Source: Wikipedia

roachavocadoΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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環境生物技術

秦靜如

2007/10/17

Environmental Biotechnology


“the development, use and regulation of
biological systems for remediation of
contaminated environments (land, air, water),
and for environment
-
friendly processes”


the
International Society of Environmental Biotechnology


“the integration of natural sciences and
engineering in order to achieve the application
of organisms, cell, parts thereof and molecular
analogous for products and services


EFB
general Assembly, 1989

Environmental Microbiology


Microbiology in ecosystem


Microbiological process in wastewater
treatment


Composting of organic waste


Bioremediation of polluted soil


Environmental Biotechnology


Bioremediation

(Biological treatment)


Wastewater, waste, and soil treatments


Prevention


green manufacturing, agricultural biotechnology,
biofuel


Detection and monitoring


Genetic engineering



Molecular biology

Biological Treatment


Wastewater


Aerobic/anaerobic processes, denitrification


Drinking, processes, and recycled water


biofilm


Solid waste


Composting, anaerobic digestion


Soil


Bioremediation, plant

Biological Treatment

Activated Sludge


Aeration


Operation time


Production of sludge


Transform of nutrients (N and P)


Fermentation of organic waste by
microorganism.


Required proper heat, humidity, mixing of the
compost, and composition of microorganisms.


Heat and power are usually required



Biological Treatment

Composting

Biological Treatment


Bioremediation of soil


Use the natural ability of microorganisms to
degrade pollutants in soil in
-
situ or ex
-
situ.


Sometimes the soil can be more fertilized
after bioremediation.


The ecology of the environment has to be
studied carefully in order to preserve the
environment.



Production
-

Environmental Friendly Processes


Biodegradable products


Biopolymer


Bioplastic


Biofiber


Biologically enhanced processes

Enzyme


Biological catalysts that are highly efficient


Advantages


Non
-
toxic


Biodegradable


Work best at moderate temperature and in mild
conditions


Fewer side reactions than chemical catalysts


Cleaner and safer

Biofuel


Energy sources generated from biological
materials or processes


Biological processes


Anaerobic digestion, composting, combustion
(heat)


Biological materials


Corn, plants, sugar, organic waste, algae


Oil, ethanol, hydrogen (algae)

Detection and Monitoring


Faster detection for microorganisms.


Detection of pollutants via biochemical
reactions.


Using transducer such as light (optical),
current, conductivity, heat (thermistor)


Decrease the usage of chemical


Short detection time


No need for large amount of sample


Advantages of Biosensor


Decrease the usage of
chemical


On
-
line sensing, real
-
time monitoring


Fast response


Portable in many cases


Operate in complex
mixtures


Less expensive and
time consuming than
conventional methods


Very specific in
response


High sensitivity


No need for large
amount of sample


Biochip

Source: Wikipedia



Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


Molecular biology:
to study biology in the
molecular level


Biochemistry
: study of the chemical
substances and vital processes occurring in
living organisms.


There are DNA sequencing, Polymerase chain
reaction (PCR), recombinant DNA technology,
and etc.

Molecular Biology and Environment


By studying the ecology in a treatment
process or a natural environment to find the
dominant microorganisms and to understand
the fate of the pollutants


The microbial ecology of soil and water


Anaerobic and aerobic digesters


Contaminated groundwater


Evaluation of diversity


Genetic Engineering


Isolate and amplify the microorganisms for
specific purpose.


Genetic modification of organisms.


Microorganism: to introduce new ability to clean
up pollutants.


Plants: Increase insect resistance for crops.


Lower the usage of pesticides


Lower the capital loss