EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENTImpacts of the Bologna Process

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EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN A
CHANGING ENVIRONMENT




Impacts of the Bologna Process


Fiona Hunter

Immediate Past President, European Association for International
Education (EAIE)

International Director, Università Carlo Cattaneo
-

LIUC, Italy

Member of Bologna Experts’ Team, Italy



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


2

OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION



The way we were and the great
leap forward


The emerging European Higher
Education Area


Looking to the future


the road less
travelled

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


3

THE WAY WE WERE



1980’s
-

First wave of internationalisation


intra
-
European co
-
operation and exchange


EC policy to stimulate education and research


Erasmus


largest programme in the world (1987
-
2003 one million students)


Model for international exchange


From academic experimentation to integrated
institutional approaches
-

foundations for change

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


4

THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD…



Bologna Process 2010


building the
European Higher Education Area


drivers


changes


achievements


ambitions


implications



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


5

DRIVERS FOR CHANGE

European Challenges


Integration


Knowledge based economy


Globalisation


Bologna Objectives


Promote
employability


Facilitate cross border educational and
professional
mobility


Increase
competitiveness


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


6

MOBILITY: KEY TO THE PROCESS



As the European Union progresses as a
knowledge
-
based society in a
globalising

world
economy, we must work to boost further the
mobility of workers and citizens. This is not only
good for the economy, but also for society.
Europe needs a mobile and flexible workforce for
its future economic prosperity but mobility also
breaks down barriers between Europeans,
thereby helping to build a more cohesive
European society.”




Jan Figel EU Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Youth

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


7

BOLOGNA PROCESS ACTION LINES






introduced in the Bologna Declaration 1999

1.
Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees

2.
Adoption of a system based on two cycles

3.
Establishment of a system of credits

4.
Promotion of mobility

5.
Promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance

6.
Promotion of European Dimension in Higher Education







introduced in the Prague communiqué 2001

7.

Lifelong learning

8.

Involving Higher Education institutions and students

9.

Promoting the attractiveness of the EHEA







introduced in the Berlin Communiqué 2003

10.

Doctoral studies and synergy between EHEA and ERA


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


8

DRIVING THE PROCESS FORWARD

1998
-

Sorbonne


4 countries
-

harmonisation

1999
-

Bologna


30 countries
-

creation of European Higher

Education Area

2001
-

Prague


33 countries
-

goals reconfirmed and debate

broadened

2003
-

Berlin


40 countries
-

extension to doctoral studies,

measurable priorities, intermediate deadlines

2005
-

Bergen


46 countries
-

stocktaking and priorities



degree systems, quality assurance and recognition

2007
-

London


46 countries
-

commitment to progress and

global strategy

2009
-

Leuven/Louvain
-
La
-
Neuve


looking back, looking

forward


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


9

EMERGING EUROPEAN HIGHER
EDUCATION AREA


Stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific


Single biggest educational reform ever


46 countries (so far)


Over 4000 institutions and 31 million students


An initiative to restructure and harmonise
historically diverse systems


Voluntary participation and jointly agreed
principles


Reflects a search for a common answer to common problems


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


10

CONVERGING SYSTEMS

Three key features
:


1.
Three cycles of easily readable and comparable degrees


variety of content with similar structures and comparable
learning outcomes


flexibility, employability, multidisciplinarity, European
dimension

2.
Compatible credit system
-

ECTS

3.
Co
-
operation in quality assurance


NOT an attempt at harmonisation/homogenisation but creating
connections/convergence between diverse national
educational systems



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


11

THE ACHIEVEMENTS: ENHANCING
COMPARABILITY AND MOBILITY


Reformed Higher Education Structures
-

Bachelors and Masters


83%


50% studying in reformed national progr
a
mme (Continental
Europe)


Doctoral reforms underway


Widespread use of ECTS (75% transfer
-

66% accumulation) and
Diploma Supplement (47%)


European Quality Assurance Guidelines and Register


European and National Qualifications Frameworks


Significant levels of interaction and co
-
operation at European, national
and institutional level

Reforms happening at different speeds in different countries

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


12

QUESTION 1

Europe is undertaking major reform of its
higher education systems to bring them
into line with a changing global
environment.


What commonalities and differences do you
see with the Canadian approach?

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


13

NEW STRUCTURES AND TOOLS


Three cycles


Bachelor Master and
Doctoral


Credit System


Qualifications Frameworks


Quality assurance


Recognition


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


14

FIRST CYCLE


BACHELOR LEVEL


Common criteria 3
-
4 years/180
-
240 credits


Access varies in different countries


Shorter bachelor level more relevant to
(European) labour market, more flexible, more
multidisciplinary


Access to second cycle


Adopted in virtually all fields of study


Traditional long first degree programmes still
offered in some countries in professional fields
(EU directives)


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


15

SECOND CYCLE


MASTER LEVEL


Common criteria


1
-
2 years/60
-
180
credits


Vast majority give access to doctoral level


New trend
-

vertical mobility


Growth of English taught programmes and
European/international university consortia
for double/joint degrees


Boosting global attractiveness



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


16

THIRD CYCLE


DOCTORAL
STUDIES


Reforms currently underway


Emphasis on doctoral schools


European dimension, interface with
industry, interdisciplinarity


New legislative frameworks for joint
doctorates


EUA Council for Doctoral Education


Boosting global competitiveness


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


17

CHALLENGES FROM EUA REPORT


Co
-
existence of old and new structures/practices


Employability questions


Academic vs professional qualifications


Admission to first cycle and articulation between
cycles


Range of institutional attitudes from those who
feel obliged to change to those who push for
change


(Lack of) government support

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


18

TOOLS FOR TRANSPARENCY AND
COMPARABILITY


ECTS

compatible systems for transfer and
accumulation introduced in the majority of
countries

…but still many misunderstandings



European Qualifications Framework


three
cycles
-

credits
-

competences
-

outcomes

…but lack of understanding and knowledge

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


19

TOOLS FOR TRANSPARENCY AND
COMPARABILITY


Lisbon Recognition Convention


vast majority of
countries have ratified


… but procedures still cumbersome in some
countries



Diploma supplement

for transparent and reliable
information and fair academic and professional
recognition introduced in most countries

… but it is not fully understood… or used yet.



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


20

“INTERESTING” DS STATISTICS
FROM EUA


3% of students say that all master
graduates receive the Diploma
Supplement


44% of institutions say all master
graduates receive it


20% of institutions don’t know it


25% of employers don’t know it


38% of academics don’t know it


… and 56% of students don’t know it…..


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


21

QUALITY ASSURANCE


Most countries have implemented a QA
system


Common standards for internal and
external QA and QA agencies


European register of QA agencies


….but a genuine quality culture still to
emerge


www.qrossroads.eu


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


22

CHANGING ERASMUS MOBILITY
PATTERNS



Since 1987 1.7 million students


9 out of 10 HEIs


3.4% of graduates


Target 3 million by 2012, growth of 8%


Average 6.2% but strong variation and imbalances across
countries


EU solutions


increased grants and better recognition


EU High level expert forum to extend reach of mobility


Greater internal mobility for greater understanding and
dialogue or greater educational efficiency and
effectiveness?


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


23

CHALLENGES FOR INTERNATIONAL
CO
-
OPERATION


Transition

phase



new

names,

structures,

content


Shorter

course

duration

and

rigidity

of

curriculum


Shifting

objectives


English

vs

local

language


National

legislation

for

tuition


“the

anglicisation

of

competitive

labour

market

oriented

European

graduate

education?”

(EUA)


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


24

OPPORTUNITIES FOR
INTERNATIONAL CO
-
OPERATION


Mobility encouraged at all levels of study


New tools for new partnerships


Greater institutional commitment


Flexible curricula with mobility windows


Careful choice of partners and programmes


Creative “made to measure” solutions


Individual and institutional gains


International co
-
operation as a competitive
advantage


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


25

DOUBLE AND JOINT DEGREES

Developing the European Dimension


double degrees
-

two institutions award own
degree


clearly defined, straightforward administration,
built in quality


difference in content and workload for two awards
often unclear.


joint degree
-

single document issued by the
institutions involved


issues of legal validity and quality assurance

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


26

ERASMUS MUNDUS


Model for double and joint degrees in Europe


New EU flagship programme since 2004


Promotion of European Joint and Double master
degrees


Attracting talented students from other parts of the
world


103 masters courses funded and some 6000
students and scholars supported so far


New enlarged phase from 2009 to 2013 with

900
million budget

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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QUESTION 2

Europe has developed new degree
structures and tools for comparability
and transparency to promote mobility.


How do you see these changes
impacting on co
-
operation between
Canada and Europe?

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


28

LISBON AGENDA 2000
-
2010


EU heads of state and government
decide to make Europe by 2010:




an advanced knowledge society


with sustainable development, more
and better jobs and greater social
cohesion”


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


29

AMBITIONS OF AN ATTRACTIVE AND
COMPETITIVE EUROPE



Harmonised structures


Increasing use of English


Study abroad opportunities


Consortia offering double and joint degrees


Erasmus Mundus


Competitive fees


Affordable and safe destinations


A European qualification as a gateway to Europe

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


30

THE AMBITIONS: CREATING THE
EUROPEAN HE BRAND

Effective marketing strategy and coherent information policy
required to promote advantages:



Lack of knowledge


Little understanding of qualifications, institutions and
countries


No perception of Europe as a HE destination


Seen as “traditional” rather than “dynamic, innovative”


Diversity of languages and cultures not necessarily an asset


Few universities with high visibility


Lack of information on employment opportunities








ACA survey


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


31

THE AMBITIONS:
“THE MOST FAVOURED
DESTINATION OF STUDENTS AND
SCHOLARS”



Lack of information on international mobility


Eurodata study
-

2003 1.1 million foreign students
-

6% of tertiary population


50% from outside Eurodata region


6% Chinese, 4% Germans, Greeks, French, 2% US


Highest proportion in Switzerland 17%, Austria 13,5%, Belgium 11,2%


Largest countries UK 11.2%, Germany 10.7% and France 10.5%


Less than 2% (Estonia, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and
Turkey


575,000 Eurodata students registered outside region
-

3% of total number


Call for better data in London Communique


Key Lisbon indicator for attractiveness



International student recruitment increasingly viewed by universities as a
means to enhance institutional reputation and to generate income


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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INTERNATIONAL PROMOTION AND
VISIBILITY


Institutional


no overview available as yet


National campaigns


developing brand, websites, events,
media campaigns, information offices, recruitment agents,
market research but very unevenly distributed


European
-

global promotion project funded by EU
-

web
portal


Feasibility study for European information offices, network of
promoters, study on European TNE presence, training, tool
kits, fairs, media campaign, information and promotion
materials


8 European Higher Education Fairs in 7 Asian countries








ACA survey

Greater visibility than 10 years ago but still much to be done


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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Welcome to Study in Europe

www.
study
-
in
-
europe.org,


There are more than four thousand higher education institutions in
Europe, from top
-
level research establishments to small, teaching
-
focused colleges. Europe itself is no less diverse, extending from
the Arctic Circle to the coast of Africa, where tiny principalities sit
side
-
by
-
side with many of the world’s leading economies.


A fascinating destination, but which country should you go to?
Which university should you choose? What do you need before
you leave? What will happen when you arrive? These are just
some of the questions you’re probably asking yourself already.


Study in Europe

is here to help. We provide up
-
to
-
date information
on thirty two European countries
,

their universities and what it
takes to live and study in them.


Use
Study in Europe

to find the university that suits you best. A
well
-
informed decision will make your time abroad even more
valuable.


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


34

SHIFTING STRATEGIES


Internationalising the curriculum, programmes, teaching and
learning strategies


Creating international research focus and collaborations


Attracting international talent


Providing cross border education


Setting up business linkages


Developing commercial contracts


From ad hoc activities to integrated strategies and processes

From bilateral agreements to strategic partnerships

New internationalisation in response to new challenges


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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EUROPE AS A GLOBAL PLAYER


Co
-
operation and competition in the global market
place


External dimension increasingly important


Information and promotion of brand


Partnership with other world regions (policy
dialogue)


Converging models

Bologna as soft model for
domestic reforms

London Conference placed Bologna in a global
setting




CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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QUESTION 3

The EHEA is increasingly taking on a
global dimension.


Is Europe creating new initiatives/soft
standards for the world and t
o what
extent will this impact on Canada as
an international study destination?



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


37

LOOKING TO THE FUTURE


THE
ROAD LESS TRAVELLED


Bologna has put the wheels of change in motion and
commitment to a new vision beyond 2010 is a positive sign


Build on Bologna successes for a more ambitious reform
agenda


European Higher education is ill
-
equipped to face the
changes ahead


it is fragmented, over regulated and under
funded

Emerging issues


Funding and fees, public and private roles of education,
greater autonomy and accountability, regulation and
competition, organisational governance and professional
management





CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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PRESSURES TO MODERNISE


Increase mobility within and from outside Europe


Improve academic quality / be more responsive to labour
market providing graduates with more employable skills


Provide compatible curricula across Europe / maintain
cultural diversity



Be more local, regional, European, global


Be more competitive / be more socially inclusive


Increase & widen participation


Concentrate on research / respond to regional needs



and do all of above with decreasing public funding...







European University Association

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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LOOKING TO THE FUTURE


THE
FUNDING DEBATE

The debates


Who pays for higher education?


Average student fees in EU


Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greece,
Ireland, Poland

0


Portugal, France, Hungary, Germany

350
-
500


Belgium, Spain, Austria, Italy

800
-
1000


Netherlands

1500


UK £3000


Differential fees and support systems


Alternative funding models


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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LOOKING TO THE FUTURE


FURTHER DEBATES

The debates


Who drives curricular reform?


Universities or stakeholders?


Who governs the institutions?


Issues of autonomy and accountability


Who has access to higher education?


Social dimension, lifelong learning, admissions


Differentiation of institutions


What role for universities?


Balancing tensions


attractive and competitive vs socially
responsible and democratic








Building the Europe of Knowledge


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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THE GLOBAL DIMENSION


“One of the greatest strengths of the
Bologna Process is that governments have
joined forces with institutions of higher
education and their national and European
associations. A successful Global
Dimension Strategy must be based on the
same model.”


Global Dimension Strategy, London Ministerial Meeting 2007

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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WORDS OF WARNING

FROM THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION


“Within the next 20 years, Europe’s economic paradigm will
change fundamentally. Its manufacturing base will continue
to shrink, future growth and social welfare will rely
increasingly on knowledge
-
intensive industries and
services, and ever more jobs will require a higher education
qualification. Yet European universities, motors of the new,
knowledge
-
based paradigm, are not in a position to deliver
their full potential contribution to the re
-
launched Lisbon
strategy.”



Mobilising the brainpower of Europe: enabling universities to make
their full contribution to the Lisbon Strategy, European
Commission 2005

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


43

SOME STARK STATISTICS


21% of working age population attaining tertiary
education (US 38%)


6 million (18
-
24 year olds) have left education
prematurely


to reach 10% benchmark, 2 million
need to continue


1.1% GDP on HE (US 2.7%)


need to spend
extra

150 billion per year to match US


1.9% GDP on research (US 3%)


higher
research investment from industry


CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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NEW WAYS FORWARD FOR
EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES


Strategic international inter
-
university
alliances


Stronger
collaboration
with employers for
curriculum reform and design


Closer collaboration with industry for research


Greater

investment
in human resources and
technology


Commitment

to lifelong learning


Greater institutional
autonomy
,
openness

and
flexibility



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


45

A NEW POLICY APPROACH FOR
BOLOGNA


Funded Bologna:

balance between public, business and
private


Cyber Bologna
: investment paramount for access to
information


Quality Bologna
: crucial for mobility and credit transfer


Communicating Bologna
; information and promotion of the
brand


Lifelong Bologna
: incentivised and promoted, more part time
study


Skilled Bologna
: wider access for people with low skills
levels


Virtual Bologna
: virtual environments for teaching and
research beyond borders of university or country

Brenda Gourley, Vice Chancellor Open University, London 2007



CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


46

BOLOGNA PROCESS 2009


The next Ministerial Conference of the Bologna
Process will be hosted by the Benelux countries
on 28
-
29 April 2009 in Leuven and Louvain
-
la
-
Neuve (Belgium).



www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/

CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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LOOKING TO THE FUTURE


THE ROAD
LESS TRAVELLED


Internationalisation is the road that in 2020
will “have made all the difference.”









CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008


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QUESTION 4



The 2009 Ministerial Meeting will look
forward to the post 2010 scenario and a
new process for change.


Should this be a pan
-
European effort or
should universities be left to develop on
their own? Does Canada have examples
of best practice for Europe?