Open Source Software Mike Jeays Informatics Technology Services ...

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Open Source Software

Mike Jeays

Informatics Technology Services Division

Statistics Canada

April 2003

Phone : 613
-
951
-
9929

Fax : 613
-
951
-
0395


What is it?


Software that is made available to any user,
complete with all source code, and often with
compiled executables


Variety of licenses


FREE


no restrictions on its use


World
-
wide community of developers and
maintainers

History


Free Software Foundation


Richard
Stallman


1984/85


GNU C Compiler


Richard Stallman


Xfree86
-

1986


Linux


Linus Torvalds
-

1991


GNOME and KDE environments


Growing world
-
wide acceptance

Benefits


Open formats (use of XML)


Long
-
term stability


Excellent security


Rapid fixes for urgent problems


Modifiable


Reduced costs

Disadvantages


More diversity and less coherence


Lack of formal support from a vendor


Modifiable

License Spectrum

Public domain
GPL
BSD
Indefinite
Leased
Shareware
Vendor-
friendly
User-
friendly
Principal Licenses


GPL



Allows anyone to use and modify it,
but if modified versions are distributed, the
source code for the modifications must also
be distributed. Special rules for libraries


BSD



does not even have this restriction.
Credit must be given to the original authors;
you can't pretend you wrote it. Can be
incorporated into proprietary products.

Operating Systems


Linux


very popular at present


FreeBSD



less well known, better managed


OpenBSD



exceptional security record, strong
cryptography, Canadian development group


NetBSD

-

multi
-
platform

All have an excellent reputation for robustness, reliability and security

Programming Languages


C/C++ (GNU Compiler)


Richard Stallman


TCL/TK


John Ousterhout


Perl


Larry Wall


Python


Guido van Rossum


Ruby


Yukihiro Matzumoto (Matz)


PHP


Rasmus Ledorf


Smalltalk


Java (not fully open
-
source)


SUN


Many others...

Desktop Environments

These provide a desktop environment
similar to Windows.


KDE


GNOME

Both are based on X
-
Free, an open
-
source
implementation of X
-
Windows

Layered Construction

Kernel

File

System

Xfree86 (X
-
Windows)

KDE

GNOME

Applications

Disk

Scree
n

Keyboard

Office Suites


OpenOffice (Calc, Draw, Impress, Math,
Writer)


KDE utilities (KWord, KSpread,
Kpresenter, Kmail)


Abiword (Word processor)


Gnumeric (Spreadsheet)

Databases


MySQL


Postgres

Both are capable of running large databases with
high transaction rates

SQL interface


PGAccess



graphical front
-
end for Postgres


(NB: Oracle and DB2 run on Linux)

Mail and Calendaring


Evolution

(Outlook look
-
alike)


Mozilla

(formerly Netscape)


Others

Web Browsers


Mozilla

(formerly Netscape)


Konqueror

(KDE Suite)


Phoenix


Galeon


Opera

(not open source; charge for
version without advertisements)

Web Support Tools


Apache
( Web server)


Perl


PHP


ZOPE
(Web Server and web content
management)


PhpNuke

(Web content management)


MidGard
(Web content management)


Distributions



CD sets with integrated collection of software


Support arrangements


Possibly some proprietary components


Free download of CD images


Examples:



Red Hat



Slackware



Mandrake



Caldera



Suse



Lindows

Quality : Run
-
time attributes


Suitability:

Fitness for purpose


Internationalisation


Precision:

Data can be trusted


Performance, Availability:

Assists getting the job done


Reliability, Security:

Software can be trusted


Relatively virus
-
free


Understandability, Usability:

Easy to learn and use


Reusability, Robustness:

Skills are applicable elsewhere

Software Quality Framework: Software Best Practices Group

Potential use at Statistics
Canada?


Use on servers


SAS and Oracle both run on Linux machines


Equivalents for all current desktop tools


Ximian Mono


future support for .NET languages and run
-
time


RDesktop


GPL client for Windows Terminal Server


Crossover Office allows Office products to run on Linux
machines

What needs to be done?


Research project and demonstration


Verify functionality and performance


Conversion of legacy applications


Investigate migration techniques


Review directions taken by other
government departments


Evaluate costs and future savings


Develop a strategy for the department

Conclusion


Open Source products now a mature
alternative


World
-
wide use, with growing interest


Emphasis on


open formats


security issues


reduction in costs