Modern Genetics

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Modern Genetics

Human Inheritance


Human Genetic Disorders


Advances in Genetics










Table of Contents

Modern Genetics

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Human Inheritance

Inheritance of Blood Type

Blood type is determined by a single gene with three alleles.
This chart shows which combinations of alleles result in each
blood type.

Modern Genetics

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Human Inheritance

The Sex Chromosomes

The sex chromosomes carry genes that determine whether a
person is male or female. They also carry genes that
determine other traits.

Modern Genetics

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Human Inheritance

Colorblindness Punnett Square

Red
-
green colorblindness is a sex
-
linked trait. A girl who
receives only one recessive allele (written
X
c
) for red
-
green
colorblindness will not have the trait. However, a boy who
receives one recessive allele will be colorblind.

Modern Genetics

Main Idea

Detail

Detail

Detail

Identifying Main Ideas

As you read the section “Patterns of Human Inheritance,”
write the main idea in a graphic organizer. Then write three
supporting details that further explain the main idea.

Human traits are controlled by single genes with two alleles, single
genes with multiple alleles, and multiple genes.

Human traits
controlled by single
genes with two
alleles have two
distinctly different
phenotypes.

Though a single
gene can have
multiple alleles, a
person can carry
only two of these
alleles.

Multiple genes that
control a trait act
together to produce
a single trait with a
large number of
phenotypes.

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Human Inheritance

Modern Genetics

Links on Genetics

Click the SciLinks button for links on genetics.

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Human Inheritance

Modern Genetics

End of Section:

Human
Inheritance

Modern Genetics

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Human Genetic Disorders

A Pedigree

A pedigree is a chart or “family tree” that tracks which
members of a family have a particular trait.

Modern Genetics

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Human Genetic Disorders


A Hemophilia Pedigree

The pedigree shows the inheritance of hemophilia, a sex
-
linked disorder in a family.

Modern Genetics

Comparing and Contrasting

As you read, compare and contrast the types of genetic
disorders by completing a table like the one below.

Cystic fibrosis

Body produces
abnormally thick
mucus.

Recessive allele due to
removal of three DNA
bases

Disorder

Description

Cause

Sickle
-
cell disease

Red blood cells are
sickle
-
shaped and have
reduced ability to hold
oxygen.

Codominant allele

Hemophilia

Blood clots slowly or not
at all.

Recessive allele on X
chromosome

Down Syndrome

Mental retardation and
heart defects

An extra copy of
chromosome 21

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Human Genetic Disorders

Modern Genetics

End of Section:

Human Genetic
Disorders

Modern Genetics

Changing Rice Production

The graph shows how worldwide
rice production changed
between 1965 and 2000. New,
hybrid varieties of rice plants are
one factor that has affected the
amount of rice produced.

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

Changing Rice Production

Rice production increased.

Reading Graphs:


According to the graph, how
did rice production change
between 1965 and 2000?

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

Changing Rice Production

2 in 1965; 4 in 2000

Reading Graphs:


How many metric tons of rice
per hectare were produced in
1965? How many were
produced in 2000?

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

Changing Rice Production

2 metric tons/hectare

Calculating:


Calculate the approximate
difference between rice
production in 1965 and 2000.

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

Changing Rice Production

Possible answer: fertilizers
and improved harvesting
methods

Developing Hypotheses:


What factors besides new
varieties of plants might help
account for the difference in
rice production between 1965
and 2000?

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

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Advances in Genetics

Genetic Engineering

Scientists use genetic engineering to create bacterial cells
that produce important human proteins such as insulin.

Modern Genetics

Asking Questions

Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic
organizer like the one below, ask a question for each
heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.

Questions

Answers

What is selective breeding?

Selective breeding is the process of
selecting organisms with desired traits
to be parents of the next generation.

Why are organisms cloned?

To produce offspring with desired traits

What is genetic engineering?

A process in which genes from one
organism are transferred into the DNA
of another organism

What advance has helped us learn
about human genetics?

The Human Genome Project

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

Links on Genetic Engineering

Click the SciLinks button for links on genetic engineering.

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Advances in Genetics

Modern Genetics

End of Section:

Advances in
Genetics

Modern Genetics

Human

traits

controlled by

such as

such as

such as

such as

Graphic Organizer

Multiple
alleles

Single genes

Sex
-
linked
genes

Widow's peak

Height

Many genes

Blood type

Colorblindness

Modern Genetics

End of Section:

Graphic Organizer