modification of genes: Change,
delete, insert genes
1. To learn more about cellular processes
2. To better understand and develop treatments of diseases
3. For economic and commercial benefits
recombining or rearranging
genes for manipulations, in the same or different
organisms that express recombinant
is the full genetic information of an organism
sequence of the entire human genome (2000)
3 billion base pairs
20K and 30K
2. DNA Fingerprinting
Cut person’s DNA and analysis of fragment because
every person has a unique DNA fragment pattern due
to unique DNA sequence
Cut DNA with Restriction
Run cut DNA through gel:
Fragments move through gel
Separated by size
3. Genetic Engineering
genetic engineering has focused to improve medicine:
production of proteins
(drugs) used to treat illness
to combat infection
occur because our cells fail to
proteins, such as
diabetics cannot control their blood sugar levels because a
, is not made
failure can be overcome by receiving insulin made
through genetic engineering
Genetic engineering creates
Gene transfer therapy
involves introducing “healthy” genes into cells that
With adenovirus was
because of immune attack
Human gene +
4. GM food
made plants more
content and yield
made crops hardier and
better able to resist
genes from soil
bacterium produce a protein toxic to
combat iron and vit A
deficiency with genes from a
fungus, wild rice, and a daffodil
increase its nutritional value
nucleus from an
animal cell into the
an enucleated egg
cloned a sheep
using the mammary
cells of an adult
6. Embryonic Stem Cells
ability to form any body tissue and restore damaged
each has the capacity to develop into a healthy
form early in development
stem cells to
As genetic engineering advances, the
of the technology
The total amount of DNA in an organism, including all of its genes and other DNA, is its
A possible reason why humans have such a small number of genes as opposed to what was anticipated by scientists is that
humans don't need more than 25,000 genes to function.
the exons used to make a specific mRNA can be rearranged to
form genes for new proteins.
the sample size used to sequence the human genome was not big enough, so the number of
genes estimated could be low.
the estimate will increase as scientists find out what so
called "junk DNA" actually does.
A protein that can cut DNA at specific DNA base sequences is called a
The four steps of a genetic engineering experiment are (in order)
cleaving DNA, cloning, producing recombinant DNA,
cleaving DNA, producing recombinant DNA, cloning, and screening.
producing recombinant DNA,
cleaving DNA, screening, and cloning.
screening, producing recombinant DNA, cloning, and cleaving DNA.
Using drugs produced by genetically engineered bacteria allows
the drug to be produced in far larger amounts than in the
humans to permanently correct the effects of a missing gene from their own systems.
humans to eliminate the
chances of infection from blood transfusions.
All of these answers are correct.
Some of the advantages to using genetically modified organisms in agriculture include
the ease of transferring the gene to other organisms.
the possibility of anaphylaxis.
Which of the following is
a concern about the use of genetically modified crops?
possible danger to humans after
insecticide resistance developing in pest species
gene flow into natural relatives of GM crops
the crop itself from mutations
Genomic imprinting seems to involve
protein signals that block transcription of a gene from its DNA.
cause deformation of RNA polymerase.
methylation or demethylation of RNA polymerase.
demethylation of DNA.
One of the main biological problems with replacing damaged tissue through the use of embryonic stems cells is
immunological rejection of the tissue by the patient.
that stem cells may not target appropriate tissue.
the time needed
to grow sufficient amounts of tissue from stem cells.
that genetic mutation of chosen stem cells may cause future
In gene therapy, healthy genes are placed into cells with defective genes by using
Currently, cells are not modified genetically. Instead, healthy tissue is grown and transplanted into the patient.