simple

Project web sites

Project websites

Due to new technologies
information overload

is a
problem in any project environment, and this applies
also to the typical construction project. Studies
suggest that information transmitted on a typical
project is overloading design and construction
professionals with a sea of paperwork. A large part
of the information is pushed to
collegues

on a "just
-
in
-
case
-
they
-
need
-
it" basis. E
-
mail, fax, mobile
phones and even a photocopy machine have created
an environment of
excessive information

‘push’.


Project websites


Alternative to ‘information push’ is
‘information
pull’
. Necessary information (which may be hard
to find) is available on the project web site


Information pull can avoid information overload


A PSWS can be a step towards an integrated
construction; all parties can log on, share and
search information


It can also be a step towards knowledge
management in the organisation, experience
learned from projects are stored

Project website (example)

The Internet
MAIN PAGE

Project Participants

Project Description/
location/photos

Project Players
Communications
Announcements
Discussion section
File Library
Meeting minutes
RFI log
Schedule
Design Drawings
Specifications
Resources page
Government links
Building codes
Password
secured
access point
(Firewall)
Support
Plug-ins
Tutorials
Project website (example)

Daily site

records

Schedule
&
progress

Specs

&

drawings

Entry

page

Project website

1.
Tender Stage

2.
Design and Construction Stage
-

p
rojec
t

i
nformation
e
xchange

3.
Trading (
e
-
business/commerce
)

The stages covered by
web
-
based project
management

software can be categorized into
the following :


Project website

Successful implementation of Web
-
based tools not
only requires a state of readiness within one
organization, but within all those involved in this
process
.


In order for the construction industry to
successfully embrace Web
-
enabled project
management tools, at a large scale, it must equally
consider technology, process

and

people
.

XML


HTML has predefined tags. In XML
(
eXtensible Markup Language
) the
vocabulary of tags is freely extensible


XML has much wider scope than HTML


It is generally accepted as the future carrier
of web content

and already the carrier for e
-
business protocols.

XML

XML content can be converted to HTML by a style
sheet (XLS), but
XML is not limited to Web
browsers

XML
data
XLS
HTM
L
DTD
or Schema
DTD
or Schema
Other Web
connected
device
XML &
e
-
business


Business
-
to
-
Business (B2B)
.
An agreement of XML tag
semantics allow for an e
-
business protocol. Uses
include
electronic trading, electronic tendering, online bidding,
online request for quotations, electronic information
exchange, online project management, virtual enterprises,
electronic banking.


Business
-
to
-
Consumer (B2C):

includes online retailing,
online consulting, online real state, online servicing, and
online training.


Intra
-
organizational
: includes enterprise workflow, co
-
operative design over the network, managing and sharing
documents and drawings, online meetings.

E
-
business


A
B2B
e
-
business
standard
, in general, involves
the description of the message formats exchanged
(e.g. purchase order), transport protocols (e.g.
HTTP), the sequencing (e.g. after sending a
purchase order message, an acknowledgement
message must be received), the process (e.g. after
a purchase order is accepted, the goods must be
delivered to the buyer), and the security to be
provided (like encryption, non
-
repudiation).



E
-
business in construction

supply chain

ORGANISATION
Contractor/Designer
CLIENT
Users/Customers
Supplier 1
Supplier 2
Supplier 3
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
-
t
o
-
b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

(
B
2
B
)
Business-to-business
(B2B)
Business-to-customer
(B2C)
Intraorganisational
Intraorganisational
Consumer-to-consumer
Mobile Internet


The fastest growing method of web
browsing is through
wireless,
handheld
devices


The 'mobile revolution' is about
convergence

of technologies
:
computing

+

Internet technologies

+
networking

+
telecommunications.

Wireless protocol options

Protocol

Description

GSM

Very

successful standard for voice but less suitable for
data due to low
data
rate
s

(9600 bps)


GPRS

GSM overlay protocol allowing for higher data transfer
speeds

WLAN
(
IEEE 802.11
)

(
IEEE 802.11
b)

Wireless LAN
. Data rates

are very high (for the 'b'
standard up to 11 Mbps, but coverage is limited to
certain areas

~150 meters
from each access point.

Bluetooth


Short
-
range
, high rate

protocol between devices.

UMTS

UMTS belongs to the 3
rd

generation of mobile
communications. In the initial stages speeds are likely
to be 64
-
384 kbps,
-

much faster when stationary.
Networks not yet rolled out in Turkey.

Mobile
devices

Mobile Phones


Extremely mobile GPRS
phones are available, but
they
have

very small WAP screen
s

with few lines and simple
graphics



too small for
effective use of data
applications. Relatively low
functionality software.

Mobile
devices

Smartphones


Integrated GSM/GPRS phone
and PDA organiser. Larger
screen (e.g. 160x160 pixels or
more) suitable for e
-
mail
,
limited web browsing

and
small versions of office
applications

Mobile
devices

Pocket PCs


Fast 32
-
bit processors and
64+ MB memory run
powerful programs, better
display e.g. 16
-
bit colour in
240 by 320 pixels or more.
Integrated wireless
networking is restricted to
Bluetooth, but add
-
ons for
WLAN are available as plug
-
in cards

Mobility: Possibilities to bring IT
onto construction sites

Camera
plug
-
in

WLAN connection card

(later GPRS / UMTS?)

Large screen for
easy entry and
viewing of data

Autodesk

OnSite

Appendix: i
-
mode


i
-
mode
TM
, the system created by Japanese
cellular operator NTT DoCoMo has
acquired +30 million users (Mid 2002) in
Japan alone, having started in 1999.


In Europe i
-
mode is marketed by e.g.
E
-
plus (Germany, owned by Dutch KPN)


To create web pages for the i
-
mode
system, developers have to employ a
special subset of HTML known as
compact HTML (cHTML), which
includes some extra tags.

WAP and i
-
mode


WAP language WML forms a subset of XML. The data
only has to be created once (in XML) and can then fed to
both WAP servers and HTML based Web servers. With
i
-
mode to achieve the same result one must create two
separate sets of data (XML & cHTML)


i
-
mode supports colour graphics, WAP does not


i
-
mode is proprietary technology whereas WAP is the
result of co
-
operation between the handset vendors and the
software industry in the WAP Forum


WAP is relative failure; i
-
mode is a big success with
private consumers