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BIOLOGY VOCAB CHS 8
-
9 Textbook Nowicki


Mr. Galloway



BIOLOGY VOCAB CHS 8
-
9

Textbook Nowicki



B
IOLOGY CH
8

DNA TO PROTEINS

VOCAB


1.

A
nticodon

=

set

of

three

nucleotides

in

a

tRNA

molecule

that

binds

to

a

complementary
mRNA

codon

during

translation.


2.

B
acteriophage

=

virus

that

infects

bacteria.


3.

B
ase
-
pairing
-
rules

=

rule

that

describes

how

nucleotides

form

bonds

in

DNA;

adenine

(A)

always
bonds

with

thymine

(D,

and

guanine

(G)

always

bonds

with

cytosine

(C)
.


4.

C
entral
-
dogma

=

theory

that

states

that,

in

cells,

information
only

flows

from

DNA

to

RNA

to
proteins.


5.

C
odon

=

sequence

of

three

nucleotides

that

codes

for

one

amino

acid.


6.

DNA
-
polymerase

=

enzyme

that

makes

bonds

between

nucleotides,

forming

an

identical

strand

of

DNA

during

replication.


7.

D
ouble
-

helix

=

model

that

compares

the

structure

of

a

DNA

molecule,

in

which
two

strands
wind

around

one

another,

to

that

of

a

twisted

ladder.


8.

E
xon

=
sequence

of

DNA

that

codes

information

for

protein

synthesis.


9.

F
rameshift
-
mutation
=
mutation

that

involves

the

insertion

or

deletion

of

a

nucleotide

in

the

DNA

sequence.


10.

I
ntron

=

segment

of

a

gene

that

does

not

code

for

an

amino

acid


11.

M
essenger

RNA
-
(
mRNA
)

=

form

of

RNA

that

carries

genetic

information

from

the

nucleus

to

the
cytoplasm,

where

it

serves

as

a

template

for

protein

synthesis.


12.

M
utagen

=

agent

that

can

induce

or

increase

the

frequency

of

mutation

in

organisms.


13.

M
utation

=

change

in

the

DNA

sequence.


14.

N
ucleotide

=

monomer

that

forms

DNA

and

has

a

phosphate

group,

a

sugar,

and

a
nitrogen
-
containing

base.


15.

O
peron

=

section

of

DNA

that

contains

all

of

the

code

to

begin

transcription,

regulate
transcription,

and

build

a

protein;

includes

a

promotor,

regulatory

gene,

and
structural

gene


16.

Point
-

mutation

=

mutation

that

involves

a

substitution
of

only

one

nucleotide.


17.

P
romoter

=

section

of

DNA

to

which RNA

polymerase

binds,

starting

the

transcription
of
mRNA.


18.

R
eplication

=
process

by

which

DNA

is

copied.




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BIOLOGY VOCAB CHS 8
-
9 Textbook Nowicki


Mr. Galloway





19.

R
ibosomal
-
RNA
-
(rRNA)

=

RNA

that

is

in

the

ribosome

and

guides

the

translation

of

mRNA

into

a

protein;

also

used

as

a

molecular

clock.


20.

RNA

=

nucleic

acid

molecule

that

allows

for

the

transmission

of

genetic

information
and

protein

synthesis.


21.

RNA
-
polymerase

=

enzyme

that

catalyzes

the

synthesis

of

a

complementary

strand

of

RNA

from

a

DNA

template.


22.

S
tart
-
codon

=
codon

that

signals

to

ribosomes

to

begin

translation;

codes

for

the

first

amino
acid

in

a

protein.


23.

S
top
-
codon

=

codon

that

signals

to

ribosomes

to

stop

translation.



24.

T
ranscription

=

process

of

copying

a

nucleotide

sequence

of

DNA

to

form

a

complementary
strand

of

mRNA.


25.

T
ransfer
-
R
NA
-
(tRNA)

=

form

of

RNA

that

brings

amino

acids

to

ribosomes

during

protein

synthesis.


26.

T
ranslation

=

process

by

which

mRNA

is

decoded

and

a

protein
is

produced.


BIOLOGY CH 9 BIOTECH VOCAB


1.

B
ioinformatics

=

use

of

computer
databases

to

organize

and

analyze

biological

data.


2.

C
lone

=

genetically

identical

copy

of

a

single

gene

or

an

entire

organism.


3.

DNA
-
fingerprint

=

unique

sequence

of

DNA

base

pairs

that

can

be

used

to

identify

a

person

at
the

molecular

level.


4.

DNA
-
microarray

=

research

tool

used

to

study

gene

expression.


5.

G
el
-
electrophoresis

=

method
of

separating
various

lengths

of

DNA

strands

by

applying

an

electrical
current

to

a

gel.



6.

G
ene
-
knockout

=
genetic

manipulation

in

which

one

or

more

of

an

organism's

genes

are
prevented
from

being

expressed.


7.

G
ene
-
sequencing

=
process

of

determining

the

order

of

DNA

nucleotides

in

genes

and

genomes.


8.

G
ene
-
therapy

=

procedure

to

treat

a

disease

in

which

a

defective

or

missing

gene

is

replaced
or

a

new

gene

is

inserted

into

a

patient's

genome.


9.

G
enetic
-
engineering

=
process

of

changing

an

organism's

DNA

to

give

the

organism

new

traits.





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BIOLOGY VOCAB CHS 8
-
9 Textbook Nowicki


Mr. Galloway



10.

G
enetic
-
screening

=

process

of

testing

DNA

to

determine

the

chance

a

person

has,

or

might

pass
on,

a

genetic

disorder.


11.

G
enomics

=

study

and

comparison

of

genomes

within

a

single

species

or

among

different
species.


12.

Human
-
Genome
-
Project

=

project

whose

goal

is

to

map,

sequence,

and

identify

all

of

the

genes

in

the
human

genome.


13.

P
lasmid

=

circular

piece

of

genetic

material

found

in

bacteria

that

can

replicate

separately
from

the

DNA

of

the

main

chromosome.


14.

P
olymerase
-
chain
-
reaction
-
(PCR)

=

method

for

increasing

the

quantity

of

DNA

by

separating

it

into

two

strands
and

adding

primers

and

enzymes.


15.

P
rimer

=

short

segment

of

DNA

that

initiates

replication

by

DNA

polymerase.


16.

P
roteomics

=

study

and

comparison

of

all

the

proteins

produced
by

an

organism's

genome.


17.

R
ecombinant
-
DNA

=

genetically

engineered

DNA

that

contains

genes

from

more

than

one

organism
or

species.


18.

R
estriction
-
enzyme

=
enzyme

that

cuts

DNA

molecules

at

specific

nucleotide

sequences.


19.

R
estriction
-
map

=

diagram

that

shows

the

lengths

of

fragments

between

restriction

sites

in

the
strand

of

DNA.


20.

T
ransgenic

=
organism

whose

genome

has

been

altered

to

contain

one

or

more

genes

from
another

organism

or

species.