A. Reproductive Technology Introduction - Cronodon

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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BTEC U 22, Assignment P5, M3.


Describe the principles of reproductive and gene technologies and their implications for
individuals, society and the environment.

A. Reproductive Technology

Introduction
:

Reproductive technology includes the use of technology in contraception / birth control and
infertility treatment (assisted reproduction). Assisted reproduction is further subdivided into
in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and artificial insemination (AI). The use of reproductive technology
is considered essential by many but its use remains controversial.

You may find Wikipedia a useful source. Type in ‘wikipedia’ alongside your Google search
term, e.g. ‘in vitro fertilisation wikipedia’. Once you have brought up Wikipedia you can also
search within Wikipedia itself.

Remember: if you use diagrams as part of your description, then
you must

reference the
source (Web page, text book, etc.) and annotate it to make it original work.


Q.1 What is reproductive technology?

Q.2 Describe (in one or two sentences only!) the use of a number of contraceptive (birth
control) techniques, such as, behavioural methods (e.g. abstinence,
coitus interruptus
)
barrier methods (e.g. male condom, female condom, contraceptive sponge, cervical cap),
hormone methods (e.g. the combined oral contraceptive pill), induced abortion, sterilisation
and emergency contraception.

Q.3 State and briefly explain one advantage and one disadvantage of each method you
have listed, in terms of health and/or well
-
being (M3).

Q.4 What is assisted reproduction?

Q.5 What is in vitro fertilisation (IVF)?

Q.6 What is artificial insemination (AI)?

Q.7 Describe
briefly

the procedure of IVF.

Q.8 Describe
briefly

the various procedures of AI.


B. Gene Technologies

Introduction
:

Gene technologies include a very wide variety of techniques that involve the manipulation of
DNA.

This includes
genetic engineering
, which is the modification of an organism’s genome,

e.g. inserting the human insulin gene into yeast or bacteria which are subsequently cultured
as a source of insulin to treat diabetics, the insertion of healthy genes into the respiratory
tract of cystic fibrosis patients (an example of gene therapy), or the development of
genetically modified (GM) crops.

Gene technologies also include the use of DNA analysis in forensics, such as DNA profiling
(DNA fingerprinting).

It also includes the manipulation of an organism’s genetic material by selective breeding
(whether by artificial insemination or natural fertilisation).

Part 1: DNA analysis

Q.1 What is a
restriction endonuclease

and how is it used in DNA analysis? Give an
example of a restriction endonuclease and its
recognition sequence
. Draw and annotate a
diagram to show the end result of restriction of a piece of DNA containing the recognition
site.

Q.2 What is
gel electrophoresis

and how is it used in DNA analysis? Briefly describe the
method of gel electrophoresis.

Q.3 What is
DNA (genetic) profiling
?

Q.4 What is the aim of DNA profiling and how is it used?

Q.5 What is
PCR
, what does it do and how is it used to assist genetic fingerprinting?

Q.6 Describe
very briefly

one method of DNA profiling (such as STR analysis).

Q.7 How is DNA profiling used in paternity testing and in forensics?

Q.8 State the advantages and disadvantages of the use of DNA profiling in paternity testing
and in forensics.

Q.9 Why is the use of DNA profiling to solve crimes controversial? Briefly describe one case
study in which the use of DNA profiling in forensics has been controversial.

Q.10 Should DNA profiles be used as forensic evidence in court? See if you can find
information on an actual court case in which the use of DNA profiling has caused
controversy.

Q.11 Some have proposed storing the DNA profiles of all newborn babies on a central
database. What are the pros and cons of such a scheme? Should DNA profiling be used for
National ID card schemes or for insurance companies? Should everyone have their DNA
placed on a central database?

Part 2: Genetic Engineering
:

Q.1 Define genetic engineering.

Q.2 What is a plasmid? What is recombinant DNA and how is it used in trasnformation?
What is a recombinant plasmid and why is this especially useful? How can you detect
whether or not a cell has taken up a recombinant plasmid (been transformed).

Q.3 Give one example of a useful chemical (e.g. a pharmaceutical) that is prepared using
genetic engineering.

Q.4 What is gene therapy? Give one example of a genetic disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis) that
has been treated by gene therapy. How successful is this treatment?

Q.5 What is genetic screening and how is it used in gene therapy? Give one example.

Q.6 What is genetic counselling and how is it used in medicine? Give one example.


Part 3: Other uses of DNA technology
:

Q.1 What is tissue matching (tissue typing) as used prior to transplantation? Briefly describe
one method of tissue typing (e.g. the mixed leukocyte reaction).

Q.2 What is selective breeding? Briefly describe one procedure for selective breeding, listing
the reproductive or gene technologies used. Give a specific example of the benefits of
selective breeding. What, if any, are the problems and ethical issues that result from
selective breeding?

D2: Analyse ethical dilemmas arising from reproductive and gene technologies.

Working in pairs, research the ethical issues associated with reproductive technologies
(such as infertility treatment) and gene technologies (such as DNA profiling). Section B,
Part 1 Q.11 should help.

Some useful links:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7156051.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4396833.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7156051.stm