WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Concepts, Planning, and Design Guide

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ibm.com/redbooks
IBM
®
WebSphere
®

Front cover
WebSphere Application
Server V8.5 Concepts,
Planning, and Design Guide
Jan Bajerski
Davide Barillari
Libor Cada
Susan Hanson
Guo Liang Huang
Rispna Jain
Shishir Narain
Jennifer Ricciuti
Christian Steege
Discusses end-to-end planning for
WebSphere implementations
Defines WebSphere concepts and
best practices
Addresses distributed and
z/OS platforms
International Technical Support Organization
WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Concepts,
Planning, and Design Guide
April 2012
Draft Document for Review May 11, 2012 7:23 am
8022edno.fm
SG24-8022-00
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2012. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
8022edno.fm
Draft Document for Review May 11, 2012 7:23 am
First Edition (April 2012)
This edition applies to Version 8.5 of IBM WebSphere Application Server.
This document was created or updated on May 11, 2012.
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on
page xvii.
Contact an IBM Software Services Sales Specialist
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WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Concepts, Planning, and Design Guide
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
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Contents
Contact an IBM Software Services Sales Specialist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
The team who wrote this book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii
Stay connected to IBM Redbooks publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii
Chapter 1. Introduction to WebSphere Application Server V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Application server infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 WebSphere Application Server—Express V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.2 WebSphere Application Server V8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.3 WebSphere Application Server for Developers V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.4 WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.5 WebSphere Application Server for z/OS V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.6 Packaging summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2 Evolving Java application development standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 Comprehensive programming model support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 Enhanced management capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.5 Operational efficiency and intelligent management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6 Security management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7 Simplified interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.7.1 Web services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.7.2 Messaging, connectivity, and transaction management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.7.3 Authentication and authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.7.4 Application client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8 Advanced tooling and extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8.1 Application development and deployment tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8.2 WebSphere Customization Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.8.3 Web 2.0 and Mobile Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.9 Related products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.9.1 WebSphere Application Server Community Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.9.2 WebSphere eXtreme Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.9.3 Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.10 New features and capabilities in WebSphere Application Server V8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.10.1 Intelligent management and enhanced resiliency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.10.2 Light-weight, composable application server with the Liberty profile . . . . . . . . . 17
1.10.3 Improved operations, security, control, and integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.10.4 Integrated tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.10.5 Improved application development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Chapter 2. Concepts of WebSphere Application Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1 Core concepts of WebSphere Application Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.1 Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.2 Containers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.3 Application servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
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2.1.4 Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.1.5 Nodes, node agents, and node groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.1.6 Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.1.7 Deployment manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.2 Additional concepts for WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.2.1 Administrative agent in a stand-alone application server environment. . . . . . . . . 37
2.2.2 Job manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.2.3 Web servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.4 Web server plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.2.5 Proxy servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2.6 Generic servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2.7 The centralized installation manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.8 Intelligent runtime provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.2.9 Intelligent Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.2.10 WebSphere Batch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.3 Server configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.3.1 Single cell configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.3.2 Flexible management configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.4 Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.4.1 Security types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.4.2 Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.5 Service integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.5.1 Default messaging provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.5.2 Service integration bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.5.3 Web services gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.6 Clusters and high availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.6.1 Vertical cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.6.2 Horizontal cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.6.3 Mixed cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.6.4 Mixed-node versions in a cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.6.5 Dynamic cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.6.6 Cluster workload management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.6.7 High availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.6.8 Core groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.7 Run times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.7.1 Distributed platforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.7.2 z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Chapter 3. Integration with other products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1 IBM Tivoli Access Manager for e-business. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.1.1 Features of Tivoli Access Manager for e-business. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.1.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.2 IBM Tivoli Directory Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.2.1 Features of Tivoli Directory Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.2.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.2.3 Security, networking, and topology considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.3 IBM WebSphere MQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.1 Features of IBM WebSphere MQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.3 Connecting WebSphere Application Server to WebSphere MQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.4 IBM WebSphere Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3.4.1 Features of IBM WebSphere Adapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
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3.4.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.5 IBM WebSphere DataPower Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.5.1 DataPower appliance models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.5.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.6 IBM DB2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.6.1 Features of IBM DB2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.6.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.7 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.7.1 Features of ITCAM for WebSphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.7.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.7.3 Architecture of ITCAM for WebSphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.8 IBM WebSphere Portal Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.8.1 Features of WebSphere Portal Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.8.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.9 IBM Tivoli Workload Scheduler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.9.1 Features of Tivoli Workload Scheduler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.9.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.10 IBM WebSphere eXtreme Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.10.1 Features of WebSphere eXtreme Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.10.2 Integration with WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Chapter 4. An overview of the Liberty profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.1 Introduction to the Liberty profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.1.1 The Liberty profile architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.1.2 The Liberty profile feature management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.2 Installing the Liberty profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.3 Configuring the Liberty profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.3.1 Liberty profile configuration characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.3.2 Simplified configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.3.3 Flexible configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.3.4 Dynamic configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.4 Administering the Liberty profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.4.1 Administering the Liberty profile configuration files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.4.2 Configuring the Liberty profile with a web server plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.4.3 Capturing the debug information for a Liberty profile server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.4.4 Packaging a Liberty profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.4.5 Administering a Liberty profile on z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.5 Developing and deploying a Liberty profile application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.6 The Liberty profile application security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.7 The Liberty profile deployment topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.7.1 Example topology 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4.7.2 Example topology 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.7.3 Example topology 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.7.4 Example topology 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.7.5 Example topology 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.8 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Chapter 5. Intelligent Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.1 Introduction to Intelligent Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.2 Virtualization, autonomic, and cloud computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5.2.1 Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5.2.2 Autonomic computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.2.3 Cloud computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
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5.3 Intelligent routing and dynamic operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.3.1 Key components of dynamic operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.3.2 Autonomic managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.4 Dynamic workload management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.4.1 Request flow prioritization using service policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.4.2 Enabling dynamic clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.5 Health management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.5.1 Health policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
5.5.2 Health controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
5.5.3 Planning for health monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.6 Application edition management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
5.6.1 Key features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
5.6.2 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
5.6.3 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.6.4 Maintenance modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.7 Performance management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.7.1 Workload management with dynamic clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.7.2 Overload protection monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.8 Planning for hosting dynamic operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
5.8.1 Topology considerations for the on demand router. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
5.8.2 Monitoring dynamic operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Chapter 6. WebSphere Batch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.1 Overview of WebSphere Batch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
6.1.1 WebSphere Batch key features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
6.1.2 Main concepts of batch processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
6.1.3 Application server run time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
6.2 WebSphere Batch programming models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
6.2.1 Transactional batch programming model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
6.2.2 Compute-intensive programming model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
6.3 WebSphere Batch components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.3.1 Job scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.3.2 Batch container. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
6.3.3 xJCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
6.3.4 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.3.5 Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6.3.6 Batch database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.3.7 Batch toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.4 Batch workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
6.5 New features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 for WebSphere Batch. . . . . . . 152
6.5.1 Parallel batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.5.2 Enterprise integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
6.5.3 Cobol support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
6.5.4 CommandRunner utility job step. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Chapter 7. Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
7.1 Infrastructure planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
7.2 Environment planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
7.3 Design considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
7.3.1 Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
7.3.2 High availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
7.3.3 Load balancing and failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
7.3.4 Caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
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7.3.5 Infrastructures using a Liberty profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
7.4 Sizing the infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
7.4.1 Sizing static infrastructures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
7.4.2 Sizing dynamic infrastructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
7.5 Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
7.5.1 Environment analysis for monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
7.5.2 Performance and fault tolerance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.5.3 Alerting and problem resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.5.4 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
7.6 Backup and recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
7.6.1 Risk analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
7.6.2 Recovery strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
7.6.3 Backup plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.6.4 Recovery plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.6.5 Update and test process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.7 Cloud infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.7.1 Public cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.7.2 Private cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Chapter 8. Topologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
8.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
8.1.1 Load balancers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
8.1.2 Reverse proxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
8.1.3 Domain and protocol firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
8.1.4 Web servers and WebSphere Application Server plug-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
8.1.5 On demand routers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
8.1.6 Application servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
8.1.7 Directory and security services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
8.1.8 Messaging infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
8.1.9 Data layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
8.2 Topology selection criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
8.2.1 Simplicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
8.2.2 High availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
8.2.3 Disaster recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
8.2.4 Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
8.2.5 Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
8.2.6 Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
8.2.7 Manageability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
8.2.8 Application deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
8.2.9 Summary of topology selection criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
8.3 Topologies in detail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
8.3.1 Stand-alone server topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
8.3.2 Multiple stand-alone servers topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
8.3.3 Liberty profiles managed by a job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
8.3.4 Vertical scaling topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
8.3.5 Horizontal scaling topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
8.3.6 Horizontal scaling topology with an IP sprayer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.3.7 Reverse proxy topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.3.8 Topology with redundancy of multiple components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
8.3.9 Heterogeneous cell topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.3.10 Multi-cell topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.3.11 Advanced topology using an administrative agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
8.3.12 Multi-cell star topology using Intelligent Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
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8.3.13 Advanced topology using a job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Chapter 9. Installation planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
9.1 Installation features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
9.2 Selecting a topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
9.3 Selecting hardware and operating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
9.4 Planning for disk space and directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
9.5 Naming conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
9.6 IBM Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
9.6.1 Benefits of Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
9.6.2 Installation Manager repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
9.7 Planning for WebSphere Application Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
9.7.1 File systems and directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
9.7.2 Single installation or multiple installations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
9.7.3 Installation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
9.7.4 Installing updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
9.7.5 Profile creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
9.7.6 Naming convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
9.7.7 TCP/IP port assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
9.7.8 Security considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
9.7.9 IBM Support Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
9.8 Planning for the Liberty profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
9.9 WebSphere Customization Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
9.10 Planning for Edge Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
9.10.1 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
9.10.2 Configuring the Load Balancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
9.10.3 Configuring the Caching Proxy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
9.11 Planning for the DMZ secure proxy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
9.12 Planning for the HTTP server and plug-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
9.12.1 Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
9.12.2 Stand-alone server environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
9.12.3 Distributed server environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
9.13 IBM Support Assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
9.14 Installation checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
9.15 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Chapter 10. Performance, scalability, and high availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
10.1 Performance, scalability, and high availability features
in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
10.1.1 Default garbage policy gencon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
10.1.2 JVM garbage policy: Balanced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
10.1.3 JVM garbage policy: Metronome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
10.1.4 High Performance Extensible Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
10.1.5 Disabling WebSphere MQ functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
10.1.6 JPA L2 cache provided by the dynamic cache provider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
10.1.7 Collecting Java dumps and core files with the administrative console . . . . . . . 283
10.1.8 Enabling request-level granularity of reliability, availability, and serviceability . 284
10.1.9 Resource workload routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
10.1.10 External high availability framework for service integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
10.1.11 High availability for a WebSphere MQ link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
10.2 Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
10.2.1 Scaling overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
10.2.2 Scaling the infrastructure components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
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10.3 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
10.3.1 Performance considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
10.3.2 Application design issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
10.3.3 Requirements understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
10.3.4 Tips for setting up the test environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
10.3.5 Load factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
10.3.6 Tuning approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
10.3.7 Production system tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
10.3.8 Application tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
10.3.9 WebSphere environment tuning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
10.3.10 System tuning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
10.4 WebSphere Application Server performance tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
10.4.1 WebSphere Performance Monitoring Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
10.4.2 IBM Tivoli Performance Viewer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
10.4.3 WebSphere Application Server performance advisors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
10.4.4 Request metrics in WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
10.4.5 IBM Monitoring and Diagnostic tools for Java. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
10.4.6 IBM Support Assistant Data Collector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
10.4.7 IBM HTTP Server monitoring page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
10.5 Workload management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
10.5.1 HTTP servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
10.5.2 DMZ proxy servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
10.5.3 Application servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
10.5.4 Clustering application servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
10.5.5 Dynamic clusters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
10.5.6 Dynamic application placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
10.5.7 On demand router. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
10.5.8 Dynamic workload management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
10.5.9 Scheduling tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
10.6 High availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
10.6.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
10.6.2 Hardware high availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
10.6.3 Process high availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
10.6.4 Data availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
10.6.5 Clustering and failover techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
10.6.6 Maintainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
10.6.7 WebSphere Application Server high availability features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
10.7 Caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
10.7.1 Edge caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
10.7.2 Dynamic caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
10.7.3 Data caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
10.8 Session management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
10.8.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
10.8.2 Session support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
10.9 Data replication service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
10.10 Highly available deployment manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
10.10.1 High availability of the deployment manager component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
10.11 Whole-system Analysis of Idle Time Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
10.11.1 Performance Analysis of Idle Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
10.12 Checklist for performance, scalability, and high availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
10.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Chapter 11. Application development and deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
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11.1 Application development and deployment features in WebSphere Application Server
V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
11.2 Recently supported programming models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
11.2.1 Service Component Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
11.2.2 OSGi applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
11.2.3 Business-level applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
11.2.4 Session Initiation Protocol applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
11.2.5 Communications enabled applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
11.3 End-to-end lifecycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
11.4 Development and deployment tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
11.4.1 IBM Assembly and Deploy Tools for WebSphere Administration. . . . . . . . . . . 351
11.4.2 WebSphere Application Server Developer Tools for Eclipse, V8.5. . . . . . . . . . 351
11.4.3 Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
11.4.4 Monitored directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
11.4.5 Which tools to use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
11.5 Naming conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
11.5.1 Naming for applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
11.5.2 Naming for resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
11.5.3 Naming resources in the Liberty profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
11.6 Source code management and collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
11.6.1 IBM Rational ClearCase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
11.6.2 Concurrent Versions System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
11.6.3 Subversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
11.6.4 Rational Team Concert. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
11.6.5 Choosing the right tools to use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
11.7 Automated build process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
11.8 Automated deployment process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
11.9 Automated functional tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
11.10 Test environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
11.10.1 Development environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
11.10.2 Integration test environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
11.10.3 System test environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
11.10.4 Acceptance test environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
11.11 Managing application configuration settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
11.11.1 Classifying configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
11.11.2 Managing the configuration settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
11.12 Planning for application upgrades in production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
11.13 Mapping applications to application servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
11.14 Planning checklist for applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
11.15 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Chapter 12. System management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
12.1 System management features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . 378
12.2 Administrative security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
12.3 Administration facilities of WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
12.3.1 The administrative console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
12.3.2 WebSphere scripting client (wsadmin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
12.3.3 Task automation with Ant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
12.3.4 Administrative programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
12.3.5 Command-line tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
12.3.6 Administrative agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
12.3.7 Job manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
12.3.8 Monitored directory deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
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12.4 Automation planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
12.5 Configuration planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
12.5.1 Configuration repository location and synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
12.5.2 Configuring application and application server start behaviors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
12.5.3 Custom application configuration templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
12.5.4 Planning for resource scope use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
12.6 Repository checkpoints service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
12.7 Change management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
12.7.1 Application update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
12.7.2 Changes in topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
12.7.3 Centralized installation manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
12.8 Serviceability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
12.8.1 Log and traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
12.8.2 Fix management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
12.8.3 Backing up and restoring the configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
12.8.4 MustGather documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
12.8.5 IBM Support Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
12.8.6 WebSphere Application Server Information Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
12.9 Cross Component Trace Supported. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
12.10 Planning checklist for system management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Chapter 13. Messaging and service integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
13.1 Messaging overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
13.2 Service integration technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
13.2.1 Service integration buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
13.2.2 Bus members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
13.2.3 Messaging engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
13.2.4 Messaging provider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
13.2.5 Other service integration concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
13.3 Messaging and service integration features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 418
13.4 Enhanced resiliency for the service integration bus in V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
13.5 Messaging options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
13.5.1 Messaging provider standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
13.5.2 Styles of messaging in applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
13.5.3 Default messaging provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
13.5.4 WebSphere MQ messaging provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
13.5.5 Third-party messaging provider (generic JMS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
13.5.6 Application design for retrieving messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
13.6 Messaging topologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
13.6.1 One bus, one bus member (single server) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
13.6.2 One bus, one bus member (a cluster). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
13.6.3 One bus, multiple bus members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
13.6.4 Multiple buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
13.6.5 Connecting to WebSphere MQ on z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
13.7 Security and reliability of messaging features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
13.7.1 Planning for security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
13.7.2 Planning for high availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
13.7.3 Planning for reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
13.8 Planning checklist for messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Chapter 14. Web services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
14.1 Overview of web services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
14.2 Considerations when using web services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
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14.2.1 Business issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
14.2.2 Technical issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
14.3 Web services architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
14.3.1 Components of the architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
14.3.2 How to use this architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
14.4 Support for web services in WebSphere Application Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
14.4.1 Supported standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
14.4.2 Service integration bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
14.4.3 UDDI registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
14.4.4 Web services gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
14.4.5 Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
14.4.6 Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
14.5 RESTful web services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
14.5.1 Ajax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
14.5.2 Key Ajax technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
14.5.3 Support for RESTful web services in WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . 462
14.6 Planning checklist for web services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
14.7 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Chapter 15. Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
15.1 Security features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
15.1.1 Audit changes in configuration repository. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
15.1.2 SAML Web SSO Post binding profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
15.1.3 Security standards support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
15.2 Security in WebSphere Application Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
15.3 Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
15.3.1 Lightweight Third-Party Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
15.3.2 Kerberos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
15.3.3 Rivest, Shadler, and Adleman token authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
15.3.4 Single sign-on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
15.3.5 Simple and Protected GSSAPI Negotiation Mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
15.3.6 Java Authentication and Authorization Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
15.3.7 Trust associations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
15.3.8 Web Services Security SAML Token Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
15.4 User registries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
15.4.1 Local operating system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
15.4.2 Stand-alone Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
15.4.3 Custom registry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
15.4.4 Federated repository. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
15.5 User roles in WebSphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
15.6 Authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
15.6.1 Administrative security roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
15.6.2 Application security roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
15.7 Internal and external trusted relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
15.7.1 Secure communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
15.7.2 SSL in cell management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
15.7.3 External trusted relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
15.8 Security trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
15.9 Auditing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
15.10 Securing the Liberty profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
15.10.1 SSL configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
15.10.2 Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
15.10.3 Authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
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15.11 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Chapter 16. WebSphere Application Server for z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
16.1 WebSphere Application Server structure on z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
16.1.1 Value of WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
16.1.2 Benefits of using WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
16.1.3 Common concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
16.1.4 The location service daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
16.1.5 Structure of an application server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
16.1.6 Runtime processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
16.1.7 Workload management for WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. . . . . . . . 504
16.1.8 WebSphere Application Server on z/OS and 64-bit mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
16.1.9 XCF support for WebSphere HA manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
16.1.10 z/OS Fast Response Cache Accelerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
16.1.11 Thread Hang Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
16.2 Functions in WebSphere Application Server for z/OS V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
16.2.1 WebSphere optimized local adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
16.2.2 Resource workload routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
16.2.3 High Performance Extensible Logging and Cross Component Trace. . . . . . . . 520
16.2.4 Distributed identity mapping using SAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
16.3 Installing WebSphere Application Server for z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
16.3.1 Installation overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
16.3.2 Installation considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
16.3.3 Function modification identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
16.3.4 Install repositories with SMP/E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
16.3.5 Copy repositories from media (DVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
16.3.6 Creating a product image with Installation Manager for z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
16.3.7 Customization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
16.4 System programmer considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
16.4.1 WebSphere Application Server settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
16.4.2 Java virtual machine (JVM) settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
16.4.3 Basic WLM classifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
16.4.4 Address space identifier reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
16.4.5 Deprecated features WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
16.4.6 Jacl stabilized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
16.4.7 Application profiling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
16.5 Planning checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
16.6 Intelligent Management and WebSphere Batch on z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
16.6.1 Intelligent Management on z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
16.6.2 WebSphere Batch on z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
16.7 The Liberty profile on z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
16.7.1 Architecture of Liberty profile on z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
16.7.2 Unique features of the Liberty profile on z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
16.8 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
Chapter 17. Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
17.1 Migration features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
17.1.1 Configuration Migration Management Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
17.1.2 Cross platform migrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
17.1.3 Enhanced z/OS Migration Management Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
17.2 Migration overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
17.3 Migration plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
17.4 Application development migration considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
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17.5 Infrastructure migration considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
17.5.1 Coexistence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
17.5.2 Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
17.5.3 Mixed-version-cell support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
17.5.4 Configuration Migration Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
17.5.5 Properties files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
17.5.6 Product configuration migration scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
17.5.7 Scripts migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
17.6 Migration considerations for WebSphere Application Server for z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . 556
17.6.1 Migration and coexistence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
17.6.2 General considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
17.6.3 Overview of the migration process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
17.6.4 z/OS Migration Management Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
17.6.5 Migration Management Tool script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
17.6.6 Migration jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
17.6.7 Migration considerations for 64-bit mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Appendix A. Sample topology walkthrough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
Topology review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
Sample topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Installing Load Balancer (Server A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Installing the HTTP servers (Servers B and C). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Creating a deployment manager (Server D). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Creating the application servers (Servers D and E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Enabling the WebSphere configuration service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Deploying the applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Configuring security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Testing the topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
Appendix B. Sample topology using the job manager and a Liberty profile. . . . . . . 585
Installing the HTTP server on Server A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
Installing the WebSphere job manager on Server B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Installing the Liberty profiles, servers, and applications on servers B, C, and D . . . . . . . . 588
Install a Java Runtime Environment on Servers B, C, and D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Create a compressed file that contains the servers and applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Deploy the Liberty profiles using the job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Generating a common plug-in configuration for the Liberty profiles and deploying it to the HTTP
server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Appendix C. Additional material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Locating the Web material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Using the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Downloading and extracting the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
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Preface
This IBM® Redbooks® publication provides information about the concepts, planning, and
design of IBM WebSphere® Application Server V8.5 environments. The target audience of
this book is IT architects and consultants who want more information about the planning and
designing of application-serving environments, from small to large, and complex
implementations.
This book addresses the packaging and features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 and
highlights the most common implementation topologies. It provides information about
planning for specific tasks and components that conform to the WebSphere Application
Server environment.
Also in this book are planning guidelines for Websphere Application Server V8.5 and
Websphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5 on distributed platforms and for
WebSphere Application Server for z/OS® V8.5. This book contains information about
migration considerations when moving from previous releases.
The team who wrote this book
This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center.
Figure 1 Left to right: Jan, Libor, Jennifer, Shishir, Christian, Susan, Margaret, Leo, Rispna, and Davide
Jan Bajerski is WebSphere Connectivity IT Specialist in Software Group Community of
Practice in CEE region and has been working in IT Industry for 11 years. Previously he
worked in IBM Software Services for WebSphere in Poland, supporting customers in
implementing solution using WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere MQ and
WebSphere Message Broker. He has BSc degree from Warsaw University of Technology
(Poland).
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Davide Barillari is a Certified IT Specialist working for IBM Global Technology Services® in
Italy. He joined IBM in 1996 and worked 3 years with IBM Education, as z/OS instructor. He
has 12 years of experience in the IBM Technical Support, with a deep knowledge of zSeries®
architecture and his skill is covering also distributed environments. His main areas of
expertise are infrastructure design, implementation, maintenance and debugging of the
WebSphere environment. Davide is an IBM Certified Solution Developer as well an IBM
Certified System Administrator for WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Process
Server and SOA Solutions. Since 2011, he is a Certified Solution Architect for Cloud
Computing, is accredited at the Senior level in the Product Services Profession, and is also
Certified as Level 1 experienced IT Specialist by IBM Profession Office AITS. Davide is
currently providing consulting services at customer sites in the banking sector on WebSphere
Application Server for z/OS.
Libor Cada is an IT Specialist working in Integrated Delivery Center SSO, in Brno, Czech
Republic. He has 8 years of experience in the IT and banking industries on mainframe
System z® and zLinux environments. He previously held the position of z/OS database and
data communication (DB/DC) systems programmer for CICS®, DB2®, WMQ, and IMS™
products. He currently supports clients from multiple geographies in his role of WebSphere
Application Server and z/OS certified System Programmer.
Susan Hanson is a member of the WebSphere Application Server foundation development
team. She has 22 years of experience in developing and delivering IBM software products
across the WebSphere and Tivoli® brands. Her current focus products are WebSphere
Application Server, WebSphere Virtual Enterprise and WebSphere eXtreme Scale with focus
areas in release management, project management, and development process
transformation. She also works part-time in the ITSO Redbooks organization as a project
leader focused on the Growth Market Unit (GMU) areas and is part of the ITSO strategy team
focused on Industries and GMU enablement. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer
Science from East Carolina University and a Master's degree in Computer Information
Systems from The University of Phoenix. She is based in Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina and is temporarily working and residing in Shanghai, China.
Guo Liang Huang is an experienced technical support engineer working for IBM WebSphere
AIM group in the China Lab. He has 5 years of expertise in supporting IBM WebSphere
Process Server. He has over 11 years experience in developing, testing, and supporting
software products. Guoliang holds bachelor degrees in Computer Science from Central South
University of China. Guoliang also has expertise in SOA.
Rispna Jain is a Technical Software Deployment Manager for the WebSphere suite of
products in IBM Global Technology Services and works with clients in North America. She
has seven years of experience on WebSphere Application Server product development at
IBM Software Group in various roles such as development, Level 3 support and test. Rispna
has also been a technical speaker for WebSphere Application Server related topics at various
WebSphere conferences. She is an IBM Certified SOA associate and holds a Master of
Technology degree in Computer Science.
Shishir Narain is an Open Group certified Master IT Specialist having deep skills in IBM
middleware products. He works in IBM Software Services for WebSphere at India Software
Lab, Gurgaon. He has 13 years of experience with multiple clients in developing solutions. He
has led several end-to-end IT implementations based on SOA. He holds a Master of
Technology degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.
Jennifer Ricciuti is a Course Developer and Instructor in WebSphere Education. She has 15
years of experience in developing and delivering education courses on various WebSphere
products, including WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Process Server, WebSphere
eXtreme Scale, and IBM Business Process Manager Advanced. Her areas of expertise
Preface
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include course design, development, and delivery. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in
Computer Science from Point Park University. She works and resides in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.
Christian Steege is an IT Architect within IBM Software Group Services for WebSphere in
Zurich, Switzerland. He has more than 10 years experience in designing infrastructures and
applications for IBM WebSphere Application Server, IBM WebSphere Business Process
Management, IBM WebSphere Portal and IBM WebSphere MQ. He implemented many of
these infrastructures and applications at variety of Swiss IBM Customers. Christian holds a
Master degree in Information Management from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Margaret Ticknor, Carla Sadtler,Tamikia Barrow, Deana Coble, Linda Robinson, Stephen
Smith and Debbie Willmschen,
International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center
Erik Altman, Donald C. Bagwell, Soloman J Barghouthi, Michael Cheng, Eric M Covener,
Dana Duffield, David Follis, Jeremy Hughes, Chunlong Liang, Jeff Mierzejewski, Bill
O’Donnell, Gary Picher, Brain Pulito, Sajan Sankaran, Keith B Smith, Christopher Vignola
IBM US
Alasdair Nottingham
IBM UK
Yee-Kang Chang, King Lam, Ilene Seelemann, Sam Wong, Felix Wong,
IBM Canada
Lohitashwa Thyagaraj
IBM India
The team who created WebSphere Application Server V6.1: Planning and Design,
SG24-7305
The team who created WebSphere Application Server V7: Concepts, Planning and Design,
SG24-7708
The team who created IBM WebSphere Application Server V8 Concepts, Planning, and
Design Guide, SG24-7957
Now you can become a published author, too!
Here’s an opportunity to spotlight your skills, grow your career, and become a published
author—all at the same time! Join an ITSO residency project and help write a book in your
area of expertise, while honing your experience using leading-edge technologies. Your efforts
will help to increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction, as you expand your
network of technical contacts and relationships. Residencies run from two to six weeks in
length, and you can participate either in person or as a remote resident working from your
home base.
Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at:
ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.html
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