Web Server Configuration

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31 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Web Server Configuration








Alokes Chattopadhyay







Computer & Informatics Centre









IIT Kharagpur


Web Services



How Web servers bring pages into your home, school or office



The Basic Process






The browser formed a connection to a Web server, requested a page and received it





A bit more detail e.g. http://www.iitkgp.ac.in



The protocol used ("http")


The server name (“www.iitkgp.ac.in")


The file name (“index.htm (by default)")






The

browser

communicated

with

a

name

server

to

translate

the

server

name

"www
.
iitkgp
.
ac
.
in"

into

an

IP

Address
,

which

it

uses

to

connect

to

the

server

machine
.

The

browser

then

formed

a

connection

to

the

server

at

that

IP

address

on

port

80

(default)
.






Web Application Server



Web Application Server



Web

application

servers

are

designed

specifically

to

extend

web

servers

to

support

dynamic

content



The

application

server

software

“hooks

in”

to

the

web

server

software

and

automatically

intercepts

any

user

requests

for

dynamic

content



The

web

server

still

sends

out

static

web

pages

and

graphic

files



the

application

server

can

create

dynamic

content

by

mixing

data

with

templates,

running

programs,

or

by

accessing

databases



There

are

a

variety

of

Web

Application

Server

product

available




Macromedia



Cold

Fusion


Microsoft

ASP

.
Net


J
2
EE


Web
Servers


A Client Server architecture


In

general,

all

of

the

machines

on

the

Internet

can

be

categorized

as

two

types
:

servers

and

clients



Those

machines

that

provide

services

(like

Web

servers

or

FTP

servers)

to

other

machines

are

servers
.

And

the

machines

that

are

used

to

connect

to

those

services

are

clients
.



A

server

machine

may

provide

one

or

more

services

on

the

Internet
.

For

example,

a

server

machine

might

have

software

running

on

it

that

allows

it

to

act

as

a

Web

server,

an

e
-
mail

server

and

an

FTP

server



A

Web

browser

on

local

machine,

it

will

most

likely

want

to

talk

to

the

Web

server

on

the

server

machine
.

The

Telnet

application

will

want

to

talk

to

the

Telnet

server,

the

e
-
mail

application

will

talk

to

the

e
-
mail

server,

and

so

on
...


IP
-
address



Each machine on the Internet is assigned a unique address called an
IP address




IP

stands

for

Internet

protocol
,

and

these

addresses

are

32
-
bit

numbers,

normally

expressed

as

four

"octets"

in

a

"dotted

decimal

number
.
"




A typical IP address looks like this:

10.3.100.103



Every machine on the Internet has a unique IP address. A server has a static IP address that does not
change very
often



If

you

are

working

on

a

Windows

machine,

you

can

view

a

lot

of

the

Internet

information

for

your

machine,

including

your

current

IP

address

and

hostname,

with

the

command

IPCONFIG
.
EXE



On

a

UNIX

machine,

type

nslookup

at

the

command

prompt,

along

with

a

machine

name,

like

www
.
iitkgp
.
ac
.
in



an

IP

address

is

all

you

need

to

talk

to

a

server
.

For

example,

in

your

browser,

you

can

type

the

URL

http
:
//
10
.
3
.
100
.
103

and

arrive

at

the

machine

that

contains

the

Web

server

for

www
.
iitkgp
.
ac
.
in

Domain
Names



Because

most

people

have

trouble

remembering

the

strings

of

numbers

that

make

up

IP

addresses,

and

because

IP

addresses

sometimes

need

to

change,

all

servers

on

the

Internet

also

have

human
-
readable

names,

called

domain

names



For

example,

www
.
iitkgp
.
ac
.
in

is

a

permanent,

human
-
readable

name
.

It

is

easier

for

most

of

us

to

remember

the

name

than

it

is

to

remember

10
.
3
.
100
.
103



The
name
www.iitkgp.ac.in
actually has
four
parts:


The host name ("www")


The domain name
(“iitkgp.ac")


The top
-
level domain name
(“in“)



A

set

of

servers

called

domain

name

servers

(DNS)

maps

the

human
-
readable

names

to

the

IP

addresses
.



These

servers

are

simple

databases

that

map

names

to

IP

addresses,

and

they

are

distributed

all

over

the

Internet







Ports



Web

server

would

typically

be

available

on

port

80



If

we

were

to

set

up

our

own

machine

and

load

Web

server

software

on

it,

we

could

put

the

Web

server

on

port

918

e
.
g
.

or

any

other

unused

port
.




Then
,

the

machine

are

known

as

xxx
.
yyy
.
com,

someone

on

the

Internet

could

connect

to

our

server

with

the

URL

http
:
//xxx
.
yyy
.
com
:
918
.

The

"
:
918
"

explicitly

specifies

the

port

number,

and

would

have

to

be

included

for

someone

to

reach

your

server
.




When

no

port

is

specified,

the

browser

simply

assumes

that

the

server

is

using

the

well
-
known

port

80
.


Web Server Packages


Basic Apache server
configuration [RHEL] basic steps


When

we

are

working

with

Apache,

we

need

two

packages
.

The

first

is

httpd
,

which

actually

installs

the

Apache

web

server
.

The

second

is

the

mod_ssl

package,

which

provides

the

ability

to

create

secure

websites



Step 1. Install the two required packages
:


#
yum install

y
httpd

mod_ssl


Step 2. Verify that the packages were installed correctly:


#
rpm
-
qa

|
grep

http


httpd
-
2.2.15
-
5.el6.x86_64


httpd
-
tools
-
2.2.15
-
5.el6.x86_64


#
rpm
-
qa

|
grep

ssl


mod_ssl
-
2.2.15
-
5.el6.x86_64


openssl
-
1.0.0
-
4.el6.x86_64


Step 3. With the packages installed, make sure that the service is set to start when the
system boots:


#
chkconfig

httpd

on






Open
http main
config

file



# vi /
etc
/
httpd
/
conf
/
httpd.conf



DocumentRoot

“/
var
/www/html




Test the
config

file
:



# service
httpd

configtest


#
service
httpd

restart


Stopping
httpd
:


[ OK ]


Starting
httpd
:


[
OK
]



Now finally open browser and check
the
web
site


http://yourlocalIP

or http://127.0.0.1



ServerRoot



this

specifies

location

in

the

Linux

file

system

where

the

httpd
.
conf

file

will

be

found


DocumentRoot



this

specifies

the

location

in

the

Linux

file

system

where

the

html

files

and

other

web

documents

will

be

stored


never

make

ServerRoot

and

DocumentRoot

be

the

same

directory

as

this

leads

to

security

holes
.

People

could

potentially

access

and

alter

configuration

files
.



If
DocumentRoot

is /
var
/www/html and the URL is
http://www.someserver.com/dir1/dir2/file1.html then the file accessed is
/
var
/www/html/dir1/dir2/file1.html


NOTE: Document Root’s path should not end with a / to make sure this works correctly!



ServerName



this is the IP alias of the server


in

order

to

establish

this,

we

must

also

have

the

ServerName

to

IP

address

mapping

stored

in

DNS

tables



DirectoryIndex



a

list

of

files

that

the

server

will

attempt

to

find

in

a

given

directory

if

no

file

name

is

given

in

the

URL

e.g.,
DirectoryIndex

index.html index.shtml
index.php



User, Group


define the user and group that will own the apache processes

typically both default to apache or www





Step by Step guide to install IIS 6.0 in win server 2003



XAMPP
(pronounced as ZAMP)





A

free

and

open

source

cross
-
platform

web

server

solution

stack

package,

consisting

mainly

of

the

Apache

HTTP

Server,

MySQL

database,

and

interpreters

for

scripts

written

in

the

PHP

and

Perl

programming

languages
.



Acronym
for:




X
-

Read as "cross", meaning
cross
-
platform




A
-
Apache
HTTP Server




M
-
MySQL




P
-
PHP




P
-
Perl





How
to install
?



Go to
http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp.html


Versions available for
Linux, Windows, Solaris, Mac OS
X




Steps for
Installation


http://wiki.fiforms.org/index.php/Installing_XAMPP




Web Application Framework



A

web

application

framework

(
WAF
)

is

a

software

framework

that

is

designed

to

support

the

development

of

dynamic

websites,

web

applications,

web

services

and

web

resource



Framework

Applications


General

purpose

website

framework

(e
.
g
.

Zend

http
:
//framework
.
zend
.
com/
)



Organizational Portals


JBOSS Portal (e.g. JBOSS
http://www.jboss.org/
)



Content management systems (CMS)


Drupal (
www.drupal.org
)


Joomla (
www.joomla.org
)


Wordpress

(
www.wordpress.org
)




Thank you