CHAPTER 15: IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REAL?

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Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

1

CHAPTER 15:


IS ARTIFICIAL INTELL
IGENCE REAL?

Multiple Choice:


1.

“Artificial intelligence is the study of ideas which enable computers to do the things that make people seem
intelligent.” This commonly used definition of AI is a quote by:

A.

Alan Turing.

B.

Patri
ck Henry Winston.

C.

Phil Knight.

D.

Bill Gates.

Answer:
B

Reference:
What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Difficulty:

Moderate

2.

The “imitation game” was developed by ____________ to demonstrate a computer’s intelligence.

A.

Alan Turing

B.

Patrick Henry Winston

C.

the U.S. D
ept. of Defense

D.

Bill Gates

Answer:
A

Reference:
Can Machines Think?

Difficulty:

Moderate

3.

The simulation approach in regard to AI includes all of the following problems EXCEPT:

A.

people don’t always know how they do things.

B.

the brain can perform parallel proc
essing, which is difficult for computers.

C.

machines operate differently than the brain.

D.

we know how the brain functions and can simulate that in a computer.

Answer:
D

Reference:
What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Difficulty:

Moderate





Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

2

4.

One of the first popu
lar domains for AI research was:

A.

the checkerboard.

B.

solitaire.

C.

chess.

D.

parallel processing.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Moderate

5.

Traditional AI techniques still used today include all of the following EXCEPT:

A.

searching.

B.

heuristics.

C.

pattern

recognition.

D.

parallel processing.

Answer:
D

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Challenging

6.

Machine learning involves:

A.

learning from a successful move.

B.

copying the knowledge of a human to a computer.

C.

loading numerous games and playing them regularly.

D.

mak
ing numerous mistakes so the computer can learn.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Moderate

7.

A primary outcome of the automatic language translation program was the realization that:

A.

humans are faster and more accurate.

B.

computers are faster and

more accurate.

C.

computers make fewer errors than humans.

D.

computers can accurately translate 99% of the text.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Machine Translation Traps

Difficulty:

Easy

Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

3


8.


AltaVista’s Babel Fish Web site is a(n):

A.

language translation program.

B.

wealth of

information about species of fish.

C.

AI search engine.

D.

AI organizational page of information.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Machine Translation Traps

Difficulty:

Moderate

9.

A typical problem of natural
-
language communication is:

A.

tone inflection.

B.

the limited vocabulary

of natural language.

C.

the use of accents.

D.

the enormous vocabulary of natural language.

Answer:
D

Reference:
Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty:

Moderate

10.

Syntax, a problem with natural
-
language communication, is:

A.

the tone inflection of human language.

B.

the

natural accent of the human voice.

C.

a set of rules for common expressions.

D.

a set of rules for constructing sentences from words.

Answer:
D

Reference:
Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty:

Moderate

11.

Semantics, a problem with natural
-
language communication, r
efers to:

A.

the underlying meaning of words and phrases.

B.

a set of rules for constructing sentences from words.

C.

the natural accent of the human voice.

D.

the tone inflection of human language.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty:

Moderate


Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

4

12.

The most successful natural
-
language applications:

A.

keep the scope of their work very wide and nebulous.

B.

limit the scope of their field.

C.

keep the rules very flexible and variable.

D.

discard common sense as unimportant.

Answer:
B

Reference:
Nonsense and Common

Sense

Difficulty:

Easy

13.

When it comes to the areas of data and knowledge, computers are much better at handling:

A.

knowledge first, then processing the data.

B.

knowledge than data.

C.

data than knowledge.

D.

only knowledge.

Answer:
C

Reference:
Knowledge Bases and E
xpert Systems

Difficulty:

Easy

14.

A typical database contains:

A.

rules, facts, and relationships.

B.

only rules and relationships.

C.

simulation of human thinking.

D.

only facts.

Answer:
D

Reference:
Knowledge Bases

Difficulty:

Moderate

15.

When a computer
can correctly
rec
ognize faces of users with a high degree of reliability, it is using:

A.

fuzzy logic.

B.

pattern recognition.

C.

image analysis.

D.

OCR.

Answer:
C

Reference:
Image Analysis

Difficulty:

Easy



Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

5

16.

A knowledge base contains:

A.

rules, facts, and relationships.

B.

only rules and r
elationships.

C.

simulation of human thinking.

D.

only facts.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Knowledge Bases

Difficulty:

Moderate

17.

A software program designed to replicate the decision
-
making process of a human expert is a(n):

A.

data system.

B.

database.

C.

expert system.

D.

semantic

system.

Answer:
C

Reference:
Artificial Experts

Difficulty:

Moderate

18.

Using the knowledge of an expert in a particular field in order to duplicate it into a program is the creation
of a(n):

A.

expert system.

B.

database.

C.

fuzzy logic system.

D.

pattern recognition s
ystem.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Artificial Experts

Difficulty:

Easy

19.

When a conclusion is stated as a probability rather than an exact fact, it is known as:

A.

an expert system.

B.

a database.

C.

fuzzy logic.

D.

a pattern recognition system.

Answer:
C

Reference:
Artificial

Experts

Difficulty:

Moderate


Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

6

20.

XCON, a system at American Express, and a system at Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Virginia are all examples
of:

A.

expert systems.

B.

databases.

C.

fuzzy logic.

D.

pattern recognition systems.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Expert Systems in Action

Di
fficulty:

Moderate

21.

Expert systems primarily started in the:

A.

insurance field.

B.

medical field.

C.

aviation field.

D.

library reference field.

Answer:
B

Reference:
Expert Systems in Action

Difficulty:

Easy

22.

The field of AI that covers fingerprint identification, hand
writing recognition, and weather forecasting is:

A.

pattern recognition.

B.

image analysis.

C.

parsing programs.

D.

fuzzy logic.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World

Difficulty:

Moderate

23.

The task of identifying recurring patterns in inpu
t data with the eventual understanding or categorizing of
that input is known as:

A.

fuzzy logic.

B.

automatic translation.

C.

a parsing program.

D.

pattern recognition.

Answer:
D

Reference:
Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World

Difficulty:

Moderate


Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

7

24.

What asp
ect of artificial intelligence represents half of the industry?

A.

Fuzzy logic

B.

Automatic translation

C.

Parsing programs

D.

Pattern recognition

Answer:
D

Reference:
Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World

Difficulty:

Moderate

25.

_____________ is the process of
identifying objects and shapes in a photograph, drawing, video, or other
visual image.

A.

Pattern recognition

B.

Image analysis

C.

OCR

D.

Fuzzy logic

Answer:
B

Reference:
Image Analysis

Difficulty:

Easy

26.

The U.S. Postal Service sorts much of its mail using:

A.

OCR.

B.

fuzzy
logic.

C.

image analysis.

D.

pattern recognition.

Answer:
A

Reference:
Optical Character Recognition

Difficulty:

Moderate

27.

OCR stands for:

A.

original character representation.

B.

optical character recognition.

C.

optical computer reply.

D.

original character recognition.

An
swer:
B

Reference:
Optical Character Recognition

Difficulty:

Easy


Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

8

28.

More advanced speech recognition programs that have the ability to recognize speech without being trained
by a speaker are known as:

A.

OCR.

B.

speaker independent.

C.

digitized speech.

D.

synthetic sp
eech systems.

Answer:
B

Reference:
Automatic Speech Recognition

Difficulty:

Moderate

29.

When a computer’s speech sounds like the speech of a human, it is using:

A.

OCR.

B.

synthetic speech.

C.

speech synthesis.

D.

prerecorded
commentary
.

Answer:
C

Reference:
Talking Comp
uters

Difficulty:

Moderate

30.

The primary successes of intelligent applications tend to have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:

A.

logical rules.

B.

unstructured logic.

C.

sequential thinking.

D.

orderly relationships.

Answer:
B

Reference:
Neural Networks

Diffi
culty:

Moderate

31.

A network of a few thousand simple processors is called a

_________ network.

A.

n
eural

B.

cerebral

C.

rational

D.

robot

Answer:
A

Reference:
Neural Networks

Difficulty:

Moderate


Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

9

32.

An example of a ____________
network
is American Express reading and
analyzing millions of charge
slips each day or recognizing patterns in huge quantities of data, such as the stock market.

A.

neural

B.

cerebral

C.

rational

D.

robot

Answer:
A

Reference:
Neural Networks

Difficulty:

Moderate

33.

A computer
-
controlled machine designed to

perform specific manual tasks is known as a(n):

A.

speech synthesizer.

B.

AI.

C.

robot.

D.

OCR.

Answer:
C

Reference:
What Is a Robot?

Difficulty:

Easy

34.

Robots are quite effective in all of the following EXCEPT:

A.

cleaning up hazardous waste.

B.

doing repetitive jobs.

C.

worki
ng 24/7.

D.

doing work that requires fine
-
motor skills.

Answer:
D

Reference:
Steel
-
Collar Workers

Difficulty:

Moderate

Fill in the Blank:


35.

AI stands for ____________.

Answer:
artificial intelligence

Reference:
Alan Turing, Military Intelligence
, and Intellige
nt Machines

Difficulty:

Easy

36.

____________ is the process of breaking complex jobs into manageable pieces and completing these tasks
simultaneously.

Answer:
Parallel processing

Reference:
What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Difficulty:

Moderate

Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

10

37.

A
(n)

_________
___

is a rule of thumb
.


Answer:
heuristic

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Challenging

38.

One AI technique that is still used today is ____________, the process of looking at possibilities and
choosing one that is most probable for success.

Answer:
searc
hing

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Moderate

39.

The ____________ technique rapidly repeats a simple operation until an answer is found.

Answer:
brute
-
force

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Challenging

40.

Every natural language has a(n) ____________, a
set of rules for constructing sentences from words.

Answer:
syntax

Reference:
Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty:

Moderate

41.

The most successful natural
-
language applications limit their ____________, or affected area, so that rules
can be clean and unambi
guous.

Answer:
domain

Reference:
Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty:

Easy

42.

____________ allows a computer to output words in English or another language.

Answer:
Speech synthesis

Reference:
Talking Computers

Difficulty:

Moderate

43.

Between humans and compute
rs, ____________ are better at comprehending and identifying relationships
among facts.

Answer:
humans

Reference:
Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems

Difficulty:

Moderate

44.

A database contains only facts, while a(n) ____________ also contains a system of rule
s for determining
and changing the relationship among those facts.

Answer:
knowledge base

Reference:
Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems

Difficulty:

Challenging

45.

A(n) ____________ is a software program designed to replicate the decision
-
making process of a h
uman
expert.

Answer:
expert system

Reference:
Artificial Experts

Difficulty:

Moderate

46.

Since most human decision making involves ambiguity, ____________ allows for conclusions that are
based on probabilities rather than certainties.

Answer:
fuzzy logic

Refe
rence:
Artificial Experts

Difficulty:

Moderate

47.

An expert system is based on the knowledge of a(n) ____________.

Answer:
expert

Reference:
Artificial Experts

Difficulty:

Moderate

Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

11

48.

Because of the orderly and well
-
documented information of the industry, the _
___________ field was the
area used for some of the first successful expert systems.

Answer:
medical

Reference:
Artificial Experts

Difficulty:

Moderate

49.

The process of ____________ is used for recognizing and recoloring classic motion pictures or piloting
c
ruise missiles.

Answer:
image analysis

Reference:
Image Analysis

Difficulty:

Challenging

50.

____________ text is more difficult than printed text for a computer to recognize accurately.

Answer:
Handwritten

Reference:
Optical Character Recognition

Difficulty:

Easy

51.

____________ voice recognition systems have the ability to recognize speech without being trained by an
individual speaker.

Answer:
Speaker independent

Reference:
Automatic Speech Recognition

Difficulty:

Moderate

52.

Most modern robots include ___________
_ that accept new input and enable robots to correct or modify
their actions based on feedback from the outside world.

Answer:
sensors

Reference:
What Is a Robot?

Difficulty:

Challenging

53.

____________ is the playing of prerecorded speech stored on a compute
r.

Answer:
Digitized speech

Reference:
Talking Computers

Difficulty:

Moderate

54.

With
____________
software or hardware, PCs can recite typed text, but with artificial and robotic voices.

Answer:
speech synthesis

Reference:
Talking Computers

Difficulty:

Moder
ate

55.

A(n) ____________ uses a network of a few thousand simple processors that work simultaneously.

Answer:
neural network

Reference:
Neural Networks

Difficulty:

Challenging

56.

A(n) ____________ is a computer
-
controlled machine designed to perform specific man
ual tasks.

Answer:
robot

Reference:
What Is a Robot?

Difficulty:

Moderate

57.

____________ is the application of AI concepts to networks, rather than only to individual computers.

Answer:
Distributed intelligence
Reference:
AI Implications and Ethical Qu
estions

Difficulty:

Moderate

58.

In the workplace, ____________ primarily take over tasks that are boring, dirty, or dangerous and which
humans often do not want, cannot do, or get very tired of doing.

Answer:
robots

Reference:
What Is a Robot?

Difficulty:

Mod
erate

Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

12

Matching:


59.

Match the following terms to their meanings:

I.

Turing test

A.

s
oftware designed to replicate the knowledge of a human “expert”

II.

Expert system

B.

s
et of rules for constructing sentences from words

III.

A
utomatic translation

C.

t
he
“real” meaning of words and phrases

IV.

C
heckers and chess

D.

i
f it acts intelligent, it is intelligent

V.

S
yntax

E.

c
ontains facts and relationships

VI.

S
emantics

F.

t
he first area of AI research

VII.

D
omain

G.

S
panish “hola” for English “hello”

VIII
.
ELI
ZA

H.

c
ontains only facts

IX.

D
atabase

I.

o
ne of the first software programs to converse in natural language

X.

K
nowledge base

J.

t
he “world” that the application deals with

Answers:

D, A, G, F, B, C, J, I, H, E


Reference:
Multiple locations

Difficulty:

C
hallenging


Chapter 15: Is Artifici
al Intelligence Real?

Copyright © 2006 Prentice
-
Hall. All rights reserved.

13

60.

Match the following AI techniques to their specific examples:

I.

S
earching

A.

i
n a game of checkers, keep checkers in the king’s row as long as




possible

II.

H
euristics

B.
a

chess move is successful, the computer will probably opt to use i
t




more often in the future and vice versa

III.

P
attern recognition

C.


t
here are five possible chess moves in this situation, if I choose




this…then this happens; if I choose this other option…then this other



thing happens; etc.

IV.

M
achine lear
ning

D.

i
f the knight chess piece is in this square and the Queen is to the right



with the opponent’s King straight in front, then the proper move is…

Answers:

C, A, D, B

Reference:
Opening Games

Difficulty:

Moderate