Food Resources: A Challenge for Agriculture

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Chapter 19
-
Food Resources: A Challenge for Agriculture

Period 1

Environmental Science


I.

Biological molecules in foods to keep healthy are
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
.

1)

Carbohydrates example
-

sugar and startch.
Cellular respiration

processes these in the
body.

2)

Proteins
-

molecules made up of
amino acids
. Proteins are important because when
plants and animals digest proteins, the amino acids may be rearranged to make human
famino acids of different types necessary for human nutrition.

Human bodies make 10
-

11 of the 20, but the others are called
essential amino acids

because those need to be
attained from food.

3)

Lipids

example
-

fats and oils. Cellular respiration also processes these for energy.
Lipids are used as hormones and cell mem
branes.

4)

Mineral

example
-

iron, iodine, and calcium. These are known as inorganic elements
that are necessary to obtain in order to function.

5)

Vitamins

are needed to help control the functioning and metabolism in humans.
Humans and animals need vitamins fro
m food but plants don’t.

II.

Human Food

1)

330,000 total plant species approximately. About 100 provide 90% of the food humans
eat.

2)

Animals give humans food that are heavy with protein. Examples
-

fishes, meat, eggs,
milk and cheese.

3)

The U.N. Food and Agricultu
re Organization says 800 million people don’t have access
to healthy food. Average adult human should eat 2600 kcal per day and if not they are
considered
undernourished.

4)

Malnourished
is when people eat the right amount of calories but not eating the
ess
ential things like vitamins or proteins.
Marasmus and Kwashiorkor
are 2 diseases
due to malnutrition

5)

Overnourished

means someone who eats too much food. This can lead to obesity, high
blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, etc.


III.

Famine

1)

When the crop is l
ow because of disasters such as drought, flood, or other severe event
it leads to
famine
. Low food production.


IV.

Maintaining Grain Stockpiles

1)

World Grain Carryover

stocks
is

the leftover rice, wheat, corn, and more grains from
harvests. This gives people the kind of food they need anytime to be healthy.

2)

Countries with a low economy happen to have political corruption due to not enough
food and too high of prices.

3)

Meat and
eggs have become more popular to eat so word grain carryover stocks has
decreased.

V.

World Food Problems

1)

The cost to make food and transport it is expensive for poor countries.

This creates
economic instability.

2)

Industrialized Agriculture

is when fossil fu
el is used to work the machinery, and
produce chemicals and pestcides. This produces high yields, which means a lot of food
is produced. Therefore trees and and natural spaces can remain and not be used for
agriculture space.

3)

Subistence agriculture

is the
making of food for ones family. This is the traditional
way of making ones food. This is not by fossil fuels but humans and animals instead.

4)

Subsitence agriculture consists of

shifting cultivation
, which is when a small amount
of land is used so the mass
land leftover goes back to its natural state, such as a a
forrest.

5)

Slash and burn agriculture

is the taking down of a tiny part of a forest for crop use.

6)

Nomadic herding

is when the animals have to move to find better food on better land.

7)

Intercropping

means multiple plants are growing in the same area. This is the
opposite of a
monoculture
. Intercropping results in
higher yields.


8)

Polyculture
is intercropping. Lots of kinds of plants grow fully at various times but are
planted at the same time in the
same space.


VI.

The Effect of Domestication on Genetic Diversity.

1)

Genetic Diversity

are the difference of genes in plants or animal populations.

2)

Domestication

changes the animal or plant for human use. The farmers want to
animals or plants with the best use
. This reduces genetic diversity.

3)

There is a “Global Decline in Domesticated Plant and Animal Varieties”. As a result of
this, some countries are using

germplasm
. It is the seeds, sperm, egg, or plant tissue
from older plants and animals. This is for bree
ding.

VII.

Increasing Crop Yields

1)

Because of the development of pesticides for insects other things that would
malfunction a crop, it has strengthened crop yields.

2)

Green
-

revolution

means using crops that are high yielding to make more food per
acre.


VIII.

Increasing Livestock Yields

1)

Hormones

impact the body functioning of an animal and it expedites the growth.

2)

Antibiotics

cause pigs, chicken, and cattle to gain weight quicker so today, people
don’t give them as much antibiotics.

3)

The bacteria being a larger

number than antibiotic
-
resistant bacteria is an example of
evolution

IX.

Genetic Engineering

1)

Genetic engineering
is the exchanging of genes from one cell of a species to another.
This is supposed to improve medicine and agriculture but it is debatable.

2)

The U
SA is the number one producer in the world of
genetically modified crops.


3)

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

is a safety method with procedures to work
with genetically modified animals and plants.

4)

Industrialized agriculture can negatively effect
ecosys
tem services
. An example
would be air pollution, pesticides that effect the water and its animals in the water.

5)

Land degradation

means land is loosing its ability to benefit the animals and crops
on it due to soil and water issues.

6)

Habitat fragmentation

me
ans limiting the diversity of organisms from a big area to a
small one because the land has been wiped out for the production of crops. Species
become endangered because of this

X.

Sustainable Agriculture

1)

The combiniation of modern and agriculture procedure
s.

2)

Organic agriculture

consists of the use of no pesticides.

3)

Integrated Pest Management

consists of some pesticides
with other procedures to
limit pests.

4)

Agroecosytsem

is another word for agriculture ecosystem

5)

High yields from these above procedures that lead to lasting sustainability are
known as
second green revolution.

XI.

Problems for the Fishing Industry

1)

Longlines, Purse
-
seine nets, trawl nets, and drift
nets are all ways of catching
fish and other water
animals.

2)

Bycatch

is the term used for the fish and other water animals caught that aren’t for
profit or commercial use.

3)

Ocean enclosure

places organisms within 320 km of land and the country that
borders the ocean in charge of it.

4)

Open management

is when
all fishers and their boats can go anywhere anytime in
the water.

5)

Magnuson Fishery Conservation Act

started in 1977
to control United States
fisheries.

6)

Magnuson
-

Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

started in 1996
to conserve the fish and make

more fish populations.

XII.

Ocean Pollution

1)

Aquaculture

is the term used for growing marine life and its animals and fish for
humans to use.

2)

Mariculture

is another term used for this.