Open Source Software and Librarianship

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9 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Open Source Software and Librarianship

Bharat M. Chaudhari

Library Assistant,

School Of Petroleum Management
,

Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar

E
-
Mail:
openbharat@gmail.com

| bharat.chaudhari@spm.pdpu.ac.in



[Librarians] "are almost ethically required to use and develop open source software.



Crawford
, R
.



Introduction:


Library
is defined as a place in which books,

manuscripts, record
ings, films, or reference
materials are

kept for private or public uses. Typically, a library must

be able to handl
e some
housekeeping actions
such as

acquisition, interlibrary loan, cataloging, circulation, serials

management, statistical reports and refe
rences.
Library

ma
nagement system software
is designed
especially

to handle such housekeeping tasks. A rapidly growing of

information technology adds
some features to library

management
software packages such as features to

handle digital media,
e
-
book, e
-
journals, online public access

catalog (OPAC), a feature to connect and exchange

information with a digital library system, an ability to connect

with
networks of libraries,
machine
-
readable cataloging

(MARC) standard, support and
(
Z39.50
)

standard
support

etc
.

Today In the competitive market many
commercial
software are available with high degree of

cost to manage your library operations
. But
many institutions and its libraries do

not afford
the

high
level of
cost using commercial products. Therefore, an a
lternative solution in such situation
must be
open

source
software.



History of Open Source and Free Software
:



The concept of open source and the free sharing of technological information existed long before
computers. For example, cooking recipes have

been shared since

the beginning of human culture
.


Open source first evolved during the 1970s. Richard Stallman, an American software developer
who believes that sharing source
-
code and ideas is fundamental to freedom of speech, developed
a ‘free’ version

of the widely used ‘Unix’ operating system. The resulting ‘GNU’ program was
released under a specially created General Public License (‘GNU GPL’). This was designed to
ensure that the source
-
code would remain openly available to all. It was not intended t
o prevent
commercial usage or distribution. This approach was named ‘free software’. In this context ‘free’
meant that anyone could modify the software. However, the term ‘free’ was often misunderstood
to mean ‘no cost’. Hence ‘open source software’ was co
ined as a less contentious and more
‘business
-
friendly’ term.






Defining Open Source:


Open
-
source software

is software whose source code is published and made available to the
public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code wit
hout paying
royalties or fees. Open source code can evolve through community cooperation. These
communities are composed of individual programmers
or group of individuals
as well as very
large companies.


Definition:



There are numerous groups, who claim
ownership of the term "Open Source", but the term has
not been trademarked. The

Open Source Initiative
's definition is widely recognized as the
standard or

de facto

definition. The common definition should be:


"Open source promotes software reliability an
d quality by supporting independent
peer review and rapid evolution of source code. To be certified as open source, the
license of a program must
guarantee the right to read, redistribute, modify, and use
it freely
"


Basic Characteristics of Open Source:


OSS has many characteristics.
The

important ones

are:


1.

It is generally acquired
or
downloaded freely


2.

Manufacturer,
developer or designer has no right to claim

r
oyalties on the distribution or
use


3.

Source code is accessible to the user and

distributed w
ith the software iv) No denial to an
individual or to a group to access

source code of the software


4.

It has provision of modifications and derivations

under the programme’s original name


5.

Rights of facilities attached to the programme

must not depend on t
he programme’s being
part of a particular software distribution


6.

Licensed software
cannot

place restriction on other software that is distributed with it


7.

Distribution of l
icense should not be specific to a product and License should be
technology neutral
, etc.



Open Source Software a Collective Action:


The Philosophy of Open Source Software is extremely

simple: When anyone allowed
working freely on the source code of a programme, this will inevitably improved because
collaboration helps to correct error
s. Community contribution is a key to live any open source
distribution. Less the contribution means less the life for OSS.



OSS Development and Librarianship


Open Source Software is just as much about freedom as it is about computer technology. In fact,

it uses computer technology to express freedom. These prin
ciples are not too far from the
principles of modern librarianship, and therefore
, the use of O
pe
n Source S
oftware is a natural fit
for librarians. Information has
never
been free.
An

information p
rofessionals we understand this
better than most people.
There are real cost to collecting, organizing, archiving, disseminating
data, information and knowledge. Despite
these costs
, you do not need checkbook visiting
library. The
reasoning behind

this is
based on belief that the free access to the world’s data and
information
will enlarge the sphere

of knowledge and understanding. These same principles from
the basic
of
open source software. It allows individual or group to take control over hardware
and s
oftware instead of the other way around
. Open S
ource Software provide you with more
choice and more opportunity. Just as we believe free access to data and information will expand
the sp
here

of knowledge and better humanity, the free access to computer pro
grams will enable
us to expand our ability to use computers as tools to improve our lives, not become slaves to
them.



1.

Both OSS development and librarianship put a premium on open access. Both camps
hope the shared information will be used to improve ou
r place in the world.


2.

Human interactions are a necessary part of the mix. Open source development requires an

understanding

of the problem the computer application is trying to solve, and the
maintainer must assimilate patches with the application. Librar
ians understand that
information seeking behavioris
m

a human process. While databases and many “digital
libraries” house information, these

collections are really “data stores” until the data is
given value and put to use whereby the stores

become librarie
s.


3.

Third, it has been stated that open source development will remove the necessity for
programmers.

Ironically, librarianship is flowering under new rubrics such as information
architects and knowledge managers.


List of popular Open Source
Software


Op
erating System

Server

Application Packages

Linux

(
Debian,,
RedHat, CentOS,
Ubuntu, Fedora etc.)

OpenSolaris
,
FreeBSD, PC
BSD, NetBSD,
OpenBSD
,

React

OS
, Mac OS

Apache,
Tomcat,

Jetty
, Zenoss

etc.

Joomal, Drupal,
SugarCRM, Zimbra,
Mozila Firefox etc.



Open Source Library Management Software


Integrated

Library Systems (ILS) is the current wave for library automation. An ILS combines
several activities of the library into one integrated system, allowing the library staff to perform
all their functions online. These activities include simple housekeeping
activities like acquisition,
cataloguing to user services, and inter
-
library loan activities. In the last few years we have seen
the development of a number of ILS products in the open source world. One important trend in
these kind products is the use of
web
-
based client/server architecture.


Listed below are some of the well
-
known ILS products.



Notation

Source


Originated

Koha

http://www.koha.org


New Zealand

Evergreen

http://www.open
-
ils.org/


USA


OpenBiblio

http://obiblio.sourceforge.net/


Spain


NewGenLib

http://www.verussolutions.biz/

India

OPALS

http://www.mediaflex.net/


USA

PMB


http://www.pmbservices.fr/nouveau_site/


French

Emilda

http://www.emilda.org/

Finland


1.

Koha:



Koha is the first open source fully featured integrated library s
ystem (ILS) used
by a considerable number of libraries in USA, New Zealand, and Europe. The Koha ILS
includes catalogue, OPAC, circulation, member management, and acquisitions package.
Koha is used by public libraries, private collectors, not
-
profit organi
zations, churches,
schools, and
corporate
.


2.

Evergreen:

Highly
-
scalable

software for libraries that helps library patrons find library
materials, and helps libraries manage, catalog, and circulate those materials, no matter
how large or complex the librarie
s. Evergreen is open source software, freely licensed
under the GNU GPL.


3.

OpenBiblio:

OpenBiblio

is an easy to use, automated library system written in PHP
containing OPAC, circulation, cataloging, and staff administration functionality.


4.

NewGenLib:

Integr
ated Library Automation and Networking Solution. Modules:
Acquisitions, Cataloguing, Serials Management, Circulation, Administration, OPAC, and
Reports.


5.

OPALS:

Open
-
source Automated Library System is a powerful cooperatively developed,
Web
-
based, open sou
rce program. This alternative technology provides Internet access to
information databases, library collections and digital archives. Many school, college,
research, business, religious and library union catalogs (that provide ILL services) use
OPALS. Ther
e is no need to install software or purchase expensive computer hardware or
software licenses to implement this powerful, turnkey Internet accessible system. The
“total cost of ownership” of this standards
-
based, Web
-
based, feature rich software is
demonst
rably and undeniably sustainable.


6.

PMB:

P
hpMyLibrary is a PHP MySQL Library automation application. The program
consist of cataloging, circulation, and the webpac module. The programs also has an
import export feature. The program strictly follow the USMAR
C standard for adding
materials.


7.

Emilda
:

is a complete Integrated Library System that features amongst others an OPAC,
circulation and administration functions, Z39.50 capabilities
.


Open Source Digital Library Management Software:


There are about ten to

fifteen software for digital library

management
. Out of this maximum are
open source. I shall discuss here
out of most popular:


1.

Dspace:

DSpace is the software of choice for academic, non
-
profit, and commercial
organizations building open digital reposito
ries.


It is free and easy to install "out of the
box" and completely customizable to fit the needs of any organization.

DSpace preserves
and enables easy and open access to all types of digital content including text, images,
moving images, mpegs and data

sets.


And wi
th an ever
-
growing community of
developers, committed

to continuously expanding and improving the software, each
DSpace installation benefits from the next.




2.

Greenstone:

Greenstone is a suite of software for building and distributing digita
l library
collections. It provides a new way of organizing information and publishing it on the
Internet or on CD
-
ROM


3.

E
-
Prints:

The primary purpose of the E
-
Prints software is to help create open

access to
the peer
-
reviewed research output of all scholarl
y and scientific research institutions. The
default configuration creates a research papers archive, but could be used for other
purposes.


4.

CDSware:

CERN Document Server Software (CDSware) allows one to run one's own
electronic preprint server, online libr
ary catalogue or a document system on the web. It
complies with the Open Archives Initiative metadata harvesting protocol (OAI
-
PMH) and
uses MARC 21 as its underlying bibliographic standard.


5.

Fedora:

Flexible Extensible Digital Object and Repository Archit
ecture

(Fedora) is a
toolkit to build a digital object repository management system. The

system, designed to
be a foundation upon which interoperable web
-
based digital

libraries, institutional
repositories and other information management systems can be bu
ilt, demonstrates how
distributed digital library architecture can be deployed using web
-
b
ased
technologies,
including XML and Web services
.


6.

I, LIBRARIAN:
I, Librarian is a free and open source web application to build an
annotated library of scientific P
DF articles. It is suitable for individuals as well as for
small collaborative groups, like science labs or departments
. Find more information at
http://www.bioinformatics.org


Conclusion:

Open

source

has been

the center of attention in the
library

world for the past several years. Many
Open Source software are now playing essential role for managing all operations of library and
they continue to grow in maturity and popularity. The question remains as how much

we have
achieved in open
-
source development toward the next
-
generation library system compared to
commercial systems. The answer could be how much we practicing, how much we mine it and
ultimately how do we offer optimum services to end user.


Bibliograph
ies:


1.

Westman, Stephen R., Creating Database
-
Backend Library Web Pages: Using Open
Source Tools, Ess Ess Pub., 2009

2.

Amin,

Saiful,
Open Source Software for Libraries, A Trend Report, DRTC, Banglore
2003

3.

Hasan, Nabi
,
Issues and Challenges in Open Source Soft
ware Environment with Special
Reference to India, CSK H. P. Agricultural University, Palampur (HP), India

4.

Sangsuree Vasupongayya, Kittisak Keawneam, Kittipong Sengloilaun, Patt Emmawat:
Open Source Library Management System Software: A Review, Hat Yai, Son
gkhla,
Thailand

5.

D. Chudnov, Open source software: The future of library systems?, Library Journal,
124(13), 40

43, 1999.

6.

M. Breeding, Open Source Library Automation: Overview and Perspective. Library
Technology Reports. 44(8):5
-
10, 2008.

7.

H. Warr and P. Han
gsing, Open Source Digital Library Software: A Literature Review, in
Proceedings of the National Seminar on 'Preservation and Conservation of Information
Resources in Knowledge Society: Issues, Challenges and Trends', pp. 238
-
258, Manipur
University, Canch
ipur, Imphal, March 3
-
4, 2009.

8.

L.M. Riewe, Survey of Open Source Integrated Library Systems, Master thesis, San Jose
State University, August 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2011. Cargile, C. Open source ILS
for the non
-
systems librarian: A reality? PNLA Quart
erly, 69(3), 15

16, 2005. Retrieved
January 23, 201

9.

K. Buchanan & B. Krasnoff, Can Open Source Software Save School Libraries Time &
Money? Knowledge Quest, 33(3), 32
-
34, 2005.

10.

open source
, Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source


11.

Koha web site,
http://www.koha.org

12.

OpenBiblio web site,
http://obiblio.sourceforge.net

13.

Emilda website,
http://www.emilda.org

14.

PMB Services Inc. website,
http://www.pmbservices.fr/

15.

OPALS functionality,
http://help.opalsinfo.net/?page_id=486

16.

Dspa
ce main page,
http://www.dspace.org/

17.

Greenstone main page,
http://www.greenstone.org

18.

Eprints main page,
http://www.eprints.org/