Genetic Engineering: The future of food? - Faculty Web Server ...

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Plants Genetics
Engineering: GM product

Mercer University School of
Engineering

Professional Practice, Dr. Davis

Y, Shin

Did you know?


In the U.S. in 1999, more than 40% of corn,
more than 50% of cotton, and more than
45% of soybeans were genetically modified
crops (Hesson, 2002).




At least 60% of products in US
supermarkets contain GMO (Genetically
Modifed Organisms) (Ahmed, 2002)


FDA approved that GM foods are safe as
much as non
-
GM foods



What is genetically engineered
food?


Food produced by a crop whose genetic
composition is genetically modified, or
bioengineered for improvement

Image from
ww.gm.org/?p=42


Pros

Advantage


Herbicide resistance


Nitrogen fixation


Virus / diseases resistance


Hardier


Higher yielding / higher productivity


More nutritious


Less cost of production


Higher tolerance to extreme environment


Better taste


Creation of new species of crops


-

Less time consuming

-
Obtain specifically desired traits from single gene

-

Improve agricultural production

-

Help reduce world hunger

Cons


The technology is still in infancy and is not tested thoroughly.


Safety is not guaranteed


There are no global agreement on safety standards to test safety of
GM food


GM food might affect us genetically as well


GMOs might affect wildlife and its environment

Potential effects


May

develop new diseases


Weeds might become immune to herbicides


May lack nutrients


May develop new allergens


May harm human growth


May develop toxin


Narrowing plant species



Sample GM products

Chart from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food

Genetically Modified Soy in Russia


Summary of Article


A research performed in Russia showed affect
of GM soy on posterity of living creature.


This research suggest that parents with GM
-
based food diet may have impact on their
newborn.

For the experiment three groups of female rats two
weeks prior to conception and during conception
and nursing were tested as following:


First group were fed with GM soy flour,


Second group were given no soy,


Third group received conventional soy flour.

And birth and death of baby rats were counted.

The result showed that diet had no impact on
number of offsprings produced. However it
affected death rate.


The first group had 6.8%, second group had
55.6%, and third group had 9% of death rate.

Original article and picture in
courtesy of Good. And
Hasslberger

Technological Evolution


Past
-

Classical breeding


Cross
-
fertilization
:


Isolated and selected desired traits within a
plant and breed it with other plants


Present


Genetics engineering


Recombinating DNA: Inserting a gene of an
organism (virus, bacteria, or plant of different
species) that contain desired traits into a
desired plant

Societal Inputs


FDA have approved of GM food safe


Biotech tech companies are pushing GM
products in the market


Many people disapprove of GM foods


Many people are unaware that many food
products are either GM or contain GMOs

Is genetics engineering ethical?


We must ask ourselves “Does humans
have rights to “play god” and to manipulate
animals and plants genetically”?

GM food and you


Impacts of GM food on society

So What?


GM food must be tested further for human
and environmental safety before
commercialized


GM production will increase in developing
countries


GM food may be the food in the future



Reference


Bren, L.
Genetic Engineering: The future of food? FDA
Consumer Magazine,

37. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/603_food.html


Gert3d.
GM food and me
. Retrieved March 25, 2008 from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8p7M0WF_7A



Good, R
Hasslberger
,S
.
November 02, 2005.
Genetically
modified soy in Russia


Retrieved March 26, 2008
http://www.biotech
-
weblog.com/50226711/genetically_modified_soy_in_russia.php


Hesson, N.
Debate and Policies on Labeling GM Foods.

Retrieved March 24,2008 from
www.bio.davidson.edu/.../GMevents/NH/NH.html


McDonagh,
S. Ethics and Genetic Engineering
. Retrieved
March 15, 2008, from
http://www.voice.buz.org/genetic_engineering/ethicsandge.html

Reference continued






MORLEY, E.
Frankenfood approved
. Economist, 370. Retrieved March 15,
2008, from
h
t
tp://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=109&sid=58b98f05
-
085d
-
4008
-
a21d
-
5693c4c7b0f8%40sessionmgr104



National Research Council Staff (1984).
Genetic Engineering of Plants:
Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

Retrieved March 15,
2008, from

http://site.ebrary.com/lib/mercer/Doc?id=10056707&ppg=64



New weapon for farmers is discovered

(Sep 23,1994)
. New York Times.
Retrieved March 15, 2008, from
http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/auth/checkbrowser.do?ipcounter=1&c
ookieState=0&rand=0.7858060772632571&rbhcp=1



The Regents of the University of Michigan (1997).
GM Crops: Costs and
Benefits
. Retrieved March 24, 2008 from
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food



Newman, J (21 June 2003
). Is GM food safe?

Retrieved March 24, 2008 from
www.non
-
gm
-
farmers.com/news_print.asp?ID=486