DNA Race, Structure, Replication and Genetic Engineering Review

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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DNA
Race, Structure, Replication and Genetic Engineering Review

Discovery of the Genetic Material

1.

Answer the following True/False questions.


True or False

In Griffith’s experiments, the strain of live coated bacteria caused mice to die.


True or False

The uncoated bacteria strain did not harm the mice.


True or False

The dead coated strain caused mice to die.

2.

What happened when Griffith mixed the dead coated bacteria with the live bacteria that


lacked the coat, and injected this mixture into the mi
ce?



What did he find when he examined the blood of the mice?


3.

What term did Griffith use to describe this process? ________________________

4.

Place the following steps in Avery’s experiments in the correct order by numbering the steps.


____

a.

Som
e bacteria grew coats.


____

b.

No transformation occurred.


____

c.

Extracted DNA was added to a population of bacteria without coats.


____

d.

DNA
-
destroying enzymes were added to bacteria.


____

e.

Protein
-
destroying enzymes were added to bacteria; tran
sformation still occurred.



1

f.

DNA was extracted from bacteria with coats

5.

What substance did Dr. Avery find was responsible for causing the transformation of the


bacteria in Griffith’s experiment? _______________

6.

Describe the simple structure of a bacteria
-
infecting virus.


7.

With what did Hershey and Chase “label”


a.

the DNA molecule? ____________________________ or _________________________

b.

the protein molecule? _________________________ or _
________________________

8.

What did Hershey and Chase conclude when they found the viruses released from the cell


contained
32
P but no
35
S in their make
-
up?



How Scientists Determined the Structure of DNA

9.

Subunits of DNA are called ________________
_____. Nucleotides are made of three parts:


a _______
-
carbon _______, a ________________ group, and a ________________

____________
.

10. What
is the backbone of DNA made of? ______________ and ___________________

11. What is the name of the 5

carbon su
gar that makes up DNA?


1
2
.

a.
Larger, double ringed nitrogen bases like adenine and guanine are called ______________.


b.
Smaller, single ringed nitrogen bases like thymine and cytosine are called ______________.


c. How is does DNA maintain the same dia
meter across the entire length of the molecule?


13
.

Chargaff’s rule of nitrogen base pairing says that the amount of _______________ equals the
amount of thymine and the amount of guanine equals the amount of ______________.

14
.

Rosalind Franklin used
the technique of _________ _________________ to determine that


the shape of a DNA molecule is a ___________ ___________.

15
. Why is DNA called a
double helix
? ______________________________________________



___________________________________________
_______________________________

16
.

What type of bond holds the nitrogen bases together? ________________

1
7
.

Who wrote a scientific paper in
Nature

in 1953, and eventually won a Nobel Prize in 1962 for
determining the shape of the DNA molecule? __________
_______________ and __________
__________________

18
.

Adenine always pairs with ______________ and ______________ always pairs with

_________________.



19
. Identify the parts of the diagram below.


a. What is the structure labeled “X”?



b. What is the s
tructure labeled “Y”?



c. What is the structure labeled “Z”?

20
. What would be the complementary bases to the DNA sequence [ T T A A C G G A T ]


Replication of DNA

21
. What does replication mean?


22
.

Place the steps of DNA replication in the correct
order.


____

a.

The enzyme DNA polymerase moves along the exposed strands and adds


complementary nucleotides to each nucleotide in each existing strand.


____

b.

The enzyme helicase breaks the DNA double helix down the middl
e between the base
pairs.


____

c.

An enzyme called ligase forms between the sugar phosphates in the DNA backbone.


____

d.

Proofreading enzymes checks the new strand.


____

e
.

Two new identical DNA molecules have been produced.




Genetic Engineering

23
.

What is the Human genome?


24
. What is recombinant DNA made of?


2
5
. The small ring of bacterial DNA is called?


26
. What does a restriction enzyme do?


27
. Explain the process of gel electrophoresis.




28
. The central dogma of molecular Biology explains ____ ____ ____ transcribes ____ ____ ____ which
translates to ____________.

29
. Sequence the process of genetic engineering in order.


I.

Bacteria begin to produce the desired protein.


II.

The recombina
nt plasmid is taken up by a host bacterium.


III.

Isolate the desired gene by cutting it with a restriction enzyme.


IV.

Identify the desired gene.


V.

Insert the desired gene into a plasmid DNA of bacterium.






Use the following diagram of DNA fragmentation patterns to answer the questions below the
diagram.




Lane 1:


Child’s

DNA fragmentation pattern



Lane 2:


Mother’s

DNA fragmentation pattern



Lane 3:


Suspected father A’s fragmentation pattern



Lane 4:


Suspected father B’s fragmentation pattern
























30
. Which genes do the
mother and the child have in common?



31
. Which man is the father of the child?





1


2


3


4

Bands


a


b


c


d


e


f


g


h


i


j


k