Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

What is genetic engineering?


Cutting DNA from an organism into small
fragments and inserting the fragments into
a host organism of the same or different
species.

(AKA: recombinant DNA
technology or biogenetics)

What are the uses of
Genetic
Engineering?


1. Transgenic Organisms


An organisms
with DNA from
another species


Glowing tobacco
plant (top)


Zebra fish with
coral and jellyfish
genes

Real life uses for Transgenic
Organsims.

1.
Medicine (producing human growth hormones)

2.
Crops (making crops that are insect resistant)

3.
Foods (making better tasting/more meaty
foods)

4.
Crops (making canola that produces high yield
oil to make canola oil)

5.
Altered bacteria that clean sewage

6.
Altered E. coli bacteria to make expensive
indigo dye

7.
Bacteria that can turn wood chips into paper

8.
Vaccines


How do you make a
Transgenic
Organism?


I. Restriction Enzymes


Allow scientist to
isolate the foreign
DNA. It cleaves
the donor DNA at
very specific
places.


II. Vector


The means by which DNA from another
species can be carried into a host cell.

a. Mechanical vectors

carry DNA into a cell,
micropipette or metal bullett

b. Biological vectors

virus or bacterial
plasmids (small rings of DNA)

Insertion of a Plasmid Vector


III. Joining of DNA


If host and foreign DNA have been
cleaved (cut) by the same restriction
enzyme, the ends can join together.

IV. Gene Cloning


The cell will now continue to divide by
mitosis and meiosis as if this new foreign
DNA (gene) were its own.

2. Cloning


Making a genetically identical copy of an
organism


First and most famous animal cloned was
Dolly a sheep in England in 1997.



Hope to use to create more an better cows
for higher food yields.


Cloning in action.


3. Gel Electrophoresis


Seperates DNA by size.


A production of patterned fluorescent
bands of cleaved DNA in gel.


The longer fragments of DNA will move
slower than the smaller fragments. These
fragment sizes create the banding
distances.

Uses of Gel Electrophoresis & DNA
Sequencing.

A.
DNA fingerprinting to determine a
criminal from a crime scene or the parent
in a paternity test.

B.
Analyze fossil DNA and compare extinct
species with living species.

DNA Fingerprint



Human Genome
Project


What is it?


An international effort
to sequence the
35,000
-
40,000 genes
on the 46 human
chromosomes


began in 1990,
completed in 2003.



Benefits

A.
Diagnosis for diseases. (Test amniotic fluid to
determine if baby has a genetic disorder)

B.
Better drugs

C.
Gene therapy

insertion of normal genes into
human with diseases to correct the genetic
disorder

D.
DNA fingerprinting; except for twins, no two
people have the same DNA sequence