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15 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Cathleen Whillock

CECS 6000: Philosophy of Computing in Education

University of North Texas

College of Education

Denton, Texas


Aspect 1: Machine Learning / Machine Intermediated Learning


2

Machine learning is defined by Computer Dictionary Online a
s, “the ability of a
computer to improve its performance based on previous results” (Computer Dictionary
Online, 1995). The computer of today utilizes mathematical concepts and binary program
logic to perform its tasks. Those computers do exactly as they a
re told and can perform
complex algorithms and calculations. If we are to believe Boole’s statement that “the
ultimate laws of thought are mathematical in their form”
(Boole, 2005)
, then we are to
believe that computers will one day be able to think
, based

on mathematical calculations
.
Further,
if we accept

the advent of computers that are neural in nature
, having
the ability
simulate learning
using

complex algorithms that allow the computer to change
their

processing
based on

tens of thousands of

different

inputs and communications with other
networks (Smith, 1996)
, then we must accept the inevitability of computer learning and
machine intelligence that rivals and eventually surpasses that of humans (Kurzweil,
2000).


We don’t have to succumb to the paranoi
a created by the
NS
-
5 robots’
“take
over”
of human civilization in the movie
I,Robot

(2004). This overthrow, engineered by
the Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence unit “VIKI”
, was necessary
, as she explained,

for the salvation of human kind; “the crea
ted had to become the protector of the creator”.
This inevitability will only come to fruition if we, the creator, allow the creation to have
the ability to control its


own destiny. Computers have a destiny to the extent that
hum
ans, the creators, allow
.
The creators in the movie had allowed the computer to
“think” it was human. It was given a human name and allowed to be “in charge” of all
operations at the facility. The creators relinquished control to the created.


3


With access to the world’s databases a
nd processing capabilities that will far
surpass that of the human brain, computers have and will have the ability to simulate
learning. I emphasize “simulate” because the human brain is a complex creature. The
computer central processing unit, CPU, is re
l
atively simple in comparison

(Kurzweil,
2000).
Artificial neural network computers will have the ability to simulate learning and
make decisions based on mathematical based algorithms and extrapolations of input, but
will not actually be able to “think” fo
r themselves, nor will they have their own free will.


Knowing the creator’s dominance over its creation and accepting the creations’
ability to simulate intelligence and capabilities far beyond that of its creator, opens up an
exciting new paradigm for th
e use of computers in education.
If we consider the learning
capabilities of the computer and acknowledge its access to far more information than any
single teacher could
search for and assimilate

in a day, then we begin to understand how
the computer coul
d be used as a surrogate teacher. Intelligent computers have the
capability to retrieve the information
required for

the
individual skill level and learning
style

of each student

(Gardner, 1983)
.
Machine learning and machine intermediated
learning will fin
ally enable us, if we utilize the technology to its fullest extent, to educate
the individual student and not “the masses”.

4

References


Boole, George (2005).
An Investigation of the Laws of Thought
. On
-
line:
www.gu
tenberg.net
.


(1995). Computer Dictionary Online. Retrieved September 16, 2007, from Best Online
Dictionary Web site:
http:
//www.bestonlinedictionary.com/computer
-
terms
-
dictionary/computer
-
dictionary
-
m/definition
-
machine+learning.htm


Gardner, Howard (1983).
Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
. New
York, NY: Basic Books.


Kurzweil, Raymond (2000).
The Laws of

Time and Chaos.

Retrieved September 16,
2007, from KurzweilAI.net Web site:
http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0277.html


Smith, Leslie (1996).

An Introduction to Neural Networks. Retrieved September 16,
2007, from Center for Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience Web site:
http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~lss/NNIntro/InvSlides.h
tml#why


Proyas, Alex (Director). (2004).
I,Robot

[Motion Picture] United States: 20
th

Century
Fox.