Physical Growth

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Physical Growth
-
0
-
2


Average birth weight
-
7 ½ lbs and 20 inches


¼ of the babies length is the head


The trunk is a little longer than the legs


This stays this way until about 6 months


Then body portions change
-
head slows,
extremities grow and trunk stays the same


As approaches 2 yrs
-
relation of trunk and
extremities about equal

Reflexes



The earliest movements seen are reflexes


They are involuntary


Their absence may indicate neurological
problems


In some disability areas these reflexes
persist
-
cerebral palsy


So
-

if present when should have disappeared
or if absent when should be present
-

can be
considered atypical

Infant Reflexes


Probably adaptive survival skills


Moro reflex
-
first 6 mo


Rooting and sucking
-
first year


TNR
-
Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
-
both sides


Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
-
one side flex
-
opposite side


Palmar grasp
-
1
st

6 mo


Plantar grasp
-
through 1
st

year
-
if longer can interfer
with walking



Labyrinthine Righting Reflex
-
tipping the body,
the head will want to remain upright
-
2 mo to
stronger at 6 mo.


Parachute Reflex

beyond 1
st

year
-
helps with
walking


Righting reflex of head and body
-
head
turned, trunk turns


Crawling reflex
-
in prone
-
leg pushes, other
extends


Stepping reflex
-
comes about 1 mo. and
disappears about 4
th

mo.


Positive support Reflex

Voluntary Movement Patterns

Postural control



head control
-
keeping it steady
-
2 mo


Sitting
-
without support
-
about 5 mo


Prone to sitting
-
7 mo
-
can change body
positions


Pulling to standing
-
9 mo


Stand alone
-
11 mo


Voluntary Movement Patterns
Locomotion


Rolling over
-
about 3
-
4 mo


Crawling
-

7 mo
-
low crawl


Creeping
-
more sophisticated crawl
-
alternating hand and foot


Walking
-
9
-
18 mo


Standing to one hand to paddlefooted/high
guarded hands p39


Gait generally mature at 11
-
18 mo

Voluntary Movement Patterns

Reach and grasp


First weeks
-
fist with finger
-
when grasped, tighter fist


Followed by hands open


Followed by ability to put hands together at about 2
mo


3
-
4 mo
-
reach and grasp something


Releasing object
-
8 mo


9
-
10 mo pincher grasp using thumb and fingers


By 2yr
-
can draw horizontal and vertical lines, turn
pages stack things

Voluntary Movement Patterns

Striking


Overarm front to back
-
more of a push


By 22 mo
-
can use an object to strike
-
but
basically using the forearm


Mature striking doesn’t occur until 6 or 7
years old

Physical Growth 2
-
6years


Uniform process
-
rate gain in height nearly
doubles that in weight


Lower limbs grow rapidly to trunk proportions
-
not so much round as linear person


Boys usually taller and heavier but
proportionally same


Brain about 75% complete by 3 years
-
90%
by 6yrs


Eyeball does not reach full size until about 12

Voluntary Movement Patterns

Locomotion


Running
-
p 42


Immature
-
paddle feet and arms away from
body


Flight phase: Feet in air


1. stride lengthens


2. Trailing foot higher


3. Arms move with efficiency


4. Forward lean increases


Climbing
-
ascending before descending


Ascend with alternating feet between 29 and 41 mo.


Descending
-
4 years to 55 mo.


Jumping
-

table 2.1


Down is easier than up


Jump down from one easier than up from one


Jumping up and down easier than jumping out


By 5 years can do all types


Then adds height and distance


Hopping
-
one foot takeoff and landing on one
foot
-
by age4 most can hop from 4
-
6 steps


Girls more proficient at earlier age


Galloping and skipping more advanced
-
have
to learn to run, jump, and hop


Gallop
-
walk and leap
-
4
-
6 years of age


Skipping
-
step and hop on one foot then the
other
-
a little more difficult
-
6 years

Voluntary Movement Patterns

Manipulative patterns


Throwing


Catching


Kicking


Striking


Throwing


Stage 1:


ages 2
-
3 yrs,



basically a forearm motion



no body rotation,


feet remain stationary


A slight body sway

Throwing Stage 2


3 ½ to 5 years starts some changes


Rotation of the body back on throwing side as
arm brought back


Ball brought back further and wrist cocked


Then to opposite as follow thru


Follow thru or throw is on the oblique plane


Feet still stationary

Stage 3



5 to 6 years


Foot movement
-
throwing side foot comes
forward at throw


Forward form is added as foot comes forward

Stage 4


Mature throwing
-
6 ½ years


Girls may be somewhat behind because of
lack of opportunity and teaching


Arm and trunk rotate back with full drawn arm


Opposite side step added


Body weight shifted forward in preparation for
trunk and hip rotation


Full follow thru


Distance/force increased

Throwing Teaching Helps


Proficient throwing is enhanced and made
much easier by a properly portioned ball.
Have a variety of ball sizes to use.


Smaller balls are easier to throw, larger are
easier to catch.


Break technique down and teach one point at
a time

Catching
-
p.46



Stage 1: 3 ½ years


Avoid the throws by turning head and/or
extending arms


Generally hold the palms up


Try to trap b all next to chest


Catching stage 2


Elementary Stage
-
4 years old


Follow the ball with the eyes


Generally don’t avoid the ball


Don’t close eyes until maybe the very end


Palms sideways


Catching
-
stage 3
-
Mature stage


About age 6 years


Track the ball from git go to end


Arms held in a classic ready position
-
elbows
flexed and hands cupped


Give with the ball


Kicking p. 47


Most start kicking at 2 years old


Stage 1:


Kicked with straight leg action


Little if any arm or trunk motion


No backward leg motion


No real force

Stage 2
-
elementary stage


Flexed kicking leg position


Some Uncocking to strike


Beginning of a follow through


Arms work to maintain balance

Stage 3
-
Mature Kicking


Total body action


Arms swing in opposition


Kicking leg much more drwwn back for force


Follow thru present

Striking



At approximately 2 years, overhand strikes
can be made


A sidearm strike at approximately 3 years


All arm motion


Use of legs and trunk to promote force at
approx. 6 or 7 years old

Socialization and movement


2
-
3 year olds very posessive


5
-
6 show signs of cooperative work and
sharing


Success in motor patterns encourages efforts
in of the areas.

Physical growth 7 to 12


The boy/girl thing changes:


Not really much difference until after age 10


Girls start reaching puberty and gain a size
advantage that remains until about 14


Boys start getting wider shoulders, girls wider
hips


Boys legs become proportionally longer than
girls

Voluntary movement patterns


Refinement of movement patterns


Jump farther and higher


Run faster


Throw farther and more accurate


Catch easier


Mature striking movements


Dribble a ball

Jumping p. 49



Vertical and horizontal


Both sexes about the same until age 7


Boys start to excel after age 7
-
further and
higher


Both though improve dramatically



Running
-

p. 50


Up until the end of about 12 years the
progression of increased speed is about the
same


After age 12, the boys continue to increase
and the girls may start a rapid decline

Throwing
-
p. 51



Distance and accuracy increase


Boys generally at a higher performance level


Attributed to greater shoulder and arm
strength


Does expectation enter in this?

Catching


More difficult to master than throwing


Catching from a bounce easier than a ball in
the air


Larger balls easier to catch than smaller


By 12 most can catch on the run

Striking


A mature strike may be in place at age 6
-
6 ½



But may take a couple of years to really use


Dribbling


Stage 1: a down push with no attempt to
follow the ball


Stage 2: Attempts to catch the ball after a
single bounce


Stage 3: Attempts to catch the ball with
multiple overhead strikes with the arms out
streched


Stage 4: a series of successive hits with the
arm bent and finger/palm strikes


Mature dribbling


Rhythmic and coordinated


P. 51


Stationary dibbling is to be mastered before
movement is added


Dribbling while moving is difficult and takes
until about age 7 to do

Teaching considerations


Think progression


Think fun but developmental


A skill must be practiced but little practice
occurs in game play.


Game play is for fun


Always consider the disability and adjust
game play/rules for it