IBM and IM

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About IBM


It’s an amazing time to work for IBM. Why?



IBM hires only the best and brightest talent
------
thinkers and a doers.



IBM's work is bo
th challenging and meaningful.



IBM challenges
the way the world works and encourages a global perspective.



IBM inve
nts, develops
,

and manufactures the most adva
nced information technologies.



IBM helps the world's leading organizations transform business
es

and become more competitive.


IBM's vision is to bring a new level of intell
igence to how the world works
------
how ever
y person, business,
organization, government, natural system, and man
-
made system interacts. Each interaction represents a
chance to do something better, more efficiently, more productively. But more than that, as the systems of
the planet become smarter,
we have a chance to open up meaningful new possibilities for progress.


Are you ready to start changing the way the world works?


IBM is the world’s largest information technology company, and IBM's products influence the world. From
banking to
science
, f
rom

utilities to schools, IBM products are
used
everywhere. You can be a part of
creating the software products that run the world's largest businesses, governments, and universities. And
you can grow within IBM, building a
career over time with myriad

opt
ions available to you in development,
serv
ices, marketing, education,
sales
, and more
. We’re here to stay

we've been around for
nearly 100

years, and we'll be here in the future. Read the story of IBM at
www.ibm.com/ibm/history/story
.


Because o
f IBM’s size and scope,
we have the ability to make a difference.
398,000+ IBM

employees

around the world come to work each day to help IBM accomplish these goals. As the world’s largest
information technology com
pany, we have a responsibility to lead in the networked world. Our goal is not
only to capture a significant share of business opportunities; we also try to have a lasting and positive effect
on the world. We want to influence how humans relate, how busine
sses are run, how children and adults
learn, and how people use technology to improve their lives.


One of the ways we are leading is by creating
an On Demand Business environment
, both within IBM and
beyond.
An On Demand Business leverages open source te
chnology to create an IT infrastructure that is
scalable, flexible, and efficient, enabling businesses to swiftly and easily act and react to changes
in

t
heir
specific business climate.
Driving this
On Demand

Business strategy is the software that enables
it
. And
IBM Software Group is the second largest software business in the world, with
2008

revenues of
$
22

billion.


IBM does business in virtually every country. Our customers work around the world. And you will find our
employees around the globe, too.
No successful company can afford to remain isolated. We are dedicated
to being a global business with global reach and
a
global understanding of our customers. We have received
international recognition from a variety of organizations and publications for
the quality of our work. Our
success can be measured by the fact that IBM is the world's largest information technology company,
hardware company, IT services company, and IT rental and financing company.


IBM recognizes that the people in the world now a
re all connected economically, technically, and socially.
But being connected is not sufficient. We also have to infuse intelligence into our systems and ways of
working. The world is smaller, flatter, and changing faster. We think it can be smarter. IBM
employees have
the opportunity to change the way the world works

by changing systems and processes. The possibilities
are endless…smart airports, smart banks, smart food, smart retail, smart roadways, and smart cities. Learn
more about IBM Smarter Planet a
t
http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ideasfromibm/us/smartplanet/index.shtml





Here’s more proof of our global reach:



IBM

data
base products
are used by 100% of the

Fortune
100 companies.



3
98,000+

employees help us do business in more than
170

countries.



IBM is the
worldwide market share and technology leader in business intelligence and data warehousing
(according to both World Research, Inc. and Dataquest). IBM software manages data for 16 of the 20
largest transportation companies; 15 of the 20 largest utilities;
15 of the 20 largest life insurers; and for 6

of the world's 10 largest banks.



IBM earned 4,186 U.S. patents in 2008, becoming the first company ever to earn more than 4,000 U.S.
p
atents in a single year. IBM has

also
been
the
leader

in patent generat
ion
for 16 consecutive years.
IBM’s 2008 patent total is nearly triple Hewlett
-
Packard’s
total
and exceeds the combined 2008 patents
of Microsoft, Hewlett
-
Packard, Oracle, Apple, EMC, Accenture
,

and Google.



IBM is:



The largest consulting organization in the wo
rld



The second largest software company in the world



The largest IT financing company in the world



The l
eader in middleware




With solid financial strength of

$103.6

billion in revenue, and $12.3 billion in profit in 2008, IBM is not
only well
-
positioned fo
r future growth, but

favorably insula
ted from economic volatility. Despite the
economic recession, IBM
has beco
me more profitable
, in part because of its geographic diversity and
focu
s on services and software sales.
IBM continues to invest in future sourc
es of growth and provide
s

r
ecord return to investors

investing

more than $50
billion from 2000 to 2008 in research and
development
, with more than 100 acquisitions of hardware, services
,

and software companies.


About our people


Working at IBM is a matter

of shared responsibilities and rewards. It’s a place where people are expected to
deliver results and are rewarded when they do. At IBM, you can personally excel and work with colleagues
to build the industry’s most innovative technologies and solutions.
It’s a place where people make the
difference; where people can learn, have fun, and win in the marketplace.


IBM offers excellent continuing education benefits, health care programs, compensation, and incentives
,
including:





Health benefit options to mee
t individual or family needs



Wellness programs to
help employees
stay healthy and productive



15 vacation days per year
for employees with up to
9 years of service; 20 days per year
for employees
with 10 or more years of service



Flexible work e
nvironments;

schedules to help
balance work and family



Critical family care services



Community programs



Educational opportunities, including scholarships for children



Discounts on products, services
,

and entertainment


IBM also
has a responsibility to the communitie
s in which we do business. Learn more about our
community relations programs at
http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ibmgives/grant/index.shtml
.







Of course we feel
that
IBM is a great plac
e to work, but here’s what
others
say

about us:




The
200
9

Fortune
“Top 20 Mo
st Admired Companies” list (IT category) ranked IBM
1
st

i
n the United
States.



U.S. President Barack Obama recognized IBM and its Blue Gene family of supercomputers with the
National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the
United States’

most prestigious aw
ard given to leading
innovators for technological achie
vement. President Obama will
present

the award at a special White
House ceremony on October 7
,

2009.



Working Mother

Magazine

(U
.
S
.
)
has
named IBM among the top 10 companies for women for the 20
th

conse
cutive year,

and
among the top 100 companies for 22 consecutive years.



In 2009, IBM was named by
Working Mother Magazine

as one of the Best Companies for Multicultural
Women.



IBM was ranked

1
st

o
n the

50 Best Corporate Citizens

in Canada


list for 2008
.



I
BM was

named
in 2009 as one of the Top 20

Companies
by Asian Business Ventures fo
r the seventh
consecutive year.



IBM employees have earned Nobel Prizes (5 Nobel Laureates), Turing Awards, National Medals of
Technology, and National Medals of Science
.



IBM r
eceived a t
op score in
Climate Counts’

ranking of climate friendly business
es.



Computerworld Magazine

named IBM the top Green IT Company for 2008
.



Women in Technology International

has inducted 13 IBM employees

in
to

its WITI
Hall of Fame
.



IBM was
ranked
1
s
t

by
The DiversityInc
in its

“Top
Ten Companies for

People with Disabilities


list.



In 2007,

IBM software products earned nine awards in Intelligent Enterprise Awards, tying Microsoft for
the most individual honors.



IBM was awarded the Corporate Courage Aw
ard by The Human Rights Campaign, the largest lesbian
and gay advocacy organization in the United States, recognizing IBM for implementing a policy that
offers health benefits to domestic partners of employees.

At IBM, we value diversity. We realize that t
o know our markets and to serve them well requires that we
understand them. This level of understanding comes from employing people who represent those markets.
Diversity is our source of innovation, opportunity, and competitive advantage, and it is critic
al to our
continuing success.


To help our people grow, IBM spends millions of dollars every year to provide state
-
of
-
the
-
art education and
training. We also provide mentoring programs to help new employees explore career development with an
experienced p
rofessional and prepare for growth opportunities in the company.


At IBM, we enjoy a culture that encourages innovation, teamwork, and high achievement

one that
recognizes and fully utilizes the unique talents of each employee.


For more information, visit

our employment Web site at
www.ibm.com/employment
.









About the
Information

Management Division of

IBM Software Group


IBM Software Group is an all
-
software development organization in IBM. Our products
give customers the
flexibility to use software in many operating environments, focusing on e
-
business
and On Demand

Business
solutions. One of the divisions within
IBM
Software Group is
Information

Management Software.
Information Management

products inclu
de databases that allow customers to access, manage
, and use
enterprise data; content management offerings that enable customers to manage their media assets; and
business intelligence software that enables them to derive business value from enterprise dat
a.



IBM Software Group is a team of people

programmers, architects, testers, customer service professionals,
user experience engineers, visual designers, and technical communicators

who are skilled, innovative, and
empowered to shape the business with th
eir creativity.



About our products and solutions


The following
Information

Management products are developed at IBM’s Silicon Valley Laboratory in San
Jose (CA), and also in other IBM locations in Westboro (MA), Austin (TX), and Boca Raton (FL):


Inform
ation Management System (IMS

)

is a transaction management and hierarchical database
management product that is used by companies that require high volume, high performance, high reliability,
and high security for "bet
-
your
-
business" applications. For that

reason, industries worldwide rely on IMS to
run their businesses. In fact, over 95% of the
Fortune

1000 companies use IMS. $2.5 trillion dollars per day
are transferred through IMS by one customer. About 50 billion transactions per day run through IMS. IM
S
serves close to 200 million users per day. Most corporate data in the world is managed by IMS. Open
interfaces and the
IMS SOA Integration Suite, a set of related middleware products, enable customers to
use IMS from the Internet and other business appli
cations.


DB2
®

is a relational database management system that is used by companies all over the world. It has
grown faster than its closest competitor and faster than the industry for the past three years. Its strengths
are reliability and scalabilit
y, a
nd it is
growing in functionality. As we take DB2 into new business areas, we
need to allow for a change in application processing. More and more, we are seeing requirements to allow
for processing of nonstandard data (such as image and video), to allow ve
ry complex operations to be
performed against the data (such as data mining operations), to be able to process very large amounts of
data (greater than 1 terabyte), and to support e
-
business solutions (24x7 data availability).


IBM
DB2 and IMS

Tools

are
a

comprehensive portfolio of add
-
on utilities that enhance the performance
of DB2 and
IMS. When

a new version of either of these two flagship products becomes available, tools are
created or updated to support them. Immediate support for new function enable
s users to migrate from
version to version and still benefit from tools support. Today's
Information

Management tools launch from
centralized control points, and they can share data and functions across tools. T
o our customers, this
results in

increased ea
se of use, less training time, and higher productivity for DBAs.


Derby

is an open source
-
based Java


relational database management system that can be embedded in
Java programs and used for online transaction processing (OLTP). A platform
-
independent, small
-
footprint (2
MB) database, Derby (which was originally called Cloudscape

) integrates tightly wit
h any Java
-
based
solution. To demonstrate commitment to the open source community, IBM recently contributed Cloudscape
to the Apache Software Foundation and continues to support development on Derby in the open source
community.


Informix
®

Dynamic Server (
IDS)

is a s
trategic data server in the IBM
Information Management Software
portfolio that provides blazing online transaction processing (OLTP) performance, legendary reliability, and
nearly hands
-
free administration to businesses of all sizes. IDS include
s features that speed application
development, increase performance, improve data security, make replication more robust, and ease the
burden of administration for enterprises and workgroups. IDS delivers impressive quality and query
performance

offering b
etter memory allocation, configurable page sizes, and the ability to store and apply
external optimizer directives. It provides enhanced availability and reliability, including support for column
-
level encryption, which is relevant to government regulatory

data
-
security requirements, such as Sarbanes
-
Oxley, Basel II, and HIPAA.


IBM Information Server

is a revolutionary data integra
tion software platform
that helps organizations derive
more value from the complex, heterogeneous information spread across th
eir systems. IBM InfoSphere
Information Server delivers trusted information to the corporate enterprise, and achieves high levels of
integration by
delivering industry
-
leading capabilities for understanding, cleansing, transforming, and
delivering informat
ion.



IBM Multiform Master Data Management

manages master data domains (such as customers, accounts,
and products) that have a significant impact on the most important business process
es and realizes the
promise of service
-
oriented a
rchitecture. The Web
Sphere
®

Customer Center product helps organizations
maintain an enterprise
-
wide operational master record of customer data. WebSphere Product Center helps
the enterprise create a single, up
-
to
-
date repository of product information that can be used through
out its
organization for strategic business initiatives.
The
WebSphere RFID Information Center helps users control
the threat and cost of counterfeiting, diversion, returns, and recalls while offering meaningful customer
services and capturing market data
to derive unique insight.


WebSphere Information Integrator Content Edition

provides enterprise content integration capability.
Global organizations use WebSphere Information Integrator Content Edition to enable portals, collaborative
applications, custom
er
-
relationship management, and other key applications to work with distributed content

and work processes throughout the extended enterprise. WebSphere Information Integrator Content Edition
integrates existing content such as images, documents, and workf
low processes from disparate native
repositories. A robust set of graphical tools and components enable you to configure the solution and to
display and work with integrated content.


Enterprise Content Management products

provide a foundation for managi
ng, accessing, and integrating
critical business information on demand. They enable you to integrate all forms of content

document, Web,

image, rich media

across diverse business processes and applications, including SAP. With the inclusion
of FileNet to t
he IBM Enterprise Content Management family, IBM is a leader in content management
technology. Now more than ever, Enterprise Content Management products integrate with existing hardware
and software investments, both IBM and non
-
IBM, enabling customers to

leverage common infrastructure,
achieve a lower cost of ownership, and deliver new, powerful information and services to customers,
partners, and employees where and when needed.


IBM Data Studio

is a comprehensive data management solution that empowers u
sers to effectively design,
develop, deploy and manage their data, databases, and database applications throughout the entire
application development life cycle utilizing a common, flexible and intuitive user interface. IBM InfoSphere
Warehouse provides a
powerful platform for building enterprise real
-
time analytics, with the benefit of
advanced analytics such as data mining, modeling, and scoring, and text analytics.


Discovery products
include search engine products for corporate intranets (enterprise sea
rch), for e
-
commerce, call centers, and other multiface
te
d browsing Web sites (WebSphere Content Discovery Server).
Content integration server provides a conduit to many different unstructured data sources.


Common Application Development Tools

are a

set o
f common tooling components that increase the
productivity of database application developers, data architects, and application DBAs. This core tooling is
componentized to enable reuse in multiple product lines. Users can use the tooling to develop and tes
t
routines, deploy data
-
centric Web services, create and run SQL and XQuery queries, and develop Java
applications that access databases or in
-
memory data. Users can perform database administration tasks
such as creating and altering database objects, mana
ging privileges, and monitoring database health and
availability. Users can also design and develop logical and physical data models, glossary models, and
domain models.


Business Intelligence

software helps people understand relationships between entitie
s that are described
by their data; to help them better discover patterns, trends, or anomalies in the data; or simply to organize
data from different sources so that it is easier to use to solve a particular problem. DB2 Warehouse, part of
IBM's portfolio

of integrated business intelligence solutions, contains an Eclipse
-
based Design Studio that
provides a common design environment for modeling physical data, online analytical processing (OLAP)
cubes, data mining and visualization, and SQL data flows and c
ontrol flows. DB2 Warehouse also provides a

Web
-
based Administration Console, which serves as a single tool for administering business intelligence
applications.


Entity Analytic Solutions

products
help organizations identify exactly whom they are doing b
usiness with.
The products provide real
-
time recognition and resolution of identities, to provide immediate and actionable
insight to help prevent threats and fraud in all industries, from the federal, state, and local governments, to
law enforcement, to f
inancial services, to insurance agencies, and to any business that needs to recognize
the true identity of the people or systems with whom they do business. Privacy can also be maintained with
anonymization features. The Entity Analytic Solutions products
include Relationship Resolution and
Anonymous Resolution.


Global Name Recognition

products help organizations search, analyze, and match names of people or
organizations, incorporating deep linguistic knowledge of names from cultures and countries all ov
er the
world into rules and parameters of the products. Using the application programming interfaces (APIs) that
are provided with the products, programmers can create new applications or enhance existing
applications to parse names, identify the gender of

names, identify the culture of names, identify the
country of origin, identify name variants, and search for matching names. Like Entity Analytic Solutions
products, Global Name Recognition products are used to help prevent threats and fraud in all indust
ries,
including government agencies, law enforcement agencies, and financial services.



About Silicon Valley Lab in San Jose, California


IBM's Silicon Valley Lab (SVL) is a premi
er programming facility
located in the foothills of south San Jose.
With its

mild winters and warm summers, this region of the Silicon Valley is famous for leading
-
edge
technology
and innovation. The region
offers a variety of recreational opportunities, with beautiful beaches,
parks, wineries, and mountains within a 45
-
minute dri
ve. Yosemite National Park and Lake Tahoe are both
within a 5
-
hour drive of San Jose, and San Francisco

is only a
1
-
hour
drive
away.


SVL has a modern, campus
-
like atmosphere, with eight four
-
story towers arranged around a large, central
plaza. The lab has

won many awards for its architectural excellence, energy
-
conscious design, and
accessibility to the physically challenged, and it occupies about 90 of the 1,200 acres that IBM owns at this
site. Most of the land has been left in its natural state and is h
ost to a variety of wildlife, including deer,
hawks, squirrels, bobcats, owls, and an occasional tarantula! Many of the offices have large windows to let
in sunlight and a view of the scenic surroundings. Designed to accommodate the special needs of a div
erse
community of programmers, each office has built
-
in desks, table space, and the latest
network

technology.


Additionally, SVL has its own par course for bicycling and running,
a recreation center with jogging trails
and locker rooms,
volleyball and ba
sketball courts, a cafeteria and espresso bar, and a credit union.
The
lab environment features casual dress and
‘‘
Think Fridays,
’’
blocks of time when employees are
encouraged to focus on creative activities, learning, and sharing. All of these elements con
tribute to SVL's
overall atmosphere of technical excellence, creativity, and teamwork.


Because teamwork is critical at SVL, many of the conference rooms, called Knowledge Mining Centers, are
designed specifically for team collaboration. Each Knowledge Min
ing Center is equipped with state
-
of
-
the
-
art
audio and video equipment, computer screen projection, whiteboards with print capability, and
speakerphones for dial
-
in conferencing. IBM's commitment to education includes on
-
site classes, hosted in
both tradit
ional and distance
-
learning facilities.


Work
-
life balancing is another benefit that is practiced at SVL, allowing flexible work schedules, on
-
site
fitness classes
, and an onsite fitness center.
IBM is a place where you can strike a balance between your
work and personal life

we know this is important to you, and it’s also important to IBM.


What's the work environment l
ike at the Silicon Valley Lab?
Pretty close to perfect! It's an ideal place for
some of the brightest professionals to share their kno
wledge, ideas, and solutions. The lab’s great location
makes San Jose an exciting place to live, work
,
and play.







A little more about relational database technology


Chances are, if you’re hired by IBM, you’ll work on one of our relational database pr
oducts, such as DB2,
DB2 Warehouse Manager, or another DB2
-
related product. This article sheds a little light on some of the
basic concepts of relational databases.



WHAT IS A RELATIONAL DATABASE?



By Michael Morrison


“A
database
-
management system

(DBMS
) consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of

programs to access those data.” [1] The collection of data is referred to as a
database
. If you have a couple
dozen to a few hundred pieces of data, you can fairly easily keep track of them and m
anage them using any
number of technologies that predate databases: indexed data files, flat data files, or even index cards and a
pencil! But when you have thousands or millions of pieces of data, those technologies are no longer as
efficient or convenien
t as a database.


By using a database management system, you gain the following benefits:




Elimination of redundant data
: By keeping your data in one place, instead of in files that are specific to
each application program, you can eliminate redundant data
, which saves space and access time, and
increases the overall accuracy of your data.



Increased data integrity
: A DBMS can enforce rules for the data, such as ensuring that an account
balance never falls below some amount. It’s more efficient to have the D
BMS enforce such rules
centrally rather than to have each application program enforce them separately.



Guaranteed all
-
or
-
nothing updates
: A DBMS guarantees that each update request either succeeds
completely or fails

it cannot partially succeed. For exampl
e, when you transfer $100 from your savings
account to your checking account, you wouldn’t want the money to be removed from one account
without also being added to the other.



Concurrent access to data
: A DBMS allows multiple programs to access the data at

one time, while
guaranteeing all
-
or
-
nothing updates.



Secure data
: A DBMS can manage the users and programs that are allowed to access the data,
whereas flat files are extremely difficult to manage for security.


A database is composed of three levels of d
ata abstraction:




The physical level describes
how

the data is stored in the file system.



The logical level describes
what

is stored in the database, including relationships between the data.



The view level describes parts of the database that are of in
terest to particular application programs.


DATABASE MODELS

There are four major models for designing a database:



The
relational

model uses tables to represent the data and the relationships among the data. Each table
has one or more columns and zero or

more rows.



The
object
-
oriented

model uses instance variables within object instances, which are accessible through
methods defined for the object.



The
hierarchical

model uses a tree structure to represent the relationships among the data.



The
network

m
odel uses an arbitrary graph structure to represent relationships.


The most popular model is the relational model. In this model, all of your data is stored in a database, which
is comprised of tables. Each table contains data about a specific part of you
r business. For example, a
bank would have a customer table that contains columns for name, address, account number, and so on.
Each row in the table defines one customer. The bank would also have other tables, such as savings
account, loan, and so on, tha
t, when taken together, define the bank's business.

DATABASE LANGUAGES

To access and update a database, you use a special programming language. For relational databases, this
language is Structured Query Language (SQL). SQL is a standard language used by a
ll DBMSs, but each
database vendor can add extensions to the language for their database.


There are two kinds of statements in SQL: statements for defining the database and statements for
manipulating data in the database. Examples of definition stateme
nts include
create table
,
drop table
,
and
alter table
. Examples of manipulation statements include
select
,
insert
,
update
, and
delete
. Each of
these statements has a specific syntax that defines how it affects the database. For example, the
select

statemen
t has the form:


select
column1, ..., columnN

from
table1, ..., tableN

where
expression


This statement retrieves data from the database, but does not modify the data. It retrieves one or more
columns of data from one or more tables when the defined expres
sion is true.


Here is a more concrete example: To retrieve loan numbers from a loan table for all bank branches named
“Perryridge” where the amount of the loan is greater than $1000, you would use the following
select

statement:


select loan
-
number

from

loan

where branch
-
name = "Perryridge"

and amount > 1000



TRANSACTION MANAGEME
NT

“A
transaction

is a
unit

of program execution that accesses and possibly updates various data items.” [1]


A transaction has the following properties:




Atomicity
: Either a
ll of the operations of a transaction are reflected in the database, or none of them are.



Consistency
: A transaction cannot corrupt the consistency of the database.



Isolation
: Executing transactions in parallel must be equivalent to running them one after
another.



Durability
: After a transaction completes successfully, the changes it made to the database must
persist, even if there are system failures.


In order to provide these properties for transactions, a transaction that updates the database must
commi
t

its changes when it completes or
abort

its changes if there is some problem. Changes for committed
transactions appear in the database, but changes from aborted transactions are
rolled back

and do not
appear in the database.


USES OF A DBMS

Databases are

traditionally used in online transaction processing (OLTP) environments, that is,
environments that are primarily oriented toward transactions. A classic example of an OLTP environment is
a bank, where every transaction is an update to (or query of) a ban
k account.


Because databases contain the critical data that runs a business, companies want to maximize the use of
that data. Some of the uses for databases include:


Data mining
: The process of extracting previously unknown, valid, and actionable informa
tion from large
databases and then using that information to make crucial business decisions. [2]


Data warehousing
: The storage of subject
-
oriented, integrated, time
-
variant, and nonvolatile data in support
of management. [2][3] A data warehouse often inc
ludes subsets of data from multiple databases, based on
the subject or time frame required.


Decision
-
support systems and analytical processing
: The process of analyzing data to spot trends,
pinpoint problems, and make more intelligent business decisions.
[4] Decision
-
support systems often
include data
-
mining applications and data warehouses.


Distributed data
: Storing data in multiple physical locations to enable distributed (rather than centralized)
queries and local access to data rather than remote acce
ss. [4] Companies also distribute their data for
disaster
-
recovery purposes.


Mobile data access
: Allowing occasionally connected computers (such as laptop computers and personal
digital assistants) to access enterprise data. [1] The mobile computer can ei
ther connect to a central
database or it can copy portions of the database to local storage.


Multimedia data
: Relational databases can store more than letters and numbers. Many DBMSs can store
binary data, such as multimedia files, geographic maps, and ot
her binary objects.


Web data access
: By combining all of the above uses of databases with the distributed access provided by
the World Wide Web, businesses are making much of their data directly available to their customers.
DBMS vendors are also “Web en
abling” their databases, so that they can more easily use Web files and
addresses.


XML
: DBMS vendors are beginning to add support for this relatively new text
-
mark
up language, based on
HTML, so that application programs can store shared data in a common format.


REFERENCES

[1] Silberschatz, Abraham; Henry F. Korth; S. Sudarshan.
Database System Concepts,
Third Edition
.
Boston, MA: McGraw Hill. 1997.


[2] Cabena,
Peter; Pablo Hadjinian; Rolf Stadler; Jaap Verhees; Alessandro Zanasi.
Discovering Data
Mining: From Concept to Implementation
. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. 1998.


[3] Mattison, Rob.
Data Warehousing: Strategies, Technologies, and Techniqu
es
. New York: McGraw
Hill. 1996.


[4] Bontempo, Charles J. and Cynthia Maro Saracco.
Database Management Principles and Products
.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. 1995.