Games in the Physical Education Lesson

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11 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

62 εμφανίσεις

MI RCEA DRAGU¹, CORI NA DOBROTA
2

,
CONSTANTI N PLOEŞTEANU
3

DUNAREA DE JOS UNI VERSI TY OF GALATI,
ROMANI A

The Place, Role and Importance of Motor
Games in the Physical Education Lesson
for Secondary School Pupils

Introductory remarks


Social
insight may be influenced by the following game characteristics:


It

presumes

assigning

roles

as

well

as

knowing

and

observing

certain

rules
;

thus,

the

game

participants

learn

that

their

relationship

with

the

others

presupposes

a

general

consensus
;


It

operates

as

a

means

of

creating

new

interpersonal

relations

and

modifying

former

relations,

as

well

as

choosing

social

partners
;


It

is

a

means

of

verifying

the

relations

with

others

and

their

attitude

towards

us,

as

seen

in

the

moment

of

choosing

teams/

sides

by

assigning

roles

within

the

members

of

the

same

team
;


It

shows

that

success

and

action

efficiency

also

depend

on

others
;

at

a

certain

point

of

interpersonal

interaction,

someone’s

own

actions

are

also

compared

to

the

partners’

actions
;



It

serves

as

a

means

of

post
-
analysis

and

anticipation

of

interpersonal

relations,

and

possible

behaviours

in

a

future

situation
;


It

is

a

means

of

appropriating

the

negotiation

behavior
;

choosing

the

game

elements

(place,

leader,

teammates,

etc
.
)

constitutes

learning

the

manner

of

presenting

and

complying

with

demands

in

relation

to

others
;


It

is

a

means

of

natural

experimenting

of

certain

interactional

presuppositions

and

behavior

strategies

in

case

of

success

or

failure
.

Introductory remarks


Movement

games

have

certain

advantages,

through

content,

form

and

effects,

over

other

types

of

exercise
.

Thus,

they

provide

the

optimum

circumstances

of

simultaneous

development

of

the

basic

and

specific

motor

skills,

as

well

as

the

mental

qualities

and

personality

features
.



“Through

games,

children

spend

their

energy”

[Acsinte,

(
2007
),

28
]

,

getting

involved

in

“serious”

work

similar

to

the

circumstances

in

real

life
.

Due

to

the

multiple

favourable

influences

over

children,

“movement

games

have

become

an

important

method

in

physical

education,

[

]

included

in

the

lesson

content

and

at

all

levels”

[Antohe

&

Hutupas,

(
2002
),

57
]
.



It

is

well

known

that

sports

teachers

make

intense

use

of

movement

games,

clearly

expressing

the

role

of

movement,

and

the

“quality

of

the

teaching

technique

is

the

one

improving

the

game

character

to

higher

standards”

[Hansa

&

Calin,

(
2004
),

191
]
.



[…] “in physical education the motor game is one of the main means” [Dragu, (2006),
76].


Since

each

game

has

precise

rules,

the

child

learns

“to

correctly

assess

the

concrete

game

situations,

take

individual

decisions,

or

decisions

correlated

with

the

teammates’

,

in

an

intellectually

challenging

manner”

[Ploesteanu,

(
2004
),

7
]
.

That

is

why

games

should

be

pleasant,

stimulating,

to

produce

enthusiasm

and

emulation,

but

also

able

to

form

knowledge,

skills

and

abilities,

training

the

child

for

life

and

work
.

During

play,

the

child

is

taught

how

to

observe,

think,

search

for

solutions

to

various

punctual

problems,

stimulating

his

initiative,

creativity,

etc
.

i
n

cooperation

with

his

teammates

and

even

the

opponents
.


Introductory remarks


Movement

games

favour
:


The

balanced

development

of

the

child’s

nervous

system
;


Better

stimulation

of

the

metabolic

processes
;


Improvement

of

the

functions

of

the

respiratory

and

circulatory

systems,

contributing

to

strengthening

the

entire

body
;


Development

of

the

basic

and

applicative

motor

skills
;


Development

of

physical

attributes
;


Harmonious

physical

development

“in

close

connection

to

all

the

other

educational

components
:

intellectual,

moral

,

aesthetic”

[Dragu,

(
2004
)

,

48
]
.

Introductory remarks


Motor

games

have

a

clear

finality,

evincing

the

following

objectives
:



they

educate

the

general

motor

ability
;



they

favour

a

harmonious

physical

development
;


they

contribute

to

forming

moral

and

social

conscience
;


they

contribute

to

improving

the

intellect
;


they

support

social

integration
.

Research hypotheses


Taking

into

account

the

pupils

movement

needs,

it

was

deemed

necessary

to

integrate

movement

games

in

the

fifth

graders’

physical

education

lessons,

in

order

to

obtain

better

results

in

accumulating

motor

skills
;



By

practising

applicative

routines

in

movement

games,

pupils

acquire

the

ability

to

act

not

only

during

physical

education

lessons,

but

also

independently

in

similar

situations,

by

motor

skill

associations

created

spontaneously
.


Subjects


five

5
th

grade

classes

were

selected
:


69

subjects

enrolled

in

3

parallel

classes

making

up

a

sample

of

37

girls

and

a

sample

of

32

boys

(for

the

experiment

proper)
.



53

subjects

enrolled

in

2

classes

making

up

a

sample

of

27

girls

and

a

sample

of

26

boys

(control)
.



None

of

the

subjects

belongs

to

sports

clubs

or

associations

or

has

ever

trained

in

a

sporting

discipline
.


Research organisation


The

experiment

took

place

at

the

School

no
.
17

in

the

county

of

Galaţi,

Romania

in

the

2009



2010

school

year
.



The

school’

s

gym

allows

the

optimal

performance

of

movement

games

comprising

a

wide

range

of

motor

skills

and

abilities
.

The

movement

games

used

were

of

average

level,

specific

to

the

subjects

age

group

and

training

level
.


Events and tests


The

results

of

the

events

tested

were

measured

in

the

experimental

and

the

control

group

in

the

following

periods
:


Initial

test

(T
1
)
:

15

September



1

October

2009
;



Final

test

(T
2
)
:

1

June



15

June

2010
;


The

events

used

to

determine

certain

parameters

of

the

functional

capacity

were

as

follows
:

vital

capacity,

maximal

anaerobic

strength,

the

Mazur

test

and

the

Ruffier

test
.



The

events

used

to

determine

the

motor

skill

were

divided

as

follows
:


General

motor

tests
:

leap

over

the

gym

horse

30
",

tractions

on

the

gym

horse,

the

Matorin

test

and

relay

5

x

10

m
.



The

specific

motor

tests

were
:

separate

performance

of

4

modules

consisting

of

combinations

of

2

applicative
-
utilitarian

motor

skills

and

covering

a

school

application

distance

set
-
up

to

this

purpose
.



The

psychological

tests

used

in

this

research

were
:

the

Bourdon

and

the

Prague

test
.


Data analysis and interpretation


The

statistic

parameters

characterising

the

tendency

of

the

phenomenon

under

investigation

were
:

the

arithmetic

average,

the

standard

deviation,

minimum

value,

amplitude

of

data

spread,

the

variability

coefficient
.

As

a

result

of

the

calculations

the

results

were

gathered

in

tables

for

each

test

separately

and

the

differences

between

tests

were

considered

in

order

to

determine

the

progress

achieved

in

each

group
.



The

differences

were

calculated

between

the

average

values

achieved

by

the

experiment

group

samples

and

the

control

group

samples
.

The

Student

test

was

applied

in

order

to

see

if

there

are

significant

differences

between

the

groups

in

the

final

test
.

The

progress

was

calculated

in

absolute

value

and

as

a

percentage,

for

each

subject

separately,

in

all

the

events

performed
.

The

progress

was

also

calculated

in

absolute

value

and

as

a

percentage

for

each

sample,

as

well

as

the

differences

between

samples
.



Table 1
. Functional capacity


boys (D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Events

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Vital capacity

Experiment

1609.06

1832.81

223.75

14.26

Witness

1555.77

1646.15

90.38

5.99

Maximal anaerobic
capacity

Experiment

767.10

869.16

102.06

13.66

Witness

750.98

847.56

96.58

13.25

Aerobic effort
capacity

Experiment

55.96

58.51

2.55

4.57

Witness

54.38

56.87

2.48

4.48

Ruffier Test

Experiment

10.08

9.61

-
0.47

-
4.74

Witness

10.12

9.85

-
0.28

-
2.75

Table 2.

Functional capacity


girls
(D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Events

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Vital capacity

Experiment

1506.76

1687.84

181.08

12.49

Witness

1512.96

1603.70

90.74

6.20

Maximal anaerobic
capacity

Experiment

813.01

892.01

79.00

9.86

Witness

759.02

855.15

60.13

7.68

Aerobic effort
capacity

Experiment

54.37

56.74

2.37

4.38

Witness

53.30

55.60

2.30

4.35

Ruffier Test

Experiment

10.22

9.91

-
0.31

-
3.06

Witness

10.54

10.27

-
0.27

-
2.54

Interpretation


In

the

samples

of

the

experimental

group

the

arithmetic

averages

are

higher

than

in

the

control

group,

both

for

girls

and

for

boys
;

the

differences

are

considerable

for

all

parameters,

save

the

maximum

anaerobic

strength

in

the

girls

group
.

This

parameter

is

not

extremely

important

in

the

female

subjects,

as

it

is

caused

by

a

lower

body

mass

included

in

the

calculation

formula
.



Table 3.
General motor tests


boys (D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Events

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Leap over the gym
horse

Experiment

9.44

13.16

3.72

39.98

Witness

9.27

12.23

2.96

32.19

Tractions on the
gym bench

Experiment

6.44

7.56

1.13

18.30

Witness

6.27

7.15

0.88

14.51

Matorin test

Experiment

300.00

326.25

26.25

8.97

Witness

291.92

310.00

18.08

6.23

5x10m relay

Experiment

19.72

19.32

-
0.40

-
2.04

Witness

20.66

20.21

-
0.45

-
2.18

Interpretation


The

sample

in

the

experimental

group

are

superior

to

the

control

group

in

point

of

all

the

motor

parameters,

the

differences

between

the

arithmetic

averages

in

the

final

tests

being

obvious

for

the

threshold

of

1
%

or

5
%
.

School
-
level

movement

games

applied

in

the

instructional

process

to

the

sample

of

the

experimental

group

increased

the

level

of

motor

skills

to

a

greater

extent

than

in

the

samples

of

the

control

group
.



Table 4.

General motor tests


girls
(D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Events

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Leap over the gym
horse

Experiment

9.24

12.76

3.51

38.36

Witness

9.07

11.81

2.74

30.46

Tractions on the
gym bench

Experiment

6.24

7.49

1.24

21.03

Witness

6.07

7.11

1.04

17.52

Matorin test

Experiment

291.62

316.16

24.86

8.66

Witness

292.59

315.00

22.41

7.88

5x10m relay

Experiment

19.74

19.34

-
0.40

-
2.04

Witness

20.75

20.31

-
0.43

-
2.11

Table 5.

Specific motor tests
-

boys

(D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Tests

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Module 1

Experiment

7.22

8.08

0.86

14.01

Witness

7.02

7.42

0.40

6.08

Module 2

Experiment

7.17

8.00

0.83

12.24

Witness

7.02

7.44

0.42

6.16

Module 3

Experiment

7.00

7.92

0.92

13.75

Witness

6.88

7.54

0.65

10.11

Module 4

Experiment

6.94

7.91

0.97

14.52

Witness

7.04

7.57

0.50

7.67

Applicative routine


time achieved

Experiment

73.22

67.34

-
5.88

-
8.01

Witness

75.58

71.19

-
4.38

-
5.82

Applicative routine


degree obtained

Experiment

6.63

7.77

1.14

18.18

Witness

6.37

7.08

0.71

11.59

Interpretation


For

all

motor

parameters

the

null

hypothesis

is

disproved,

confirming

the

working

hypothesis
.

As

a

result

of

calculating

the

correlation

coefficient,

it

was

found

that

there

is

a

strong

connection

between

the

degrees

obtained

in

the

4

modules

and

the

degree

obtained

in

the

applicative

routine

(r

>

0
.
75
)
.

The

coefficient

was

calculated

for

the

data

collected

in

the

final

test
.

Table 6
.
Specific motor tests

-

girls (D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Tests

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Module 1

Experiment

6.91

7.74

0.84

12.99

Witness

6.89

7.41

0.52

7.60

Module 2

Experiment

6.80

7.72

0.92

14.29

Witness

6.83

7.52

0.69

10.57

Module 3

Experiment

6.78

7.78

1.00

15.32

Witness

6.81

7.52

0.70

11.17

Module 4

Experiment

7.00

7.85

0.85

13.71

Witness

6.96

7.37

0.41

6.07

Applicative routine


time achieved

Experiment

73.86

67.89

-
5.97

.8.08

Witness

76.33

71.89

-
4.44

-
5.85

Applicative routine


degree obtained

Experiment

6.46

7.72

1.26

20.55

Witness

6.33

7.07

0.74

12.05

Table 7
. Psychological tests


boys (D
= T
2

-

T
1
)

Event

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Prague Test

Experiment

55.16

60.19

5.03

9.28

Witness

52.81

56.54

3.73

7.22

Bourdon Test

Experiment

0.850

0.885

0.035

4.24

Witness

0.837

0.859

0.02

2.65

Table 8
. Psychological tests
-

girls (D

= T
2

-

T
1
)

Event

Sample

T1

T2

D

D(%)

Prague Test

Experiment

56.35

61.46

5.11

9.21

Witness

54.48

58.44

3.96

7.46

Bourdon Test

Experiment

0.945

0.880

0.02

2.78

Witness

0.834

0.956

0.035

4.26

Interpretation


The

subjects

in

the

experimental

group

have

a

better

distributive

attention

than

the

subjects

in

the

control

group,

in

the

boys

and

the

girls

case
.

The

differences

between

the

arithmetic

averages

in

the

final

test

are

considerable,

in

favour

of

the

experimental

group
.

Thus,

the

null

hypothesis

is

proved

inconsistent,

confirming

the

working

hypothesis
.

Similarly,

the

concentration

ability

is

higher

in

the

experimental

group,

both

for

girls

and

for

boys,

than

in

the

control

group
.



The

differences

between

the

average

values

are

considerable,

thus

the

null

hypothesis

is

proved

void,

and

the

working

hypothesis

is

confirmed
.


Conclusions


This

research

contributes

to

improving

the

action

modalities

in

the

instructive

and

educational

process

in

school
.

School

movement

games

are

the

expression

of

needs

emerging

from

the

development

and

importance

of

physical

education

in

school

and

the

practical

applicability

of

the

motor

skill

acquired
.



Movement

games

played

in

school

aid

to

a

great

extent

the

instructional

process

to

develop

the

motor

skills

of

5
th

graders
.

Thus,

their

motor

experience

is

put

to

use

and

the

motor

skills

may

associate

in

forming

motor

abilities
.



In

the

5
th

grade

pupils

are

compatible

to

their

organisms’

possibilities

of

adaptation

and

response

to

the

demands

specific

to

physical

education

at

school

level
.

They

are

apt

to

psychomotor

activities

of

the

type

included

in

the

school

curricula,

being

able

to

exceed

their

previous

performance
.



Movement

games

played

in

school

encourage

motor

experience

so

that

the

pupils

may

gradually

discover

this

psychomotor

potential

and

autonomously

decide

on

the

circumstances

of

its

use
.



In

order

to

stabilise

the

acquired

motor

skills,

school

movement

games

should

take

place

systematically,

in

continuous

lesson

series
.


Bibliography


Acsinte

Alexandru



Free

times

games

and

activities,

Performantica,

Iaşi,

2007
.


Alecu

Simona



Methodology

of

Educational

Research,

”Dunărea

de

Jos”

University

Foundation,

Galaţi,

2005


Antohe

G
.
,

Huţupaş

I
.
,

-

Game

Psychopedagogy,

NITNELEV,

Galaţi,

2002
.


Chiriţă

Georgeta



Education

through

Motion

Games,

Sport
-
Turism

Publishing

House,

Bucharest,

1983
.


Dragu

Mircea



Motion

Games,

Academica

Publishing

House,

Galaţi,

2006
.


Dragu

Mircea



The

lesson

new

approaches,

Valinex

S
.
A
.
,

Chişinău,

2009
.


Hânsa

Ctin
.
,

Călin

Lucica



Basketball

techniques

and

tactics,

”Dunărea

de

Jos”

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