Download NEW JAVA UNIT 5 - E-Learn

rangesatanskingdomΛογισμικό & κατασκευή λογ/κού

2 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

98 εμφανίσεις

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



SUBJECT


: JAVA PROGRAMMING

CLASS


: III BSC CS

UNIT



:
V

SEMESTER


: 6

STAFF



: I.GOBI


UNIT
-
V


Managing Input / Output Files in Java : Concepts of Streams
-

Stream Classes


Byte

Stream classes


Character stream classes


Us
ing streams


I/O Classes


File Class


I/O

exceptions


Creation of files


Reading / Writing characters, Byte
-
Handling Primitive data

Types


Random Access Files.


CONCEPTS OF INPUT/OUTPUT STREAMS


OVERVIEW OF STREAMS

Stream:

Flow of anything from one
point to another point sequentially is called Stream.

During program execution, the input flows from file or string or keyboard or mouse to

program and output data flows from program to result or screen or memory etc. This type

of data flows from input dev
ice to program and from program to output device is called

data streams or simply streams. Stream is defined as a path along which data flows.

Java has two types of streams called input stream and output stream.

-

Flow of data from data source (file input)

to program, is called Input Stream.

-

Flow of data from program to screen or memory (designation file) called Output

Stream.

FLOW FUNCTION:


Input Stream





Output Stream

FILE

PROGRAM

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



As the data flows the read & write process occurs continuously.

STREAM ADVANTAGES

-

Streams help the user to build dynamic codes to match their type of data transfer.

-

It simplifies the complex of I/O operations.

-

The available

stream classes functions properly even though new stream classes are

invented in future.

-

The Stream classes works well from one file system based on one stream to another

type of file system with another stream.

-

It helps to serialize objects.

STREAM C
LASS


Stream classes are present in the java.io package. These classes provide facilities to
process

all types of data. Stream classes are divided into two groups based on the type of data.

1. Byte stream classes // Using for IO operation in bytes

2. Chara
cter stream classes // using for IO operation in characters.

A group of classes are used to perform IO operations using various types of devices. The

source and designation of data may be memory, a file of a pipe (communication between

threads)

BYTES VS. C
HARACTERS

BYTE STREAM:


Byte stream classes provide facilities to process I/O in bytes. A byte stream can be used
with

any type of data including binary data. Since the streams are unidirectional, they can

transmit data bytes in one direction only.

Therefo
re there are two abstract classes namely Input Stream and Output Stream which

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



are used to read and write process. These abstract classes contain several subclasses to

handle different I/O devices.

1.

Input Stream


Input stream is an abstract class and it i
s used to stream input data in bytes. It is used for

reading the data such as byte and array from an input. An input may be from a file, string or

memory. This class contains number of methods used to process input. Here errors may

occur, hence it throws I
O Exception.

Class methods:

int available()
-

it gives the number of bytes of input currently available for

reading.

void close()
-

it is used to close the input source.

int read()
-

it is used to read a byte from Input Stream.

int read(byte b[])
-

it is us
ed to read an array of bytes into byte b array.


FILTERS:

Filtering is a process of combining the data bytes into meaningful primitive data type units

and monitoring line numbers.

The dataInputStream class extends from FilterInputStream class and implement
s from

DataInput interface. It has many methods, they are.

1. readInt()
-

read integer value from given input.

2. readLong()
-

read long value from given input.

3. readFloat()
-

same as int, long.

4. readLine()
-

read a line from given input.

5. readChar()

-

read character value from given input.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



6. readBoolean()
-

read true or false from given Boolean value




Hierarchical structure of Input Stream:




2. OUTPUT STREAM:



Output stream is an abstract class and it is used to stream output data in bytes. It
has
many

methods used to process output. Here error may occur in the class/method, so it throws I/O

Exception. Methods are given below.


void close()
-

it is used to close the stream.

void flush()
-

it is used to clear the output buffers.

void writte(int b
)
-

it is used to write a single byte to an output

stream.

void write(byte b[])
-

it is used to write a buffer array in byte b to an

output stream.

void write(byte b[], int I, int j)
-
it is used to write ‘j’ bytes form buffer array ’b’ starting

from’ I’ byt
e.


Hierarchical structure of Output Stream:

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT







Example Program


import java.io.*;

class ioexample

{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

try {

File ip = new File("input.txt");

File op = new File("output.txt");

FileInputStream fis = new

FileInputStrea
m(ip);

FileOutputStream fos = new

FileOutputStream(op);

int i;

while ((i = fis.read()) !=
-
1)

{

fos.write(i);

}

fis.close();

fos.close();

}

catch (FileNotFoundException fnfe)

{

System.err.println("FileStreamsTest: " +

fnfe);

}

catch (IOException ioe)

{

Sys
tem.err.println("FileStreamsTest: " + ioe);

} }}


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



The above program handles the input stream and output stream, when input given is in the

form of input.txt file and the output creates new file named as output.txt file.

Input file is:


Compile the file:



CHARACTER STREAM CLASSES:

Character stream classes are used to process I/O 16 bit Unicode characters. There
are two

types of character stream classes.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



They are:

? Reader class

? Writer class

Reader class:

Reader is an abstract class which is used to stre
am character input data. This class contains

number of methods to do input operations. Error may occur in the class, so it throws

IOException.

This class has many methods, they are.

? abstract void close()
-

it is used to close input source.

? int read()
-

it is used to return an integer representation of the next

available character from the invoking input stream.

? int read(char b[])
-

it is used to read up to length of character into the

buffer array b. then it returns the actual number of characters tha
t were successfully

read.


? abstract int read(char b[], int I, int j)
-

it is used to ream j characters into buffer b

starting from I index.

? Boolean read()
-

this method returns true next input is not waiting else false.


Example program

import java.io.*
;

public class readexample

{

public static void main(String[] args) throws

IOException

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



{

BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new

InputStreamReader(System.in));

System.out.println("Enter your text Here : ");

String st = in.readLine();

System.out.println(
"Entered Text is: "+st);

}

}

Output


WRITER CLASS

Writer is an abstract class and it is used to stream character output data. This class

contains number of methods. If error occurs it throws I/O Exception.

• abstract void close()
-

it is used to close the

output stream.

• abstract void flush()
-

it is used to clear the output buffers.

• void write(int b)
-

it is used to write a buffer array of character to

an output stream.

• void write(byte b)
-

it is used to write a buffer array of characters to

an outpu
t stream.

• Void write(byte b[], int I, int j)
-

it is used to write ‘j’ characters from buffer’ b’

starting from ‘i’ index character.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT




import java.io.*;

public class writeexample

{

public static void main(String[] args) throws

IOException

{

File file=new F
ile("write.txt");

FileOutputStream fop=new FileOutputStream(file);

if(file.exists())

{

String st="Writer Class:Writer is an abstract class

and it is used to stream character output data.";

fop.write(st.getBytes());

fop.flush();

fop.close();

System.out.prin
tln("The file has been written

and created file name is write.txt ");

}

else

System.out.println("This file is not exist");

} }

COMPILE

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT




File created: “write.txt”




1.3 Converting Byte Streams to Character Streams

Java. Lang Package provides the conversi
on functionality to convert byte value to String,

character or Hexadecimal values.

import java.io.*;

import java.lang.*;

public class convertbyte

{

public static void main(String[] args) throws

IOException

{

BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new

Input
StreamReader(System.in));

System.out.println("Enter the Valid Number");

byte b =(byte)4;

String str = br.readLine();

int i =Integer.parseInt(str);

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



String st = Integer.toHexString(i);

System.out.println("Converted Byte to

Charecter/String/HexaDecimal:=" + s
t);

}

}



CONVERT CHARACTER TO BYTE


import java.io.*;

import java.lang.*;

public class convertexample

{

public static void main(String[] args) throws

IOException

{

BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



InputStreamReader(System.in));

System.out.print
ln("Enter your charecters");

String st = br.readLine();

char c = st.charAt(2);

byte b = (byte)c;

System.out.println("Converted character value to Byte

Value is:=" + b); }

}


1.4 File Object


import java.io.*;

public class fileexample

{

public static void
main(String[] args) throws

IOException

{

File f=new File("file.txt");

if(!f.exists())

{

f.createNewFile();

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



System.out.println("New File Has been created

"file.txt" using File");

}

}

}



Created new file named as file.txt



1.5 Binary Input and Output



By
te Stream is used to provide binary Input and Output. It is 8 bit and the streams

communicate between the source and the designation file.

The input stream is used to read a sequence of bytes and the output stream is used to write

a sequence of bytes.

1. A
ll streams are derived from either input or output abstract classes.

2. All methods throw an IOException in both I/O classes.

3. Reader and Writer classes are available.


INPUT STREAM

This class is an abstract class & it is used to read input from one desi
gnation.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



Methods are used to read inputs:

public abstract int read() throws IOException

It is used to read the byte data from the input designation. Its return type is int and its
range

is 0 to 255. The read() method returns a value. This method runs until

stream is detected or

an exception is thrown.

public int read( byte[] b ) throws IOException


This method is used to read the array b upto its length. Return byte values or
-
1 returned.

public int available() throws IOException

returns the available bytes
.

public void close() throws IOException

Method used to close the Input stream.

Ex:

import java.io.*;

class inputexample

{

public static void main(String args[])

throws IOException

{int i;

InputStream is=new FileInputStream("inputexample.java");

System.out
.println(" total bytes"+ (i=is.available()));

int n=i/40;

System.out.println("First" +n+"bytes");

for(int a=0; a<n; a++)

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



{

System.out.println((char) is.read());

}System.out.println("available"+is.available());

System.out.println("reading next"+n);

byte b[]
=new byte[n];

if(is.read(b) !=n)

{

System.out.println("could not readb"+n);

}}}


OUTPUT STREAM

This output stream class is also an abstract class. Methods are given below.

public abstract void write( int b ) throws IOException

It is used to write ‘b’ as an

output of the stream. Lower 8 bit and high 24 bits are lost.

public void write( byte[] b ) throws IOException

This method writes the array of byte’ b’ to the output stream.

public int flush() throws IOException

flushed in a bytes, which is in buffer out o
f the stream.

public void close() throws IOException

Method is closed to the output stream

This output stream has two subclasses named as reader and writer. The read() and write()

methods waits until the complete process get finished.


Eg: input or output.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



import java.io.*;

class outputexample

{

public static void main(String arg[])throws IOException

{

String s="ICT Academy
\
n"+"Java COurse";

byte b[]=s.getBytes();

OutputStream os=new FileOutputStream("ex.txt");

for(int a=0; a<b.length; a+=2)

{

os.write(b[a
]);

}

os.close();

OutputStream os1=new FileOutputStream("ex1.txt");

os1.write(b);

os1.close();

}

}

File has been created using OutputStream class:



CLASS FILE

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



java.io


Class File

java.lang.Object


java.io.File



All Implemented Interfaces:


Comparable
,
Serializable



public class
File


extends
Object


im
plements
Serializable
,
Comparable

An abstract representation of file and directory pathnames.

User interfaces and operating systems use system
-
dependent
pathname strings

to name files and
directories. This class presents an abstract, system
-
independent view of hierarchical p
athnames.
An
abstract pathname

has two components:

1.

An optional system
-
dependent
prefix

string, such as a disk
-
drive specifier,
"/"

for the UNIX root
directory, or
"
\
\
"

for a Microsoft Windows UNC pathname, and

2.

A sequence of zero or more string
names
.

Ea
ch name in an abstract pathname except for the last denotes a directory; the last name may denote
either a directory or a file. The
empty

abstract pathname has no prefix and an empty name sequence.

The conversion of a pathname string to or from an abstrac
t pathname is inherently system
-
dependent. When an abstract pathname is converted into a pathname string, each name is
separated from the next by a single copy of the default
separator character
. The default name
-
separator character is defined by the syste
m property
file.separator
, and is made available in
the public static fields
separator

and
separatorChar

of this class. When a pathname string is
converted into an abstract pathname, the names within it may be separated by the default name
-
separator character or by any other name
-
separator character that is sup
ported by the underlying
system.

A pathname, whether abstract or in string form, may be either
absolute

or
relative
. An absolute
pathname is complete in that no other information is required in order to locate the file that it
denotes. A relative pathname
, in contrast, must be interpreted in terms of information taken from
some other pathname. By default the classes in the
java.io

package always resolve relative
JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



pathnames against the current user directory. This directory is named by the system property
us
er.dir
, and is typically the directory in which the Java virtual machine was invoked.

The prefix concept is used to handle root directories on UNIX platforms, and drive specifiers,
root directories and UNC pathnames on Microsoft Windows platforms, as foll
ows:



For UNIX platforms, the prefix of an absolute pathname is always
"/"
. Relative pathnames have
no prefix. The abstract pathname denoting the root directory has the prefix
"/"

and an empty name
sequence.



For Microsoft Windows platforms, the prefix of
a pathname that contains a drive specifier
consists of the drive letter followed by
":"

and possibly followed by
"
\
"

if the pathname is
absolute. The prefix of a UNC pathname is
"
\
\
"
; the hostname and the share name are the first two
names in the name sequ
ence. A relative pathname that does not specify a drive has no prefix.

Instances of the
File

class are immutable; that is, once created, the abstract pathname
represented by a
File

object will never change.


Field Summary

static

String

pathSeparator



The system
-
dependent path
-
separator

character, represented as a string for
convenience.

static

char

pathSeparatorChar



The system
-
dependent path
-
separator character.

static

String

separator



The system
-
dependen
t default name
-
separator character, represented as a string for
convenience.

static

char

separatorChar



The system
-
dependent default name
-
separ
ator character.




Constructor Summary

File
(
File

parent,
String

child)



Creates a new
File

instance from a parent abstract pathname and a child pathname string
.


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



File
(
String

pathname)




Creates a new
File

instance by converting the given pathname string into an abstract pathname.


File
(
String

parent,
String

child)



Creates a new
Fi
le

instance from a parent pathname string and a child pathname string.


File
(
URI

uri)



Creates a new
File

instance by converting the given
file:

URI into an abstract pathname.





Method Summary


boolean

canRead
()



Tests whether the application can read the file denoted by this abstract pathname.


boolean

canWrite
()



Tests

whether the application can modify to the file denoted by this abstract pathname.


int

compareTo
(
File

pathname)



Compares two abstract pathnames lexicographically.


int

compareTo
(
Object

o)



Compares this abstract pathname to another object.


boolean

createNewFile
()



Atomically creates a new, empty file named by this abstract pathname if and only if a
file with this name does not yet exist.

static

File

createTempFile
(
String

prefix,
String

suffix)



Creates an empty file in t
he default temporary
-
file directory, using the given prefix and
suffix to generate its name.

static

File

createTempFile
(
String

prefix,
String

suffix,
File

directory)




Crea
tes a new empty file in the specified directory, using the given prefix and suffix
strings to generate its name.


boolean

delete
()



Deletes the file

or directory denoted by this abstract pathname.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT




void

deleteOnExit
()



Requests that the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname b
e deleted when the
virtual machine terminates.


boolean

equals
(
Object

obj)



Tests this abstract pathname for equality with the given object.


boolean

exists
()



Tests whe
ther the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname exists.


File

getAbsoluteFile
()



Returns the absolute form of this abstract pathname.


String

getAbsolutePath
()



Returns the absolute pathname string of this abstract pathname.


File

getCanonicalFile
()



Returns the canonical form of this abstract pathname.


String

getCanonicalPath
()



Returns the canonical pathname s
tring of this abstract pathname.


String

getNam
e
()



Returns the name of the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname.


String

getParent
()



Returns the pathname string of this abstract pathname's parent, or
null

if this pathname
does not name a parent directory.


File

getParentFile
()



Returns the abstract pathname of this abstract pathname's parent,
or
null

if this pathname
does not name a parent directory.


String

getPath
()



Converts this abstract pathname into a pathname string.


int

hashCode
()



Computes a hash code for this a
bstract pathname.


boolean

isAbsolute
()



Tests whether this abstract pathname is absolute.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT




boolean

isDirectory
()



Tests whether the file denoted by this abstract pathname is a directory.


boolean

isFile
()



Tests whether the file denoted by this abstract pathname is a normal file.


boolean

isHidden
()



Tests whether the file

named by this abstract pathname is a hidden file.


long

lastModified
()



Returns the time that the file denoted by this abstract pathname was
last modified.


long

length
()



Returns the length of the file denoted by this abstract pathname.


String
[]

list
()



Returns an array of strings naming the files and directories in the dire
ctory denoted by
this abstract pathname.


String
[]

list
(
FilenameFilter

filter)



Returns an array of strings naming the files and directories in the direct
ory denoted by
this abstract pathname that satisfy the specified filter.


File
[]

listFiles
()



Returns an array of abstract pathnames denoting the files in the directory denoted by
this abstract pathname.


File
[]

listFiles
(
FileFilter

filter)



Returns an array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the directory
denoted by this abstract pathname that satisfy the specified filter.


File
[]

listFiles
(
FilenameFilter

filter)



Returns an array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the directory
denoted by this abstract pathname that satisfy the specified filter.

static

File
[]

listRoots
()



List the available file
system roots.


boolean

mkdir
()



Creates the directory named by this abstract pathname.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT




boolean

mkdirs
()



Creates the directory named by this abstract pathname, including any necessary but
nonexistent parent directories.


boolean

renameTo
(
File

dest)



Renames the file denoted by this abstract pathname.


boolean

setLastModified
(long

time)



Sets the last
-
modified time of the file or directory named by this abstract pathname.


boolean

setReadOnly
()



Marks the file or directory named by this abstract pathname so that only read operations
are allowed.


String

toString
()



Returns the pathname string of this abstract pathname.


URI

toURI
()



Constructs a
file:

URI that represents th
is abstract pathname.


URL

toURL
()



Convert
s this abstract pathname into a
file:

URL.




Methods inherited from class java.lang.
Object

clone
,
finalize
,
getClass
,
notify
,
notifyAll
,
wait
,
wait
,
wait




Field Detail

separatorChar

public static final char
separatorChar

The system
-
dependent default name
-
separator character. This field is initialized to contain the
first character of the va
lue of the system property
file.separator
. On UNIX systems the value of
this field is
'/'
; on Microsoft Windows systems it is
'
\
'
.

See Also:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



System.getProperty(java.lang.String)


separator

public static final
String

separator

The system
-
dependent default name
-
separator charac
ter, represented as a string for convenience.
This string contains a single character, namely
separatorChar
.


pathSeparatorChar

public static final char

pathSeparatorChar

The system
-
dependent path
-
separator character. This field is initialized to contain the first
character of the value of the system property
path.separator
. This character is used to separate
filenames in a sequence of files given as a
pa
th list
. On UNIX systems, this character is
':'
; on
Microsoft Windows systems it is
';'
.

See Also:


System.getProperty(java.lang.Strin
g)


pathSeparator

public static final
String

pathSeparator

The system
-
dependent path
-
separator character, represented as a string for convenien
ce. This
string contains a single character, namely
pathSeparatorChar
.


Constructor Detail

File

public
File
(
String

pathname)

Creates a new
File

instance by converting the given pathname string into an abstract pathname. If
the given string is the empty string, then the result is the empty abst
ract pathname.

Parameters:


pathname

-

A pathname string

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



Throws:


NullPointerException

-

If the
pathname

argument is
null


File

public
File
(
String

parent,


String

child)

Creates a new
File

instance from a parent pathname string and a child pathname string.

If
parent

is
null

then the new
File

instance is created as if by invoking the single
-
argument
File

constructor on the given
child

pathname string.

O
therwise the
parent

pathname string is taken to denote a directory, and the
child

pathname string is taken to denote either a directory or a file. If the
child

pathname
string is absolute then it is converted into a relative pathname in a system
-
dependent
way.
If
parent

is the empty string then the new
File

instance is created by converting
child

into an abstract pathname and resolving the result against a system
-
dependent default
directory. Otherwise each pathname string is converted into an abstract pathn
ame and the
child abstract pathname is resolved against the parent.

Parameters:


parent

-

The parent pathname string

child

-

The child pathname string

Throws:


NullPointerException

-

If
child

is
null


File

public
File
(
File

parent,


String

child)

Creates a new
File

instance from a parent abstract pathname and a child pathname string.

If
parent

is
null

then the new
File

instance is created as if by invoking th
e single
-
argument
File

constructor on the given
child

pathname string.

Otherwise the
parent

abstract pathname is taken to denote a directory, and the
child

pathname string is taken to denote either a directory or a file. If the
child

pathname
JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



string is ab
solute then it is converted into a relative pathname in a system
-
dependent way.
If
parent

is the empty abstract pathname then the new
File

instance is created by
converting
child

into an abstract pathname and resolving the result against a system
-
dependent

default directory. Otherwise each pathname string is converted into an abstract
pathname and the child abstract pathname is resolved against the parent.

Parameters:


parent

-

The parent abstract pathname

child

-

The child pathname string

Throws:


NullPointerException

-

If
child

is
null


File

public
File
(
URI

uri)

Creates a new
File

instance by converting the given
file:

URI into an abstract pathname.

The exact form of a
file:

URI is system
-
dependent, hence the transformation performed
by this constructor is also system
-
depende
nt.

For a given abstract pathname
f

it is guaranteed that

new File(

f
.
toURI
()).equals(

f
.
getAbsoluteFile
())

so long as the original abstract pathname, the URI, and the new abstract pathname are all created
in (possibly different invocations of) the same Java virtual machine. This relationship typically
doe
s not hold, however, when a
file:

URI that is created in a virtual machine on one operating
system is converted into an abstract pathname in a virtual machine on a different operating
system.

Parameters:


uri

-

An absolute, hierarchical URI with a scheme
equal to
"file"
, a non
-
empty path component,
and undefined authority, query, and fragment components

Throws:


NullPointerException

-

If
uri

is
null


IllegalArgumentException

-

If the preconditions on the parameter do not hold

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



Since:


1.4

See Also:


toURI()
,
URI


Method Detail

getName

public
String

getName
()

Returns the name of the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname. This is just the last
name in the pathname's name sequence. If the p
athname's name sequence is empty, then the
empty string is returned.

Returns:


The name of the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname, or the empty string if this
pathname's name sequence is empty


getParent

public
String

getParent
()

Returns the pathname string of this abstract pathname's parent, or
null

if this pathname does not
name a parent directory.

The
parent

of an abstract pa
thname consists of the pathname's prefix, if any, and each
name in the pathname's name sequence except for the last. If the name sequence is empty
then the pathname does not name a parent directory.

Returns:


The pathname string of the parent directory na
med by this abstract pathname, or
null

if this
pathname does not name a parent


getParentFile

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



public
File

getParentFile
()

Returns the abstract pathnam
e of this abstract pathname's parent, or
null

if this pathname does not
name a parent directory.

The
parent

of an abstract pathname consists of the pathname's prefix, if any, and each
name in the pathname's name sequence except for the last. If the name s
equence is empty
then the pathname does not name a parent directory.

Returns:


The abstract pathname of the parent directory named by this abstract pathname, or
null

if this
pathname does not name a parent

Since:


1.2


getPath

public
String

getPath
()

Converts this abstract pathname into a pathname string. The resulting string uses the
default name
-
separator character

to separate the names in the name sequence.

Returns:


The string form of this abstract pathname


isAbsolute

public boolean
isAbsolute
()

Tests whether this abstract pathname is absolut
e. The definition of absolute pathname is system
dependent. On UNIX systems, a pathname is absolute if its prefix is
"/"
. On Microsoft Windows
systems, a pathname is absolute if its prefix is a drive specifier followed by
"
\
\
"
, or if its prefix is
"
\
\
"
.

R
eturns:


true

if this abstract pathname is absolute,
false

otherwise


getAbsolutePath

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



public
String

getAbsolutePath
()

Returns the absolute pathn
ame string of this abstract pathname.

If this abstract pathname is already absolute, then the pathname string is simply returned
as if by the
getPath()

metho
d. If this abstract pathname is the empty abstract pathname
then the pathname string of the current user directory, which is named by the system
property
user.dir
, is returned. Otherwise this pathname is resolved in a system
-
dependent way. On UNIX systems,

a relative pathname is made absolute by resolving it
against the current user directory. On Microsoft Windows systems, a relative pathname is
made absolute by resolving it against the current directory of the drive named by the
pathname, if any; if not, i
t is resolved against the current user directory.

Returns:


The absolute pathname string denoting the same file or directory as this abstract pathname

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a required system property value cannot be accessed.

See Also:


isAbsolute()


getAbsoluteFile

public
File

getAbsoluteFile
()

Returns the absolute form of this abstract pathname. Equivalent to
new

File(this.
getAbsolutePath()
())
.

Returns:


The absolute abstract pathname denoting the same file or directory as this abstract pathname

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a required system property value cannot be accessed.

Since:


1.2


getCanonicalPath

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



public
String

getCanonicalPath
()


throws
IOException

Returns the canonical pathname string of thi
s abstract pathname.

A canonical pathname is both absolute and unique. The precise definition of canonical
form is system
-
dependent. This method first converts this pathname to absolute form if
necessary, as if by invoking the
getAbsolutePath()

method, and then maps it to its
unique form in a system
-
dependent way. This typically involves removing redundant
names such as
"."

and
".."

from the pathname,
resolving symbolic links (on UNIX
platforms), and converting drive letters to a standard case (on Microsoft Windows
platforms).

Every pathname that denotes an existing file or directory has a unique canonical form.
Every pathname that denotes a nonexisten
t file or directory also has a unique canonical
form. The canonical form of the pathname of a nonexistent file or directory may be
different from the canonical form of the same pathname after the file or directory is
created. Similarly, the canonical form
of the pathname of an existing file or directory may
be different from the canonical form of the same pathname after the file or directory is
deleted.

Returns:


The canonical pathname string denoting the same file or directory as this abstract pathname

T
hrows:


IOException

-

If an I/O error occurs, which is possible because the construction of the canonical
pathname may require filesystem querie
s

SecurityException

-

If a required system property value cannot be accessed.

Since:


JDK1.1

getCanonicalFile

public
File

getCanonicalFile
()


throws
I
OException

Returns the canonical form of this abstract pathname. Equivalent to
new

File(this.
getCanonicalPath()
())
.

Returns:


The canonical pathnam
e string denoting the same file or directory as this abstract pathname

Throws:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



IOException

-

If an I/O error occurs, which is possible because

the construction of the canonical
pathname may require filesystem queries

SecurityException

-

If a required system property value ca
nnot be accessed.

Since:


1.2

toURL

public
URL

toURL
()


throws
MalformedURLException

Converts this abstract pathname into a
file:

URL. The exact form of the URL is system
-
dependent. If it can be determined that the file denoted by this abstract pathname is a directory,
t
hen the resulting URL will end with a slash.

Usage note:

This method does not automatically escape characters that are illegal in
URLs. It is recommended that new code convert an abstract pathname into a URL by first
converting it into a URI, via the
toURI

method, and then converting the URI into a URL
via the
URI.toUR
L

method.

Returns:


A URL object representing the equivalent file URL

Throws:


MalformedURLException

-

If the path cannot be pars
ed as a URL

Since:


1.2

See Also:


toURI()
,
URI
,
URI.toURL()
,
URL

toURI

public
URI

toURI
()

Constructs a
file:

URI that represents this abstract pathname.

The exact form of the URI is system
-
dependent. If it can be determined that the file
denoted by this
abstract pathname is a directory, then the resulting URI will end with a
slash.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



For a given abstract pathname
f
, it is guaranteed that

new
File
(

f
.
toURI()).equals(

f
.
getAbsoluteFile
())

so long as the original abstract pathname, the URI, and the new abstract pathname are all created
in (possibly
different invocations of) the same Java virtual machine. Due to the system
-
dependent
nature of abstract pathnames, however, this relationship typically does not hold when a
file:

URI
that is created in a virtual machine on one operating system is converted

into an abstract
pathname in a virtual machine on a different operating system.

Returns:


An absolute, hierarchical URI with a scheme equal to
"file"
, a path representing this abstract
pathname, and undefined authority, query, and fragment components

Si
nce:


1.4

See Also:


File(java.net.URI)
,
UR
I
,
URI.toURL()

canRead

public boolean
canRead
()

Tests whether the application can read the file denoted by this abstract pathname.

Returns:


true

if and only
if the file specified by this abstract pathname exists
and

can be read by the
application;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file


can
Write

public boolean
canWrite
()

Tests whether the application can modify to the file denoted by this abstract pathname.

Returns:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



true

if and only if the file system actually contains a file denoted by this abstract pathname
and

the application is allowed

to write to the file;
false

otherwise.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method denies write access to the file

exists

public boolean
exists
()

Tests whether the file or directory de
noted by this abstract pathname exists.

Returns:


true

if and only if the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname exists;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file or directory

isDirectory

public boolean
isDirectory
()

Tests whether the file denoted by this abstract pathname is a directory.

Returns:


true

if and only if the file denoted by this abstract pathname exists
and

is a
directory;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file

isFile

public boolean
isFile
()

Tests whether the file denoted by this abstract pathna
me is a normal file. A file is
normal

if it is
not a directory and, in addition, satisfies other system
-
dependent criteria. Any non
-
directory file
created by a Java application is guaranteed to be a normal file.

Returns:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



true

if and only if the file deno
ted by this abstract pathname exists
and

is a normal file;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists
and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file

isHidden

public boolean
isHidden
()

Te
sts whether the file named by this abstract pathname is a hidden file. The exact definition of
hidden

is system
-
dependent. On UNIX systems, a file is considered to be hidden if its name
begins with a period character (
'.'
). On Microsoft Windows systems, a
file is considered to be
hidden if it has been marked as such in the filesystem.

Returns:


true

if and only if the file denoted by this abstract pathname is hidden according to the
conventions of the underlying platform

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file

lastModified

public long
lastModified
()

Returns the time that the file denoted by this abstract pathname was last modified.

Returns:


A
long

valu
e representing the time the file was last modified, measured in milliseconds since the
epoch (00:00:00 GMT, January 1, 1970), or
0L

if the file does not exist or if an I/O error occurs

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityMa
nager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file

length

public long
length
()

Returns the length of the file denoted by this abstract pathname. The return value is unspecified if
this pathname denotes a directory.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



Returns:


The leng
th, in bytes, of the file denoted by this abstract pathname, or
0L

if the file does not exist

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a secur
ity manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the file

createNewFile

publ
ic boolean
createNewFile
()


throws
IOException

Atomically creates a new, empty file named by this abstract pathname if and
only if a file with
this name does not yet exist. The check for the existence of the file and the creation of the file if it
does not exist are a single operation that is atomic with respect to all other filesystem activities
that might affect the file.

N
ote: this method should
not

be used for file
-
locking, as the resulting protocol cannot be
made to work reliably. The
FileLock

f
acility should be used instead.

Returns:


true

if the named file does not exist and was successfully created;
false

if the named file already
exists

Throws:


IOException

-

If an I/O error occurred

SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method denies write access to the file

delete

public boolean
delete
()

Deletes the file or directory d
enoted by this abstract pathname. If this pathname denotes a
directory, then the directory must be empty in order to be deleted.

Returns:


true

if and only if the file or directory is successfully deleted;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkDelete(java.lang.String)

method denies delete access to the file

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



deleteOnExit

public void
deleteOnExit
()

Requests that the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname be deleted when the virtual
m
achine terminates. Deletion will be attempted only for normal termination of the virtual
machine, as defined by the Java Language Specification.

Once deletion has been requested, it is not possible to cancel the request. This method
should therefore be us
ed with care.

Note: this method should
not

be used for file
-
locking, as the resulting protocol cannot be
made to work reliably. The
FileLock

facility should be used instead.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkDelete(java.lang.String)

method denies delete access to the file

list

public
String
[]
list
()

Returns an array of strings naming the files and directories in the directory denoted by this
abstract pathname.

If this abstract pathname does not denote a directory, then
this method returns
null
.
Otherwise an array of strings is returned, one for each file or directory in the directory.
Names denoting the directory itself and the directory's parent directory are not included
in the result. Each string is a file name rather

than a complete path.

There is no guarantee that the name strings in the resulting array will appear in any
specific order; they are not, in particular, guaranteed to appear in alphabetical order.

Returns:


An array of strings naming the files and direc
tories in the directory denoted by this abstract
pathname. The array will be empty if the directory is empty. Returns
null

if this abstract pathname
does not denote a directory, or if an I/O error occurs.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the directory

list

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



public
String
[]
list
(
FilenameFilter

filter)

Returns an array of strings naming the files and directories in the directory denoted by this
abstract pathname that satisfy the specif
ied filter. The behavior of this method is the same as that
of the
list()

method, except that the strings in the returned array must satisfy the filter. If the g
iven
filter

is
null

then all names are accepted. Otherwise, a name satisfies the filter if and only if the
value
true

results when the
FilenameFilter.accept(java.io.File, java.lang.String)

method of the filter is
invoked on this abstract pathname and the name of a file or directory in the directory that it
denotes.

Parameters:


filter

-

A filename filter

Returns:


An arr
ay of strings naming the files and directories in the directory denoted by this abstract
pathname that were accepted by the given
filter
. The array will be empty if the directory is empty
or if no names were accepted by the filter. Returns
null

if this abs
tract pathname does not denote a
directory, or if an I/O error occurs.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and
its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the directory

listFiles

public
File
[]
listFiles
()

Returns an array of abstract pathnames denoting the files in the directory denoted by this abstract
pathname.

If this abstract pathname does not denot
e a directory, then this method returns
null
.
Otherwise an array of
File

objects is returned, one for each file or directory in the
directory. Pathnames denoting the directory itself and the directory's parent directory are
not included in the result. Each

resulting abstract pathname is constructed from this
abstract pathname using the
File(File,

String)

constructor. Therefore if this

pathname is absolute then each resulting pathname is absolute; if this pathname is relative
then each resulting pathname will be relative to the same directory.

There is no guarantee that the name strings in the resulting array will appear in any
specifi
c order; they are not, in particular, guaranteed to appear in alphabetical order.

Returns:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



An array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the directory denoted by this
abstract pathname. The array will be empty if the directory is e
mpty. Returns
null

if this abstract
pathname does not denote a directory, or if an I/O error occurs.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If
a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the directory

listF
iles

public
File
[]
listFiles
(
File
nameFilter

filter)

Returns an array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the directory denoted
by this abstract pathname that satisfy the specified filter. The behavior of this method is the same
as that of the
listFiles()

method, except that the pathnames in the returned array must satisfy the
filter. If the given
filter

is
null

then all pathnames are accepted. Otherwise, a pathname s
atisfies the
filter if and only if the value
true

results when the
FilenameFilter.accept(java.io.File, java.lang.String)

method of the filter is invoked on this abstract pathname and the name of a file or directory in the
directory that it denotes.

Parameters:


filter

-

A filename filter

Returns:


An array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the d
irectory denoted by this
abstract pathname. The array will be empty if the directory is empty. Returns
null

if this abstract
pathname does not denote a directory, or if an I/O error occurs.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
Secur
ityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method denies read access to the directory

listFiles

public
File
[]
listFiles
(
FileFilter

filter)

Returns an array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the directory denoted
by this abstract pathname that satisfy the specified fil
ter. The behavior of this method is the same
as that of the
listFiles()

method, except that the pathnames in the returned array must satisfy the
filter. If
the given
filter

is
null

then all pathnames are accepted. Otherwise, a pathname satisfies the
filter if and only if the value
true

results when the
FileFilter.accept(java.io.File)

method of the filter
is invoked on the pathname.

Parameters:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



filter

-

A file filter

Returns:


An array of abstract pathnames denoting the files and directories in the directory denoted by this
abstract pathname. Th
e array will be empty if the directory is empty. Returns
null

if this abstract
pathname does not denote a directory, or if an I/O error occurs.

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

method

denies read access to the directory


mkdir

public boolean
mkdir
()

Creates the directory named by this abstract pathname.

Returns:


true

if and only if the directory was created;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method does not permit the named directory to be created

mkdirs

public boolean
mkdirs
()

Creates the directory named by this abstract pathname, including any necessary but nonexistent
parent directories. Not
e that if this operation fails it may have succeeded in creating some of the
necessary parent directories.

Returns:


true

if and only if the directory was created, along with all necessary parent directories;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method does not permit the named directory and all necessary parent directories and to be created

renameTo

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



public boolean
renameTo
(
File

dest)

Renames the file denoted by this abstract pathname.

Whether or not this method can move a file from one filesystem to another is platform
-
dependent. The return value should always be che
cked to make sure that the rename
operation was successful.

Parameters:


dest

-

The new abstract pathname for the named file

Returns:


true

if and only if the renaming succeeded;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method denies write access to either the old or new pathnames

NullPointerException

-

If parameter
dest

is
null

setLastModified

public boolean
setLastModified
(long

time)

Sets the last
-
modified time of the file or directory named by this abstract pathname.

All platforms support file
-
modification times to the nearest second, but some pro
vide
more precision. The argument will be truncated to fit the supported precision. If the
operation succeeds and no intervening operations on the file take place, then the next
invocation of the
lastModified()

method will return the (possibly truncated)
time

argument that was passed to this method.

Parameters:


time

-

The new last
-
modified time, measured in milliseconds since the epoch (00:00:00 GMT,
Jan
uary 1, 1970)

Returns:


true

if and only if the operation succeeded;
false

otherwise

Throws:


IllegalArgumentException

-

If t
he argument is negative

SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method denies write access to the named file

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



setReadOnly

public boolean
setReadOnly
()

Marks the file or directory named by this abst
ract pathname so that only read operations are
allowed. After invoking this method the file or directory is guaranteed not to change until it is
either deleted or marked to allow write access. Whether or not a read
-
only file or directory may
be deleted dep
ends upon the underlying system.

Returns:


true

if and only if the operation succeeded;
false

otherwise

Throws:


SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method denies write access to the named fil
e

listRoots

public static
File
[]
listRoots
()

List the available filesystem roots.

A particular Java platform may support zero or more hierarchically
-
organized file
systems. Each file system has a
root

directory from which all other files in that file
system can be reached. Windows platforms, for example, have a root directory for each
active drive; UNIX platforms have a single root directory, namely
"/
"
. The set of
available filesystem roots is affected by various system
-
level operations such the
insertion or ejection of removable media and the disconnecting or unmounting of
physical or virtual disk drives.

This method returns an array of
File

objects
that denote the root directories of the
available filesystem roots. It is guaranteed that the canonical pathname of any file
physically present on the local machine will begin with one of the roots returned by this
method.

The canonical pathname of a file

that resides on some other machine and is accessed via a
remote
-
filesystem protocol such as SMB or NFS may or may not begin with one of the
roots returned by this method. If the pathname of a remote file is syntactically
indistinguishable from the pathnam
e of a local file then it will begin with one of the roots
returned by this method. Thus, for example,
File

objects denoting the root directories of
the mapped network drives of a Windows platform will be returned by this method, while
File

objects contain
ing UNC pathnames will not be returned by this method.

Unlike most methods in this class, this method does not throw security exceptions. If a
security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkRead(java.lang.String)

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



method denies read access to a particular root directory, then that directory will not
appear in the result.

Returns:


An array of
File

objects denoting the avail
able filesystem roots, or
null

if the set of roots could not
be determined. The array will be empty if there are no filesystem roots.



createTempFile

public static
File

createTempFile
(
String

prefix,


String

suffix,


File

directory)


throws
IOException

Creates a new empty file in the specified directory, using the given prefix and suffix
strings to generate its name. If this method re
turns successfully then it is guaranteed that:

1.

The file denoted by the returned abstract pathname did not exist before this method was
invoked, and

2.

Neither this method nor any of its variants will return the same abstract pathname again
in the current in
vocation of the virtual machine.

This method provides only part of a temporary
-
file facility. To arrange for a file created by this
method to be deleted automatically, use the
deleteOnExit()

method.

The
prefix

argument must be at least three characters long. It is recommended that the
prefix be a short, meaningful string such as
"hjb"

or
"mail"
. The
suffix

argument may
be
null
, in which case the suffix
"
.tmp"

will be used.

To create the new file, the prefix and the suffix may first be adjusted to fit the limitations
of the underlying platform. If the prefix is too long then it will be truncated, but its first
three characters will always be preserved. If

the suffix is too long then it too will be
truncated, but if it begins with a period character (
'.'
) then the period and the first three
characters following it will always be preserved. Once these adjustments have been made
the name of the new file will
be generated by concatenating the prefix, five or more
internally
-
generated characters, and the suffix.

If the
directory

argument is
null

then the system
-
dependent default temporary
-
file
directory will be used. The default temporary
-
file directory is spec
ified by the system
property
java.io.tmpdir
. On UNIX systems the default value of this property is
typically
"/tmp"

or
"/var/tmp"
; on Microsoft Windows systems it is typically
"c:
\
\
temp"
. A different value may be given to this system property when the Java

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



virtual machine is invoked, but programmatic changes to this property are not guaranteed
to have any effect upon the the temporary directory used by this method.

Parameters:


prefix

-

The prefix string to be used in generating the file's name; must be at

least three characters
long

suffix

-

The suffix string to be used in generating the file's name; may be
null
, in which case the
suffix
".tmp"

will be used

directory

-

The directory in which the file is to be created, or
null

if the default temporary
-
fil
e
directory is to be used

Returns:


An abstract pathname denoting a newly
-
created empty file

Throws:


IllegalArgumentException

-

If the
prefix

argument contains fewer than three characters

IOException

-

If a file could not be created

SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method does not allow a file to be created



createTempFile

public static
File

create
TempFile
(
String

prefix,


String

suffix)


throws
IOException

Creates an empty file in the default temporary
-
file directo
ry, using the given prefix and suffix to
generate its name. Invoking this method is equivalent to invoking
createTempFile(prefix,

suffix,

null)
.

Parameters:


prefix

-

The prefix string to be used in generating the file's name; must be at least three characters
long

suffix

-

The suffix string to be used in generating the file's name; may be
null
, in which
case the
suffix
".tmp"

will be used

Returns:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



An abstract pathname denoting a newly
-
created empty file

Throws:


IllegalArgumen
tException

-

If the
prefix

argument contains fewer than three characters

IOException

-

If a file could not be created

SecurityException

-

If a security manager exists and its
SecurityManager.checkWrite(java.lang.String)

method does not allow a file to be created

compareTo

public int
compareTo
(
Fi
le

pathname)

Compares two abstract pathnames lexicographically. The ordering defined by this method
depends upon the underlying system. On UNIX systems, alphabetic case is significant in
comparing pathnames; on Microsoft Windows systems it is not.

Parame
ters:


pathname

-

The abstract pathname to be compared to this abstract pathname

Returns:


Zero if the argument is equal to this abstract pathname, a value less than zero if this abstract
pathname is lexicographically less than the argument, or a value gr
eater than zero if this abstract
pathname is lexicographically greater than the argument


compareTo

public int
compareTo
(
Object

o)

Compares this

abstract pathname to another object. If the other object is an abstract pathname,
then this function behaves like
compareTo(File)
. Otherwise, i
t throws a
ClassCastException
, since
abstract pathnames can only be compared to abstract pathnames.

Specified by:


compareTo

in int
erface
Comparable

Parameters:


o

-

The
Object

to be compared to this abstract pathname

Returns:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



If the argument is an abstract pathname
, returns zero if the argument is equal to this abstract
pathname, a value less than zero if this abstract pathname is lexicographically less than the
argument, or a value greater than zero if this abstract pathname is lexicographically greater than
the ar
gument

Throws:


ClassCastException

-

if the argument is not an abstract pathname

See Also:


Comparable

equals

public boolean
equals
(
Object

obj)

Tests this abstract pathname for equality with the given object. Returns
true

if and only if the
argument is not
null

and is an abstract

pathname that denotes the same file or directory as this
abstract pathname. Whether or not two abstract pathnames are equal depends upon the underlying
system. On UNIX systems, alphabetic case is significant in comparing pathnames; on Microsoft
Windows sy
stems it is not.

Overrides:


equals

in class
Object

Parameters:


obj

-

The object to be compared with this abstract pathname

Returns:


true

if and only if the objects are the same;
false

otherwise

See Also:


Object.hashCode()
,
Hashtable

hashCode

public int
hashCode
()

Computes a hash code for this abstract pathname. Bec
ause equality of abstract pathnames is
inherently system
-
dependent, so is the computation of their hash codes. On UNIX systems, the
hash code of an abstract pathname is equal to the exclusive
or

of its pathname string and the
decimal value
1234321
. On Micr
osoft Windows systems, the hash code is equal to the exclusive
or

of its pathname string, convered to lower case, and the decimal value
1234321
.

Overrides:


JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



hashCode

in class
Object

Returns:


A hash code for this abstract pathname

See Also:


Object.equals(java.lang.Object)
,
Hashtable

toString

public
String

toString
()

Returns the pathname string of this abstract pathname. This is just the string returned by the
getPath()

method.

Overrides:


toString

in class
Object

Returns:


The string form of this abstract pathname





JAVA.IO CLASS OVERVIEW

Introduction

This section introduces the basic organization of the java.io classes, consisting of:

* Input and output

streams

* Readers and writers

* Data and object I/O streams

Input stream classes

In the InputStream class, bytes can be read from three different sources:

* An array of bytes

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



* A file

* A pipe

Sources, such as ByteArrayInputStream and FilterInputStream, s
ubclass the

InputStream class. The subclasses under InflatorInputStream and

FilterInputStream are listed in the figure below.


InputStream methods

Various methods are included in the InputStream class.

* abstract int read() reads a single byte, an array,
or a subarray of bytes. It returns

the bytes read, the number of bytes read, or
-
1 if end
-
of
-
file has been reached.

* read(), which takes the byte array, reads an array or a subarray of bytes and returns a

-
1 if the end
-
of
-
file has been reached.

* skip(),
which takes long, skips a specified number of bytes of input and returns the

number of bytes actually skipped.

* available() returns the number of bytes that can be read without blocking. Both the

input and output can block threads until the byte is read o
r written.

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



* close() closes the input stream to free up system resources.


InputStream marking

Some, but not all, InputStreams support marking. Marking allows you to go back to a

marked place in the stream like a bookmark for future reference. Remember, no
t all

InputStreams support marking. To test if the stream supports the mark() and reset()

methods, use the boolean markSupported() method.

The mark() method, which takes an integer read_limit, marks the current position in

the input stream so that reset()
can return to that position as long as no more than the

specified number of bytes have been read between the mark() and reset().


OutputStream classes

Bytes can be written to three different types of sinks:

* An array of bytes

* A file

* A pipe

The followi
ng figure shows OutputStream classes.

Let's

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT






Let's look at some examples of OutputStream classes. Before sending an OutputStream

to its ultimate destination, you can filter it. For example, the BufferedOutputStream is a

subclass of the FilterOutputStrea
m that stores values to be written in a buffer and writes

them out only when the buffer fills up.

CheckedOutputStream and DigestOutputStream are part of the

FilterOutputStream class. They calculate checksums or message digests on the output.

DeflatorOutput
Stream writes to an OutputStream and creates a zip file. This class

does compression on the fly.

The PrintStream class is also a subclass of FilterOutputStream, which implements a

number of methods for displaying textual representation of Java primitive ty
pes. For

example:

* println(long)

* println(int)

println(float)

* println(char)

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



DataOutputStream implements the DataOutput interface. DataOutput defines the

methods required for streams that can write Java primitive data types in a

machine
-
independent bina
ry format.

OutputStream methods

The OutputStream class provides several methods:

* The abstract void write() method takes an integer byte and writes a single byte.

* The void write() method takes a byte array and writes an array or subarray of

bytes.

* The

void flush() method forces any buffered output to be written.

* The void close() method closes the stream and frees up system resources.

It is important to close your output files because sometimes the buffers do not get completely

flushed and, as a conse
quence, are not complete.


DataInput and DataOutput

The DataInput and DataOutput classes define the methods required for streams that can

read Java primitive data types in a machine
-
independent binary format. They are

implemented by RandomAccessFile.

The O
bjectInput interface extends the DataInput interface and adds methods for

deserializing objects and reading bytes and arrays of bytes. You can learn more about

serialization in Object serialization on page 46.

The ObjectOutputStream class creates a stream
of objects that can be deserialized by

the ObjectInputStream class.

The ObjectOutput interface extends the DataOutput interface and adds methods for

serializing objects and writing bytes and arrays of bytes.

ObjectOutputStream is used to serialize objects,

arrays, and other values to a stream.

Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT



What are Readers?

Readers are character
-
based input streams that read Unicode characters.

* read() reads a single character and retur
ns a character read as an integer in the range from to 65535 or a
-
1 if the end of thestream is reached.

* abstract read() reads characters into a portion of an array (starting at offset up to length number of
characters) and returns the number of charact
ers read or
-
1 if the end of

the stream is reached.

int read()

read (char[] buffer,

int offset, int length


Character input streams

Let's take a look at the different character input streams in the java.io package.

* Strings

* Character arrays

* Pipes

Inpu
tStreamReader is a character input stream that uses a byte input stream as its data

source and converts it into Unicode characters.

LineNumberReader, a subclass of BufferedReader, is a character input stream that

keeps track of the number of lines of text
that have been read from it.

PushbackReader, a subclass of FilterReader, is a character input stream that uses

another input stream as its input source and adds the ability to push characters back onto the

stream.


What are Writers?

Writers are character
-
b
ased output streams that write character bytes and turn Unicode into bytes.

The base class includes these methods:

JAVA PROGRAMMING

NASC

CS&IT