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Transformation of the U.S.
International Exchange Service:
Project Report

Judy Mansfield

Beacher Wiggins

Library of Congress

Washington, DC USA

August 26, 2009

Purpose of International Exchange

“The central idea in
international exchange is
that each participating
country will obtain official
material from its exchange
partner in order to provide it
directly to its own domestic
Johannes Metz,
IFLA, 1999

Authorizing Legislation

United States Code Title 44, Section

Enacted in 1968, amended in 1982 and

Authorizes the Library of Congress (LC)
to exchange government publications
with foreign governments

Directs that up to 125 copies of all
government publications be supplied to
the Government Printing Office (GPO)
for the purpose of this exchange

Transforming the International
Exchange Service (IES)

Sustain the free flow of
official versions of
government publications
in the new publishing

Transforming the IES

Modernize to reflect
current publishing

Achieve flexibility
to meet individual
country needs

Improve access to
U.S. digital content

Transforming the IES

Identify tools to
ingest, archive,
preserve, and
provide access to
digital content


Meet future
development needs

Collaboration for Transformation


administrator of IES


distributor for IES

Department of State

agent for treaties

Assess Current State of the IES

Confirm the IES process

Verify available information
on partners

Identify specific titles

Review treaties and

U.S. IES Process

LC identifies its partners

LC identifies print/microform
publications to be distributed
to its partners

LC informs GPO of this

GPO distributes
print/microform publications

Publications Currently Distributed

Many titles listed in treaties
are no longer published

Distributions, based on
Federal Depository Library
Program lists, are of titles
currently available

Number of titles distributed
is based on concept of
approximately equal value

Publications Currently Received

Review what is received


Appropriateness for LC collections

Determine what is available in
partner countries

Treaties and Agreements

Active agreements with
124 institutions,
including thirty active

Twenty inactive treaties

Regional political changes

Increased availability of
government information
on Web

Future Directions

Supply authenticated digital
documents for the
repositories of partners

Assure perpetual access to
digital national government

New GPO System

Federal Digital System (FDsys)

In time, to manage government
information from

Submitted digital files

Harvested digital files

Scanned print publications

GPO Access

To run concurrently with
FDSys until migration is

FDSys 1

Content Management System

Securely controls digital
content throughout its
lifecycle to ensure
content integrity and

FDSys 2

Preservation Repository

Follows archival system
standards to ensure
term preservation
of and access to
authenticated digital

FDSys 3

Advanced Search Engine

Combines extensive
metadata creation with
modern search technology
to ensure the highest
quality search experience

FDSys Content

Congressional Bills (103

Congress to

Congressional Documents (104th
Congress to Present)

Congressional Hearings (105th Congress
to Present)

Congressional Record

(1994 to Present)

Congressional Reports (104th Congress
to Present)

Federal Register

(1994 to Present)

FDSys Content (2)

Public and Private Laws (104th
Congress to Present)

Compilation of Presidential Documents

(1993 to Present)

Congressional Calendars (104th
Congress to Present)

Congressional Committee Prints
(105th Congress to Present)

List of Code of Federal Regulations
Sections (1997 to Present)


Digital Content Costs

All content available at the
GPO Access and FDSys sites
is free to anyone and

Some U.S. Government
information is not free, so LC
will attempt to negotiate
access at no
charge to its

Intellectual Property Rights

LC will investigate
international copyright issues
for U.S. Government
publications that may affect
the partner’s reproduction
and distribution rights within
the partner’s country.

Metz on Perpetual Access

“It will not do to have Internet access
to foreign material if it remains
uncertain how long documents will
be retained…. Even if long
access is secured, it might still be
preferable to collect foreign public
documents in electronic formats in
order to have an independent …
collection for future historical

Perpetual Access

To ingest, archive, preserve, and
provide free perpetual access to
the content of other national

To provide backup archival
copies in an additional location
for preservation, if agreements
can be negotiated

Models for Perpetual Access

LOCKSS (Lots of Copies
Keep Stuff Safe) IEX
(International Electronic
Exchange) Pilot Project

GLIN (Global Legal
Information Network)

Purposes of LOCKSS IEX

To test cost effectiveness and
feasibility of using LOCKSS
to crawl and harvest e
journals and documents from
German Government

To test a platform for long
term access and preservation

LOCKSS IEX Pilot Project Partners

Bavarian State Library

German Federal Statistics Office

German National Library

Humboldt University, Berlin

Library of Congress

Stanford University Library

State Library of Berlin

University of Regensburg Library

LOCKSS IEX Pilot Project

Crawls web sites of partner

Harvests e
journal content
for monitoring and
preservation by the partner

Links partner institutions in a
closed network


Implemented by Law Library of

United Kingdom law statutes

Downloaded metadata and
PDF files back to 1988 to

Continue to add new content

Next Steps

for LC

LC’s Plans for 2009

Cease distinction between full and
partial set partners on October 1

Verify available information on
partners and the agencies that
supply materials on their behalf

Issue list of titles distributed by
GPO on LC web site at

Issue survey to partners

Survey Partners

In what format does partner
prefer to receive U.S.
Government publications?

Does partner download and
archive U.S. Government digital

Does partner want to receive
bibliographic data for U.S.
Government publications?

LC’s Plans for 2010

Complete review of treaties
and agreements

Begin negotiations for new
agreements with existing

Continue experimenting with

LC’s Long
Range Plans

Seek to re
exchanges with
inactive partners

Identify new partners

Determine a viable
mechanism for
ingesting, archiving,
preserving, and
providing access to
digital content

Communications with Partners

This presentation

Survey of partners


LC web site at


Current state of IES

Future directions for IES

Next steps for LC

Follow the progress of at

Contact Information

Judy Mansfield, Chief, U.S./Anglo Division,

Beacher Wiggins, Director for Acquisitions
and Bibliographic Access,


44 USC 1719

Global Legal Information Network

GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys)

References (2)


Metz, Johannes.
Exchange of Official Publications
presented at the 65th IFLA
Council and General Conference,
Bangkok, 1999.