Bi 5c Genetic Engineering - GertzScience

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Guided Notes_Genetic mutation and genetic engineering


Unit II Genetic Mutation and Genetic Engineering

BI. 4c
Students know

how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the
expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

BI.4.d

Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns
of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.

BI 5c
Students know

how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce nov
el biomedical and
agricultural products.


What will I be able to learn?


BI.4.d. Specialization of cells are due to different patterns of gene expression

1.

What kind of information does DNA have?

DNA contains the ____________________code that controls cell__
__________.


2.

How does it transmit the code to cells?


Protein synthesis

a.

Transcription: __________ to ___________.


b.

___________: mRNA to protein.



3.

What does one gene for one organism mean?

________________types of cells in a person’s body have the ________
_exact DNA.


4.

What is genetic expression?


Some genes are translated into proteins when cells need those proteins to function.


Nerve and liver cells from the same person contain the same DNA but look and function
differently because _______ cells will
only express nerve genes which will produce_____
proteins; while liver cells will only express ______genes which will produce liver
proteins that have their specialized liver functions.



Guided Notes_Genetic mutation and genetic engineering


BI.4C Genetic Mutation

1.

What is genetic mutation?



2.

Types of
Mutation:


A.

Point mutation:

single nitrogen base change

a.

Silent mutation:

the nitrogen base change doesn’t change the amino acid
produced due to the fact that there are a couple of codes that code for the same
amino acid

b.

Nonsense mutation:

the codon becomes
a STOP codon, this interferes with
normal protein function.

c.

Missense mutation:
_______________________________, most common type
of mutation.
Example: Sickle Cell anemia


Watch the short video clip and answer the following:

1.

What is sickle cell anemia?


2.

Wha
t are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia?

Look at the slide: Explain why sickle cell anemia is a missense mutation?

DNA


____________in DNA code/Sequence

PROTEIN


Changes _____________________ (
shape or different protein)

FUNCTION


__________cell function

Guided Notes_Genetic mutation and genetic engineering


B.

Frameshift mutation:

a deletion or insertion of nitrogenous bases causes the entire
gene to be read differently, it shifts the reading frame.


a.

Insertion mutation
:
_________________________

b.

Deletion mutation:
________________________

Example: Cystic Fibrosis


1.

What are the sympto
ms of cystic fibrosis?


2.

What causes cystic fibrosis?


3.
Can genetic mutations be transferred to children/offspring?

YES


GAMETES ( Sex cells)

Sperm and egg

Hemophilia ( blood clotting disease)

NO






Bi 5c Genetic Engineering

1.

What is genetic engineering?

Human beings manipulate or change genes for different human purposes.


2.

What for?

a.

Gene therapy

b.

Creating medicine

c.

Creating better plants
-
> drought

resistance, herbicide/pesticide resistant, better
nutrition

d.

Better livestock

e.

S
aving the environment

clean up waste

f.

Creating products (business)



What do you think are the potential risks of genetic engineering?




Guided Notes_Genetic mutation and genetic engineering



3.

What is the technology behind genetic engineering?


STEPS:

1.


Choose _________________________________.

2.

Cut
__________________using__________________.

3.

Paste________________using_____________________.