Stem cells can be extracted from: Embryonic stem cells from

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Chapter 15: Gene Technologies
and Human Applications

Fathom.com


Sections 1 and 2

(pages 343
-
354)

“The Power of
Genes” Video

Human Genome Project


Sequence of all human
DNA bases (over
2.9
billion base pairs)



Completed in
2003


Have complete
genomes of many
organisms,
E. coli,
Drosophila, C. Elegans,

Yeast, Mice, Dog, etc.

Human Genome Project Results


Around 20,000
-
25,000 genes


Most of the genes are noncoding


Less than 2% of human DNA codes
for protein


Any two people have DNA that is
99.9% identical

Manipulating Genes


Genetic engineering

the
deliberate alteration of the
genetic material of an
organism


Involves the transfer of
DNA from one
organism to another


Organisms with
recombinant genes may
be called
recombinant,
transgenic, or genetically
modified

Applications of Human
Genetics


Can be used to:


Diagnose and prevent diseases


Identify diseases through genetic counseling
and make vaccinations for various viruses


Treat diseases


Make medicines that are tailored for specific
needs


Identify individuals for crime suspects,
paternity/maternity tests and dead
bodies

Treating Disease


Is used to
produce human
insulin, clotting
factors and other
proteins cheaply


Cloning DNA in plasmids

Paternity & Maternity

Criminal Identification & Forensics


DNA isolated
from blood, hair, skin cells or other genetic
evidence can be compared with the DNA of a
suspect



How are Genes Manipulated?


First, DNA must be extracted


Next, DNA must be cut into pieces


Then, DNA can be separated


Finally, DNA can be analyzed


Or, the DNA pieces can be combined
for various purposes

Gel Electrophoresis


Electrophoresis is a
process used to
separate
macromolecules such as
DNA according to size
and charge.


Basic materials needed
include a power supply,
gel bed and coverage.


Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA

Gel Electrophoresis

Recombinant DNA

Separate DNA by size

Everyday Applications of
Genetic Engineering


Food Crops


added insecticides and nutrients to be
grown easier and more nutritiously


Livestock


Meat to have less fat and more meat;
develop more nutritious byproducts like
eggs and milk


Medical Treatment


Producing proteins needed for specific
disorders

Genetically modified food


Genetically
modified food
containing
pesticide, vitamin
A, or resistance to
weed killing
chemicals is
becoming more
and more
common.

Genetically modified foods

Take this just a step further


Scientists can
hybridize the genes
by adding DNA from
one organism to
another organisms
egg (meta
-
cloning)



This resulted in
chickens that were
both meaty and good
egg layers


Letters of Marque

Neat Stuff!


The gene that makes fireflies
glow has been added to this
plant


Now it actually glows in the dark

Prenhall

How do we get
these variations?



Bearded Dragon
Resource

Exzooberance

Dragon Depot

Selective Breeding


This is the oldest type of genetic
manipulation.


Breeding organisms for a desired
characteristic


Works very well in plants


Also works with animals, but this can
be a more difficult

Pure Breed Animals


Although prized
for specific
qualities,
purebred
animals run the
risk of
inbreeding and
developing
health problems

Tay Sachs and Ashkenazi Jews


There are a lot of carriers in the
population of Ashkenazi Jewish people
in Eastern Europe.


Tay
-
Sachs Disease Clinical Aspects

Blue People of Kentucky


The Fugate
family


Genetic
disorder,
autosommal
recessive


Fugate Family

Methemoglobinemia

Polydactyly



There is an increased incidence of the
autosomal dominant disorder in the
Amish population


This is because of the founder effect

polydactyly

Hybridization


Breeding of two
different species that
results in an offspring


Actually happens in
nature (coydog and
dogote)



Humans can do this on
purpose to create
desired traits,
common example is
the mule


Real Hybrid Animals

Hybridization (continued)



Liger is another example


Bred for
its skills
and
magic

A little game called…….is it
real?????


You will be shown some
pictures.


Use your common sense to
determine whether or not
these crosses are real.

Male Lion + Female
Tiger = Tigon


Zebra + Fish =


Zebra Fish

The mule possesses the sobriety, patience, endurance and sure
-
footedness of the
donkey, and the vigour, strength and courage of the horse.


Zebra + __________ =


A Zorse, Zonkey, & Zony

Butterfly + Sting Ray =


Butterfly Ray

Lobster + Snake =








Lobake

Llama + Camel =








Cama

Killer Whale + Dolphin =








Wolphin

Leopard + Lion =








Leopon

Rhino + Bass =








Rhino Bass

Hybrid Pheasant


Clones are all around us

Worth
1000

Wonderquest

Cloning


Clone is an organism or piece of genetic material
that is genetically identical to one that was
preexisting


Asexual organisms clone themselves


Embryo cloning: coaxing an individual cell to split as it can
with identical twins naturally


Therapeutic cloning: cloning an adult’s DNA in hopes of
creating tissues or organs the person can use


Reproductive cloning: cloning of an adult’s DNA in hopes of
creating a genetically identical individual which can grow to
adulthood


CNN

Reproductive Clone


Take an egg cell (stem cell)



Remove the nucleus


Add genetic material from another
adult cell


Allow the cell to divide


The embryo is placed in a foster
mother like in vitro fertilization to
grow and be born naturally


CBC News

Cloning and Conservation


Video clip of using cloning techniques
to conserve the endangered gaur


Cloning and Conservation


Stem Cells


A
stem cell is a cell that can continuously
divide and differentiate into various tissues


Primitive cells that give rise to other types of cells


Undifferentiated
-

all the same


Have the ability to change into other types of
cells (specialized)



Potential to treat many diseases, including
Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes and cancer.


May also be used to regenerate organs

Blastocyst

~
64
-
128
cells

Types of Stem Cells


Stem cells can be extracted from:


Embryonic stem cells from
human
embryos.


Fetal stem cells
from aborted fetal tissue.


Umbilical or baby teeth stem cells
from
umbilical cords and baby teeth.


Adult stem cells

from the brain, fat, and
other tissues, but adult stem cells are most
commonly taken from bone marrow

particularly the the back of the upper hip bone.

Uses


In April 2001, researchers at UCLA and the
University of Pittsburg found stem cells in
fat sucked out of liposuction patients.


Stem cells from fat have the ability to
mature into other types of specific cells,
including muscle, bone and cartilage, but
how many other types is still unknown.

How it works


Stem cells are injected into the area
of the body being targeted for tissue
regeneration


As the stem cells come into contact
with growth chemicals in the body,
the chemicals program the stem cells
to grow into the tissue surrounding it.

A lot left to learn!


There are so many
things about genes we
don’t know


Gene therapy is a
promising way to “fix”
genes


There are many
advances that have
promise to help
individuals in the
future.

PNNL