Threats and Opportunities - Ning

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22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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FireScape Monterey


Page
1

of
6



Threats and Opportunities to Targets

(FireScape Values)

Transcription from
Maps &
Butcher Paper
-

Workshop #2





Target:
Fire Adapted Human Communities



Threats



Lack of separation between houses and fuel bed



Inadequate clearance; Lack of incentives to
clear fuels near homes



Lack of education (short attention span)



Construction methods (wood framed houses); lack of financial incentives to retrofit to
FireSafe construction



Landslides and watersheds have indire
ct

fire effects



Lack of fuel treatments along
ingress and egress roads



Water and fire equipment availability and defensibility



Local planning and zoning is lacking
-
building in wildlands



Conflicting policies between regulatory agencies (Costal Commission, Monterey
County).



Authorization of mechanical e
quipment in the Wilderness for both fire and non
-
fire
emergency.



Fire return interval has been altered, resulting in uncharacteristic fire behavior. This
results in a threat to communities and the watershed.



Economic impacts and quality of life post fire.



Lack of access to fire starts (difficult terrain).




Opportunities



Outreach



E
ducation



Pre
-
fire planning/Interagency planning



Hiring of personnel to do fuels work



Economic benefits of biomass utilization, work, multiplier effect



Interagency coordination



Loan programs for FireSafe construction improvements



Amnesty to those already out of building and zoning requirements



Changing the frequency of total fire suppression, firefighting that will change the nature
of firefighting tactics and strategies. Fires
for ‘resource benefits’ not total suppression.



Updated FireSafe landscaping, building materials




FireScape Monterey


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2

of
6






Target:
Watershed
s


(Includes naturally functioning streams, springs and wetlands)



Threats



Invasive species



Roads

o

Excess sedimentation poorly drained
roads



Wildfire

o

Loss of vegetation results in less water infiltration and excess runoff. Leading to
sedimentation




Sedimentation

o

Chronic, persistent, fine sedimentation effects steelhead habitat, sustainable
agriculture, sustainable tourism



Unmanaged recre
ation



Development



Climate change

o

Un
-
predictable change in function, ecological services



Zoning and policy lacking



Excessive burning at Hunter Liggett



Fracking (natural gas drilling)



Chemical dangers from the mercury mine in Nacimi
e
nto River Watershed



Opp
ortunities



Roads are access for fire suppression



Keep excess fuels from accumulating will be a resource benefit to soils.



Study size, extent and duration of sedimentation



Grey water education



Private property owners conserve remaining open space



Implement
regulations, BMP’s, integration.




FireScape Monterey


Page
3

of
6






Target:
Redwood

Dominated Forest
s

(This target
is part of Native Biodiversity, and was used for practice)




Threats



Climate change

(less moisture, less fog)



Invasive species (includes Sudden Oak Death
,
E
nglish ivy (
Eupatorium vinca
)
)
-
permanent ecosystem change



Total fire suppression




Altered fire regime

(historic fire return interval 2 to 7 years)
-
Duff accumulation may be
increasing fire intensity




High intensity fires

(resident time
-
duration of fire, deep duff)



Deve
lopment/private property



Recreation (compaction of root zone)



Development (new or maintenance of exis
t
ing)

o

Trails, roads (compaction)

o

Utilities/corridors



Limited forest management opportunities (due to topography and access)



Debris flow/erosion and habitat

alteration (human and natural)
-
beyond the range of
natural variation



Cutting of trees perceived dead or hazardous post
-
fire (ie, redwoods
lose

their green
needles but are still living)



Transpiration (water uptake) makes redwoods top heavy and creates a hu
man safety
hazard as they may fall over.



Logging?


Side notes

on butcher paper
: Redwood is a ‘resister’ species. It is ‘fire tolerant’. Redwood
strategy is to survive low and moderate intensity fires (validate with literature cited). Therefore,
controll
ed burning can increase the likelihood of individuals to survive a wildfire. Therefore, fire
exclusion may be a threat.


Opportunities



Awarenesss



Pre
-
planning

o

Mapping of redwoods (interagency and cooperative) as part of fire prevention
planning

o

Science



Waiting period post fire to see if tree is really dead

post fire (before it is cut down)



Expedite removal of hazard trees post fire.



Education

on the uniqueness of this redwood community and how processes like
climate, fire, etc affects the community.



Fuel
s reduction work



Reduce invasive species



Remove duff around trees

FireScape Monterey


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4

of
6





Target:
Aesthetic and Natural Qualities of the Santa Lucia Mountains




Threat



Invasive species

o

SOD, Plants, Animals (pigs, turkeys, bull frogs), annual grasses, pampas grass,
Eupatorium/
genista



Wildfire

o

Especially high severity, high frequency uncharacteristic fires



Recreation impacts

o

Trash, sanitation, compaction, shell casings

o

More human caused fire starts positively correlated with more human use



Unmanaged recreation

o

No backcountry ran
gers=resource damage and user conflicts



Non
-
sustainable development (large development not a concern in this region)



Roads and trails
/f
uel
breaks

o

Vectors for introduction of invasive species



Powerlines



Pot gardens

o

Aesthetic, trash, recreation, chemicals,
water use, fire star



Sea level rise, as a result of climate change. May result in changes in temperature,
humidity



In
-
holdings/new development



Fire suppression activities

o

Bulldozers
-
technique and placement

o

Altered fire regime

o

Fire retardant



Offshore oil d
rilling
-
future concern


Opportunities



Prevent new invasion/occupancy of Invasive species



Manage fire for multiple objectives (resource benefits). Frequent low severity fires
prevent high severity fire.



Recreation has positive economic benefits to the Regi
onal/local economy



Roads/trails provide access for recreation and also for fire suppression activities



Prescribed fire



FireScape Monterey


Page
5

of
6



Target:
Riparian

Areas

(This target is part of Watersheds, and was used for practice)



Threats



Invasive species

o

Plants, animals,
pathogens

o

Replace native species, reduces biodiversity

o

Can change hydrology and stream bank stability

o

Increases fire hazard



Arundo



Tamarisk



Habitat alteration/degradation



Over drafting
-
Ground water pumping (from Aquifer?)

o

Dries the river

o

Kills riparian ve
getation

o

Eliminates habitat for wildlife

o

Relevant to: Salinas/Arryo
-
Seco, Carmel River, Nac
imiento
, San Antonio



Salt water intrusion



Altered fire regime



Development



Debris flow/Sedimentation

o

Stream bank alteration

o

Grading of roads

o

Fire suppression fire
breaks



Roads

o

Sedimentation from improper drainage

o

Runoff

o

Invasive species (vector for introduction)



Unmanaged ‘wreck’ recreation (Recreation)

o

Arr
o
yo Se
c
o recreation use threatens biodiversity

o

Pollution
-
No regulations/compliance???



Big Sur RV



SP Sanitation
facility



Skyes



San Antonio RV



Nacimiento RV

o

Rock dam building

fish

o

Trampling redds and vegetation

o

Reduction of biodiversity



Tourism



Co
a
stal development

o

Existing=FireSafe plans needed and implemented

o

New



Vegetation removal



Habitat reducation



Fuel
modification



Water extraction


FireScape Monterey


Page
6

of
6





Riparian Areas, continued





Toxins

o

Effluent from mining/abandoned mines

o

Effluent from developed campgrounds/unmanaged campers/hikers

o

Septic systems (pharmaceuticals)

o

Flame
-
retardant from fire
-
fighting

o

Herbicides/pesticides



Marijuana gardens

o

Runoff



Dams

o

Water flow releases

o

Blocking or interrupting sediment flow

o

Change hydrology of stream

o

Free migration of species



Inappropriate grazing/agriculture practices

o

Herbicides, fertilizer

o

Sedimentation

o

Water diversion

o

Pot farming



Fire
-
altered fire regime

o

High intensity or high frequency fire

o

Destruction of habitat from fire

o

Destruction of habitat from inappropriate fire fighting

o

Results in erosion/scouring



Loss of species

Beavers?



Climate change

o

Altered rainfall regimes causing more hi
gh
-
flow events


Opportunities



Grazing for vegetation management



Managed fire



Riparian areas provide refugia for species/water during cataclysmic events or drying
brought on by climate change

Restoration opportunities



Not all grazing is bad. CTS & CRLF,
vernal pools rely upon grazing