DNA Biotechnology Powerpoint WITH VIDEOS.ppt - puttermanbio

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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DNA
Biotechnology

Cloning


A clone is a group
of living organisms
that come from
one parent and are
genetically
identical


Can occur
naturally or
artificially when
manipulated by
man.

Cloning Video

Examples of Natural
Cloning include:


Identical twins


one fertilized egg splits
into 2 and each develops.


Vegetative reproduction


starting a new
plant from a cut piece of a plant


Binary Fission
-

Microorganisms that
reproduces by splitting in two ie.
Bacteria, Paramecium,etc.

Cloning by
Man


Take an egg from the
female and remove
haploid nucleus


Replace the nucleus with a
diploid nucleus from the
animal to be cloned


Place the “fertilized” egg
back into the female to
develop as normal.


The organism created is a
clone.

Genetic Engineering


Did you know that diabetic humans can get their
insulin from BACTERIA?


This ability is made available by Genetic
Engineering
.









Genetic Engineering is the process of
manipulating genes for human use.

Some definitions


Restriction Enzyme

-

an enzyme that cuts a
certain DNA sequence between specific
nucleotides


Recombinant DNA

-

the DNA formed when a
section of DNA from one organism is cut out
and spliced into the DNA of another
organism


Plasmid

²

a circular strand of (extra) DNA
found in bacterial cells

Recombinant DNA Video

Using bacteria in Genetic
Engineering


The bacterial
plasmid is used
in this process.


It will be cut
and the gene
for insulin will
be inserted
there.

Normal Bacterial
DNA

Steps in Genetic
Engineering

1.
Cut the desired gene (insulin) with
restriction enzymes

2.
Cut the plasmid of the bacteria with the
same enzyme.

3.
Add the desired gene to the plasmid

4.
Recombinant DNA is produced
and inserted into the bacteria

5
.
Bacteria now
reproduce,
making
many copies
of the insulin
gene.

6.The insulin
can be
extracted
and used for
human use.

Gel Electrophoresis



A technique that uses
electricity in a gel to
separate molecules
by their size


DNA is negatively
charged, so the DNA
moves towards the
positive end of the
gel (remember,
opposites attract)


Gel Video

DNA fingerprint


A DNA fingerprint is a photograph of the
dark bands made when DNA fragments
are separated using gel electrophoresis

Using DNA to Solve Crimes
Video

The Human Genome Project

Using Gel
Electrophoresis to see
Evolution


Organisms that have the largest
number of matching bands on a
gel are most closely related.



In other words, chimps and
humans would have more
similar bands than zebras and
humans