9.4 Genetic Engineering

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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9.4 Genetic Engineering

KEY CONCEPT

DNA sequences of organisms can be changed.


9.4 Genetic Engineering

I. Entire organisms can be cloned.

A. A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of
an organism.


Click and Clone

9.4 Genetic Engineering

B. Cloning occurs in nature.

1. bacteria (binary fission)

2. some plants (from roots)

3. some simple animals (budding, regeneration)

9.4 Genetic Engineering

C. Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear
transfer.

1.
Extract a somatic cell from
1 organism and an egg cell
from another

2.
Take the nucleus out of the
egg cell

3.
Take the nucleus out of the
somatic cell and insert it
into the egg cell

4.
Wait until this egg divides
several times, then transfer
the ball of cells to the
surrogate mom

9.4 Genetic Engineering

D. Cloning has potential benefits.

1. organs for transplant into humans

2. save endangered species

E. Cloning raises concerns.

1. low success rate

2. clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal

3. decreased biodiversity

9.4 Genetic Engineering

A. Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s
DNA to give it new traits.

1. GMO



genetically modified organism; any organism
that has acquired 1 or more genes by artificial means

II. New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA.

Genetically
modified cat


“allergen free”

9.4 Genetic Engineering

B. Genetic engineering is based on the use of
recombinant DNA.

C. Recombinant DNA contains genes from more than one
organism.


(bacterial DNA)

9.4 Genetic Engineering

D. Bacterial plasmids are often used to make
recombinant DNA.

1. plasmids are loops of
DNA in bacteria

2. restriction enzymes cut
plasmid and foreign DNA

3. foreign gene inserted into
plasmid

9.4 Genetic Engineering

II. Genetic engineering produces organisms with new
traits.

A. A transgenic organism has one or more genes from
another organism inserted into its genome.

9.4 Genetic Engineering

B. Transgenic bacteria can be used to produce human
proteins.

1. gene inserted into plasmid

2. plasmid inserted into bacteria

3. bacteria express the gene

C. Transgenic plants are common in agriculture.

1. transgenic bacteria

infect a plant

2. plant expresses

foreign gene

3. many crops are now

genetically modified

(GM)

Click on Picture!

9.4 Genetic Engineering

D. Transgenic animals are used to study diseases and
gene functions.

1. transgenic mice used to study development and
disease

2. gene knockout mice used to study gene function

9.4 Genetic Engineering

E. Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic
engineering.

1. possible long
-
term health effects of eating GM foods

2. possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and
biodiversity