Definition of Presence at a Distance - the Knowledge Management ...

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Video Mediated Communication

Producing a sense of presence between individuals

in a shared virtual reality

http://gt.kth.se

Claus J. Knudsen

Ambjörn Naeve

Leif Handberg

Division of Media Technology and Graphic Arts

The Knowledge Management Research group

Department of Numerical Analysis and Computing Science

The Royal Institute of Technology

Stockholm, Sweden

http://kmr.nada.kth.se

Keynote address at the ISEC conference, Banff, Calgary, Canada, June 1, 2002

I
-
2
-
I


Alleviating absence by use

of the "Telephonoscope".

A mirror is envisage as the

display screen.


[From Albert Robida "Le Vingtième Siècle, 1880s]


iSpace project meeting between

Royal Institute of Technology and

Stanford University

Telepresence

As described by teleoperators, presence is the
sensation of being at the remote worksite rather
than at the operator`s control station.

Marvin Minsky (1980) in reference to teleoperation systems


Teleoperators and Telerobotics, (Held & Durlach, 1992)

S
imulated environments, (Rheingold, 1991; Sheridan, 1992).

Definition of Presence at a Distance

Presence

at a distance

is defined as

the subjective experience

of being in one place

or environment,

even when one is physically situated in another.









Presence journal 2000

Definition of Presence in Virtual Environments

Presence

is defined as the
subjective experience


of being in one environment (there) when one is
physically located in another environment (here).



Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments,

(
Witmer Bob G. and Singer Michael J., 2000)

As applied to my own research,

presence

refers to the experiencing

of both mediated
bodies

and
spaces
.

Two models of mediated communication


traditional communication model


telepresence view

Defleur & Ball
-
Rokeach, 1989;

Schramm, 1974;

Shannon &

W
eaver, 1962


Steuer
(1993) after

Krueger (1991)

B

A

B

A

Shared

virtual

reality

The main research question

How do we produce

a sense of presence and reality

at a distance

between individuals

physically separated in space?

Factors creating a sense of presence and reality

• sensory environment

• individual preconditions

• content characteristics

• vividness

• interactivity and control

• company of others

• depth & breadth

• imagination

• emotional state

• associative context

• suspension of disbelief

• plot and story

• narration and dramaturgy

• presentation and execution

[Enlund N.]

Experiments and user studies



experiment with

new methods

of creating

human
-
to
-
human Interaction,

including for

musical and artistic performance.



strong
international collaboration



produce
“pre
-
competitive”

results in the
form of
prototypes
,
demonstrators

and
user
studies
.

The blue
-
screen

background
was mapping
out the person
by use of
colour keying.

Physical
background

Virtual space
with two
non
-
physical
projected
walls

Physical
background

Mix of
audio/
video
sources

Virtual marriage


As seen from
KTH

As seen from
Gjøvik

Synchronous virtual communicative spaces

transparent technology for producing

a sense of presence at a distance

The audience ”point of view” at

Academic Forum ”camera space”.

Synchronous virtual communicative spaces

Transparent Technology for Producing

a Sense of Presence and Reality at a Distance

A student
watching a video
from the teachers
computer at a
distance.


Two students
learning a
dance from a
teacher at a
distance.


Synchronous virtual communicative spaces

transparent technology for producing

a sense of presence at a distance

Synchronous virtual communicative spaces

transparent technology for producing

a sense of presence at a distance


Two students

acting at a distance

Two musicans playing
with a singer at a
distance

Telepresence Production

Course


New Learning Modes in the Production of
Presence Distance Technique for Education

Interactive storytelling and presence production

New Learning Modes in the Production of
Presence Distance Technique for Education

Interactive storytelling and presence production

New Learning Modes in the Production of
Presence Distance Technique for Education

Interactive storytelling and presence production

-

Games and competitions

-

Instruction

-

Role play and ceremonies

-

Multipoint cooperation

-

Interactive information package

Topics chosen for the exam projects:

New Learning Modes in the Production of
Presence Distance Technique for Education

• Storytelling



Interactivity



Technical level



Technology using skills

Evaluation criteria

The Cave Experience

People and Technology in an Experimental
Performance Space

connected to the Internet

Connecting Sweden on ISDN to Hungary on the Internet

Distance Learning Applications

across Multiple Platforms and Networks

A Media Laboratory Test Model

Distance Learning Applications across
Multiple Platforms and Networks

A Media Laboratory Test Model

Continuous Presence


a virtual Meetingpoint

Interaction between musicans and audience
in a learning process on the Internet

The first performance for motivation

The concert based on the creative
material library on the Internet

Unified Language Modeling

Video mediated communication

The KMR
-
group at CID

People:



Ambjörn Naeve

(senior researcher, head of the group)



Mikael Nilsson

(grad. student, mathematics didactics)



Matthias Palmér

(grad. student, computer science)



Fredrik Paulsson

(grad. student, MDI)



Claus Knudsen

(grad. student, media technology)

Knowledge Management Research areas


Knowledge Manifolds



Conceptual Modeling



Conceptual Browsing



New paradigms and tools for mathematics education



E
-
learning frameworks / Semantic web technologies



Component
-
based learning technologies



Semantic Interoperability



Presence production

A Knowledge Manifold

• is a structured information architecture


that supports a number of different


strategies for
information hiding (encapsulation)
.

• can be regarded as a
Knowledge Patchwork
,


with a number of linked
Knowledge Patches
,


each with its own
Knowledge Gardener
.

• gives the users the opportunity to ask questions


and search for
certified

human

Knowledge Sources
.

• can be used to design


learner
-
centric
,
knowledge
-
pulling



interactive learning environments


that support
Question Based Learning
.

A Knowledge Manifold
(cont.)



has access to distributed archives of


resource components
.

• allows teachers to
compose components



and construct customized learning environments.

• makes use of
conceptual modeling



to support separation of
content

from
context
.

• contains a
concept browser

(
Conzilla
)


that supports these principles and activites.

The different Knowledge Roles of a KM

• The knowledge
cartographer


• The knowledge
composer

• The knowledge
librarian

• The knowledge
coach


• The knowledge
preacher


• The knowledge
plumber


• The knowledge
mentor


• constructs
context
-
maps.


• fills the context
-
maps with
content.

• composes content components into
learning modules.

• cultivated
questions.


• provides
live answers.


• connects questions with
appropriate preachers.


• provides
motivation

and supports
self
-
reflection.


Design principles for Concept Browsers

• separate
context

(= relationships) from
content
.

• describe each
context

in terms of a
context
-
map
.

• assign an appropriate set of
components

as the


content

of a concept or a conceptual relationship.


filter

the content components through different
aspects
.

• label all resources with a standardized


data description (
metadata
) scheme (
LOM
-
IEEE
).

• transform a content component which is a context
-
map


into a context by
contextualizing

it.

Mathematical Knowledge Manifold work at KMR

• Virtual Mathematics Exploratorium (Conzilla)

• New ways to study geometrical constructions

• Interacting with mathematical formulas, using

• Shared 3D interactive learning environments

• Interactive geometry with PDB.

• Graphing Calculator (Ron Avitzur).

• LiveGraphics3D (Martin Kraus).

• framework for archiving and accessing components

• CyberMath.

created with these (and other) techniques.

Virtual Mathematics Exploratorium 1

Virtual Mathematics Exploratorium 2

CyberMath: A Shared Virtual Environment

for the Interactive Exploration of Mathematics

• teaching of both elementary, intermediate


and advanced mathematics and geometry.

Goals:

The CyberMath system should allow:

Means:

• Making use of advanced VR technology (e.g. DIVE).


• global sharing of resources.


• the teacher to teach in a direct manner.


• students to work together in groups.


• teachers to present material that is hard


to visualize using standard teaching tools.

CyberMath:
T
he cylindrical exhibition hall

P
re
s
en
c
e Production

in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment

for Exploring Mathematics


C
yberMath:
The Teacher in Stockholm

STUDENTS / DIS, UPPSALA
ALL / CYBERMATH, VR
TEACHER / CID, STOCKHOLM
PERSON
AVATAR
CAMERA
COMPUTER SCREEN /
VR REPRESENTATION
MONITOR /
PRESENCE PRODUCTION
CyberMath: Experimental Lecture Connectivity

CyberMath: Students in Uppsala

CyberMath: The Virtual Museum Mode

CyberMath: Changing the Learning Mode

CyberMath:
From
C
ontrol

to Chaos

Car

Vehicle

is a

:Car

kind of

is a
kind of

a

Unified Language Modeling

:Wheel

Wheel

abstraction of


part of

has

is a

a

is a

part of

a

has

a

a

kind of

Basic principles

Unified Language Modeling

The CyberMath lecture

Relevant web sites

http://kmr.nada.kth.se

http://www.gt.kth.se

http://www.r1.kth.se