Recombinant DNA

roachavocadoΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

186 εμφανίσεις

Protein
Synthesis



Why is protein synthesis so
important?


Protein is the key bio
-
molecule behind all
of your traits that are expressed.


Hair, skin, eye color, muscle, ETC….

Where does it all begin?


Starts in the nucleus


mRNA finds the coding section of DNA.


Coding section of DNA gets unwound by
an enzyme (RNA polymerase)


http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/
animations/protein%20synthesis%20
-
%20long.html


Genetic Engineering


Transfer of genetic information
from one organism to another.


Genetic engineering
,
recombinant DNA technology
,
genetic
modification/manipulation
(GM)

and
gene splicing

are
terms that are applied to the
direct manipulation of an
organism's genes.

Recombinant DNA



GloFish are a type of zebrafish with recombinant DNA.
Genes for fluorescent proteins have been inserted into
their genome to produce their fluorescent colors.

Recombinant DNA



The use of cloning is interrelated with
Recombinant DNA in classical biology, as
the term "clone" refers to a cell or
organism derived from a parental
organism

What is recombinant DNA


The attaching of a section of DNA to
another organisms DNA.



How does this work?


The first step is for a restriction enzyme to
cut the desired DNA sequence from the
donor DNA.


Step 2


A vector is needed on an area of bacterial
DNA where the donor DNA can be placed.


Must be on a plasmid (circular section of
DNA)

Step 3


Ligase is used to attach the donor DNA to
the vector DNA.


Why is this so important?


some of the areas where Recombinant DNA will
have an impact.


Better Crops (drought & heat resistance)


Recombinant Vaccines (ie. Hepatitis B)


Prevention and cure of sickle cell anemia


Prevention and cure of cystic fibrosis


Production of clotting factors


Production of insulin


Production of recombinant pharmaceuticals


Plants that produce their own insecticides


Germ line and somatic gene therapy



What can we do if everyone has
different DNA


Every single person has
different DNA.


You get half your DNA from
each parent.


By looking at DNA we can
tell who peoples parents
are.


We can tell if some one
committed a crime.


We can check and compare
individuals genetic make
-
ups.

What is the process for doing this?


Gel Electrophoresis:


This method uses specific restriction enzymes
which cut the DNA into sections at highly
specific sites.


Such as AAAGGG


The size of the fragments will vary depending
on where the sequence of bases is located on
the DNA.


What is the process for doing this?


Once the DNA has been cut it gets loaded
into wells on the gel electrophoresis machine.


This machine uses electric current to push the
negatively charged DNA through a gel.


The DNA will start at the negative end and
move towards the positive end.


As this occurs smaller pieces will move faster
than larger pieces.


The once the process is finished each section
of DNA will have stopped at a specific area.



What is the process for doing this?


Once stopped scientists add a stain so the
DNA fragments can be seen.


Now you are able to compare some ones
DNA with some one else's.


Also called DNA fingerprinting.