13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Genetic
Engineering

Chapter 13

Changing the Living World


Selective breeding


Breeding animals with
characteristics we
want to produce
offspring with those


Plants


Potatoes or
flowers


Animals


dogs or
farm animals

Changing the Living World



Hybridization


Cross different
individuals to get
offspring with favorable
traits


The result is a
hybrid



an individual produced
from the crossing of
two different
organisms.

Changing the Living World



Inbreeding


Breed similar individuals over and over to get
offspring with favorable traits

Changing the Living World


Increasing variation


Inducing mutations


Radiation


Chemicals


Produce
mutants



an individual showing
the mutation

Changing the Living World


Producing new
bacteria


Small size allows for
millions to be treated


Oil eating bacteria

Changing the Living World


Producing new plants


Chemicals that prevent
chromosomal
separation


Polypoidy


Larger and stronger
plants

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


How can scientists
manipulate the code?


Scientists use their
knowledge of the
structure of DNA and
its chemical properties
to study and change
DNA molecules.

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


Tools of Molecular
Biology


Genetic Engineering


Making changes in the
DNA code of a living
organism


DNA Extraction


Open a cell (mechanical
and chemical methods)


Use a chemical to separate
the DNA from the rest of
the cell parts (an alcohol)

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


Cutting DNA


DNA molecules are
very long


Restriction enzymes


Enzymes that cuts
DNA at a specific
sequence of
nucleotides


Sticky ends



these
are the cut ends of the
DNA

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA



Separating DNA



Gel electrophoresis



A mixture of DNA
fragments is placed at
one end of a porous
gel (negative end), and
an electric voltage is
applied to the gel


The molecules will
move from negative
to positive

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


Using the DNA
Sequence


Once it is separated
it is manageable


It can now be


Read


Studied


Changed

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


Reading the
Sequence


How do you read
unknown DNA?


You can use:


DNA Polymerase


Four nucleotides


Chemical markers


13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


Cutting and Pasting


DNA synthesizers


Enzymes join artificial
pieces of DNA with
natural pieces


Recombinant DNA


Enzymes join genes
from one strand of
DNA with genes
from another strand
of DNA

13
-
2 Manipulating DNA


Making Copies


PCR or Polymerase
chain reaction


Photocopying DNA
over and over


Use strands of DNA
that are called
primers

13
-
3 Cell Transformation


Transformation


When a cell takes
in foreign DNA
and joins it with
the existing
DNA


This external
DNA becomes
part of the cells
DNA

13
-
3 Cell Transformation


Transforming Bacteria


Foreign DNA is joined
to plasmid



Plasmid



small, circular
DNA molecule


Genetic marker



a gene
that makes it possible see
which bacteria are
carrying the plasmid (that
is marked) and which
bacteria are not.

13
-
3 Cell Transformation



Transforming Plant Cells


Using bacterium that
normally infect plant cells
and cause tumors


Taking away the cell wall
some plant cells will take
up DNA on their own


If successful recombinant
DNA will be found in a
chromosome of the cell

13
-
3 Cell Transformation


Transforming Animal
Cells


DNA can be injected
directly into the
nucleus of an egg


Enzymes help insert
the new DNA into the
eggs existing DNA


New DNA contains
markers that tell which
cells picked up the
DNA

13
-
4 Applications of Genetic
Engineering


Transgenic Organisms


Organisms that contain
genes from other species


Firefly and tobacco
plant


Genetic engineering has
increased the growth of
biotechnology

13
-
4 Applications of Genetic
Engineering


Transgenic
microorganisms


Bacteria reproduce
quickly


Uses:


Can grow human
proteins


Insulin, growth
hormone, and
clotting factor

13
-
4 Applications of Genetic
Engineering


Transgenic Animals


Mimic human body for
testing


Faster growing animals


No more food poisoning


Grow human proteins

13
-
4 Applications of Genetic
Engineering

13
-
4 Applications of Genetic
Engineering


Transgenic Plants


Natural insecticide


Resist weed killing
chemicals


Food resistant to
spoiling


Weather resistant plants


Grow vitamins or
proteins

13
-
4 Applications of Genetic
Engineering


Cloning



Clone
-

A member of
a population of
genetically identical
cells produced from a
single cell


Dolly


The cloned
sheep from 1997


Save endangered
species