How do communities develop?

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Global Citizenship

Mr Farid Patel


5 Key Questions


How do communities develop?


Does Democracy work?


How does technology change communities?


Can we create a fairer world?


Can I make a difference?

How do communities develop?

The origins and
implications of identity and diversity in local and national communities in different countries


Different identities including ethnicity, gender, age, sexuality and religion


Understanding that many individuals have multiple identities


The effects of changi
ng patterns of identity and diversity on local and national communities

Different identities including ethnicity, gender, age, sexuality and religion


Belonging to a group of people who come from a particular area or region (Eg. Asian, Chinese,
English, Indian
or Arab)


Whether you are male or female


Your sexual orientation (Eg, Heterosexual or Homosexual)


The faith that a person follows (Islam, Christianity etc)

Understanding that many individuals have multiple ide

After reading the following article write down the different identities Assia and Iman have and the struggles they face
every day.

Young Muslims struggle with identity

Judy Woodruff, September 14

2006 (

Sisters Assia and Iman Boundaoui

grew up outside Chicago, their lives straddling what it is to be Muslim
and American. Born to Algerian parents, they attended an Islamic school and a Sunni mosque around the
corner from their home. They watched Nickelodeon and Al Jazeera. They got takeout

food from Kentucky
Fried Chicken and the falafel place down the street.

Assia, 20, and Iman, 18, reflect on what it means to dress differently because of their religion, and how
they are perceived by non

"I'm proud to be Algerian, but it makes me

mad when people think just because you have a scarf on, you
can't be American," says Assia, who is 20. "You know, they have to ask you, 'Where are you

from? No,
no where are you



All of which might prompt a question: When it comes to t
heir own identity, do you they think of
themselves first as Muslim, or American?

"In America, we would say we're Muslim first, because that's what makes us different, I guess," Assia says.
"So you identify with that one factor within you that stands out. B
ut in another country, like in a Muslim
country, and someone asks us to identify ourselves, we would say we're American."

Iman says she felt most American during a trip to Paris she took as a high school senior. Her group visited a
Muslim school that was o
pened in response to a law banning religious headwear in public schools.

"We were talking to the girls and they were crying and telling us that before the school was made, the girls
there had to make the choice of not going to school or attending school wi
thout the scarf," Iman says. "It
was probably the hardest decision they've ever had to make. And me and my friends were looking at them
and at that moment were like, 'Thank God we live in America, that I can walk down the street with my
scarf on without ha
ving to decide to take it off because I have to go to school.'"

This month, Iman starts her freshman year at Northwestern University; Assia begins a college fellowship in
Europe for an international human
rights organization.

What identities do Iman and As
sia have?

What different identities do you have?

Do multiple identities improve a person’s life or make it more confusing?

The effects of changing patterns of identity and diversity on local and national communities

Explain why people migrate from one pl
to another PUSH FACTORS (Reasons why
people leave places)

PULL FACTORS (Reasons why people are
attracted to places)

Fear for their lives (Terrorism/Natural



Good record on human rights

No work

Employment available


High standard of living

Lack of educational opportunities

Other members of family live their

High cost of living

Good health care and education

Qatar Demographics

a worsening social problem in Qatar


Qatar is a small country

The population is around* one million, most of whom l
ive in Doha, the capital. But that doesn't tell the whole story. Of
this million, only one in five is Qatari. Four fifths of the population are immigrant workers. To every ten Qataris, there
are, approximately:

10 Indians

10 Pakistanis

10 non
Qatari Arabs
(Egypt, Palestine, Jordan)

5 Iranians

5 Others (I am one of these!)






Now remember that 10 Qataris will include children, the elderly, the sick and disabled (because they all live here). When
you take this into account, the group of ten Qataris contains only three healthy Qatari men of working age, while the
forty foreigners

are all of working age and fit for work. We can say that with confidence because anyone who can't work,
through illness, redundancy or criminal conviction, is quickly repatriated and replaced.

And of course, the forty foreign workers are a male
skewed gro
up comprising around thirty men and ten women,
because most of the work is in Energy and Construction, both heavily male dominated fields (and the immigrant workers
are not allowed to bring their families, except for the professional classes).

So there you

have it. Every Qatari man of working age is outnumbered ten to one by working men from abroad. How
does that feel?

No immigration in Qatar

While many Western countries worry about controlling immigration, Qatar goes its own sweet way. There are no
rants here, only a temporary immigrant workforce. No
one is given Qatari nationality. To work here, you have to
be sponsored. You cannot leave the country without an exit visa issued by the sponsor. You cannot move to another
employer without a letter of n
o objection from your sponsor. When the work runs out, so does your visa (or soon after)
and you have to go home. You cannot retire here. Even if you've worked thirty years, at retirement age, you're on your
way. You're history.

There are a few, a


, exceptions to the above, e.g. when Qatar finds itself in need of tall people to play for its
National basketball team, but as a summary it's accurate enough.

I can already hear a rumbling from right
wing readers saying,

that's the way to do it. We could
use some of that over

But bear with me. There are big problems attached.

this whole area is being cleared for reconstruction

What about the Qataris?

As a foreigner in Qatar, it's easy to see only the problems experienced by the foreign communities
, and there are many,
ranging from lack of representation, substandard working and living conditions to abuse of domestic servants. These and
more are well


elsewhere. But what about the Qataris themselves? How does this demographic pan out for

It takes far fewer people to operate a gas plant,

refinery, power station, or desalination plant than it does to build it. And
in a small country, there is only so much infrastructure that is required. Sooner or later, the big projects must end and
the workforce will have to be reduced. And not just the
workforce on the plants, but the whole support industry
occupying the offices and tower blocks of the new city. Unless the Qataris want an empty city, they will have to attract a
different profile of foreigner, and in huge numbers.

This is why Qatar is pit
ching seriously for its place in the World, through major conferences, summits, sporting events,
etc. But it has an uphill struggle. For most of the year, it is far hotter than a Nevada summer with New Orleans humidity
thrown in as a bonus. A further disin
centive is the restrictive prevailing culture. Qatar is not Saudi but it's still many steps
down from being an open society. At present, people come here to

, and tolerate it, but if Qatar wants people to
come to

, from choice, that's a very differ
ent game.

Go forth and multiply

Maybe the answer is that most traditional one

encourage the Qataris to have bigger families. It's not as if they can't
afford it. The oil and gas revenue puts Qatar high among the richest countries in the World, per capita

But there's a problem here. Qatar is very strong in education and a leader in the field in the Arab World. While this is of
course a good thing, it has the interesting side effect that educated, and therefore emancipated, young Qatari women
are not rushi
ng to marry Qatari men as previously. Their expectations are altered. Couple that with the strict rules and
traditions concerning suitable marriage partners in Qatari society, and what we're seeing for several years now is a
gradual decline in the native p
opulation. Though this is not much talked about publicly, it is a cause for concern in high

There would seem to be no easy solution to the Qatar demographic problem. Will they relax immigration policy?
Sanction mixed marriages? Stop educating the
girls? Sooner or later, something has to change.

Thanks for reading!

Postscript, June 2011

A new trend is emerging that is further discomfiting the Qatari authorities. With the expansion of the Indian economy,
better opportunities and salaries back home ar
e attracting large numbers of Indian expat workers, especially the more
professional and skilled sectors, to abandon Qatar in favour of their home country. At home, of course, they will live
with their families, earn the respect of the community and enjoy
normal human rights. All this and a decent pay cheque
at the end of the month. So far, Qatar does not have an answer to this new brain drain within its immigrant workforce.
Perhaps this will drive them to extend citizenship rights to those they can least a
fford to lose? Time will tell.

According to the author what are the advantages and disadvantages of immigration in Qatar?

What is your opinion? Is Qatar better now with mass immigration than without?

Does Democracy Work?


Government systems across the worl




Perspectives on democracy

Government systems across the world

Democracy Vs Dictatorship (

Democracy and Dictatorship are two types of rule over a country. They show differences between them in terms of their
methodology and concept. A dictator enjoys an absolut
e rule over a country or a state. On the other hand in a
democracy the choice to create laws is with the people.

One of the biggest differences between democracy and dictatorship is that self
indulgence is the keyword in democracy.
People would choose wha
t the best is for them. Democracy does not consist in someone else choosing what is good for
the people. On the other hand dictatorship consists in someone else choosing what is good for the people.

Dictatorship frames the laws that govern the rights of
the people and the economy as well. It also outlines the laws that
govern the private property as well. On the other hand the power to create laws lies with the people in democracy.

In dictatorship if you are unhappy over something then you should continu
e to be unhappy over it all your life. On the
other hand if you are unhappy over something in a democracy there is always a chance to change it and set it right so
that it can make you happy finally. This is another important difference between democracy a
nd dictatorship.

It is often felt that dictatorship is efficient in framing new laws to dominate certain sections. On the other hand, in
democracy there is no place for creating new laws to dominate certain sections or people or to oppress certain groups

Personal freedom and personal liberties have to be completely sacrificed in dictatorship. On the contrary there is always
respect for personal freedom and personal liberties in democracy. In fact it can be said that democracy encourages and
eguards freedom of expression and freedom of speech and extends them to every single person of the nation.

There is always the probability of innocent people getting convicted often due to lack of proper cross examination in the
case of dictatorship. On t
he other hand justice is done to perfection in a democracy. The accused cannot confront the
witness in the case of dictatorship. On the contrary the accused is provided with an opportunity to confront the witness
in the case of democracy.

The time taken t
o implement a decision is fairly fast in the case of dictatorship whereas the process of implementing a
decision is slow in the case of democracy.

Is there a bias in the above article?

Do you agree with the writer?

Is living in a
democracy always better t
han living in a dictatorship?

Advantages of Democracy

People have power


People help make decisions

People have their voices heard

People have more freedoms/rights

Advantages of Dictatorship

Decisions are made quickly

Some people don
’t like to make their own decisions

Dictator is stringent (strict) on rules, regulations, penalties, punishments and rewards

Disadvantages of Democracy

Decisions can take a long time to make


Systems can be complicated

Majority rule

what about minority? Minority abuse?

Disadvantages of Dictatorship

Often violent

People have no power

over leader, laws, freedoms/rights, etc

Dictator is beyond law

who regulates them?

Old fashioned? HUMAN RIGHTS?

Explain why non
democratic forms of government are likely to infringe on human rights

You lose the right to not vote for a government that is not doing a good job or which is treating you badly. These type of
governments use the police and army to stop yo
u protesting against them

Explain the term ‘representative democracy’

Citizens choose representatives (in the UK these are MPs) to vote on issues for them

Explain Parliament’s role in making the Government accountable

In elections people vote for the
that they want to be in charge of their local area. An MP will belong to a political
party. The party with the most MPs becomes the party in charge of the country. The leader of the party becomes the
Prime Minister
. The Prime Minister chooses which MPs h
e wants to be part of his
. The Prime Minister and the
Cabinet form the
and run the country. The rest of the MPs (including those from other parties) attend

The MPs in parliament vote on new laws suggested by the government a
nd can ask the Prime Minister questions. The
PM must attend parliament once a week to answer them. This is called
Prime Minister’s Questions

Describe how citizens can play an active part in local and national elections

Everyone aged 18 or over (except pri
soners) can vote in elections to choose your local MP to attend parliament. To vote
you must register to be on the
Register of Electors

You will be asked to vote by post or by going to a polling station. Voting is secret and you mark a cross next to the
of the person that you wish to vote for

Describe how citizens can influence decision making by joining political parties

Anyone can join a political party or even start their own political party. A political party is a group of people with simila
ideas and viewpoints who organise themselves to fight elections. By gaining power they can make changes to the
country so that it fits with their viewpoints.

The three main political parties are the Conservative party, Labour

Party and Liberal Democrat Party. The Conservatives
want to cut taxes but expect people to pay something for the school and health services they use. The Labour party
want to use taxes from wealthier people to support poorer people and to improve health a
nd education services. The
Liberal Democrats want to cut taxes for low and middle earners but also improve health and education services by
making them more efficient under local control

Describe how citizens can influence decision making by joining pressu
re groups or religious organisations

A pressure group is a group of people with similar views; anyone can join them. It does not aim to form a government
but aims to influence politicians to take a particular form of action. Examples include Amnesty, Gree
npeace and the

Describe how the media influences decision

Keeping up to date with the news helps citizens form opinions on issues such as whether it is right for the British army to
be fighting in Afghanistan or whether university tuition fee
s should be increased

The UK is unusual because the media organisation with the biggest influence is funded by the UK government from
money paid by the public through an annual licence fee. This is the BBC and because of this they have to remain
l. This means that they are not allowed to promote a particular viewpoint or support a particular political party

Other news organisations are owned privately. For example The Sun and The Times are largely owned by the Murdoch
family and they like to hav
e some control over the viewpoints expressed. For example in the UK 1997 election, The Sun
newspaper supported Labour and urged its 3 million voters to vote Labour. Labour won this election. In the 2010
election The Sun is supporting the Conservative Party

Privately owned media also run campaigns to pressurise the government into taking action. In 2009 the Daily Telegraph
newspaper ran a campaign called ‘Justice for Pensioners’. This was aimed at persuading the government to cut taxes for
retired people.
In the same year the Daily Mirror ran a campaign to persuade the government to spend more money on
inspecting buildings to see if they contained asbestos.

Describe how citizens and politicians can make use of the media

1. Newspapers and websites have a le
tters page where citizens can express their own views

2. Citizens can use and set up personal blogs and websites to persuade others

3. Citizens running a campaign can use newspapers, radio and TV to gain publicity and encourage support from other

Most pressure groups have a press officer whose job it is to release press releases.

4. Politicians are also keen to have a positive image in the media and sometimes hire media consultants to help them
achieve this. These consultants help politicians adj
ust their hairstyles, style of dress or even the way they speak.

Explain why a free press in important in a democracy

Free Press refers to newspapers, TV, radio and other media that are not controlled by the government. They can publish
anything as long

as it does not hurt anyone

A free press helps citizens make up their minds before voting in an election or in a referendum. A referendum is when
citizens vote on a single issue. For example in 2008 in Manchester citizens voted on whether motorists travel
ling into the
centre of the city should pay a congestion charge.

A free press is important because it:

1. Provides facts to help citizens form opinions

2. Interviews people with different opinions

3. Promotes different opinions

4. Investigates injusti
ces and lets citizens know about them

5. Exposes any wrong doing by politicians

6. Reminds citizens about the promises made by politicians

Evaluate how far citizens are able to hold decision
makers to account

1. If they want something to change they can write letters, make petitions and protest. Campaigns are effective if they
are run by pressure groups and if they gain publicity for their cause

2. When the media exposes politicians for doing something wrong,
they are under great pressure to resign. In 2009
Home Secretary Jacqui Smith was criticised for her expenses claims but she refused to resign saying that they were just
small mistakes.

3. Sometimes the UK government ignores public opinion, for example the

wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were unpopular
but were


4. A referendum gives citizens real power to make a decision on a major issue. There are only a few of these in a
representative democracy because politicians feel that, once elected, that it is there job to make these on the people’s
behalf. The last nati
onal referendum in the UK was in 1975 when people voted in favour of joining the EU

Representation (case study)

How can technology make communities better?

Case study:

Afghan women learn literacy through mobile phones

By Mushtaq Mojaddidi (AFP)

Nov 13
, 2012


Afghanistan has launched a new literacy programme that enables Afghan women deprived of a basic
education during decades of war to learn to read and write using a mobile phone.

The phone is called Ustad Mobile (Mobile Teacher) and provides

national curriculum courses in both national languages,
Dari and Pashto, as well as mathematics.

All the lessons are audio
video, with writing, pronunciation and phrases installed in Ustad Mobile phones

and they are
distributed free to students.

Sat o
n a carpet in a small Kabul classroom with a handful of women learning to read and write, 18
old Muzhgan
Nazari said the Taliban, who banned schooling for girls during their rule, were in power when she should have started
her education.

"I could not

go to school because the Taliban took control of Kabul city", she told AFP, adding that her father had also
opposed his daughters attending school.

"Since I heard about this literacy training centre for women, I convinced my father and he allowed me to a
ttend on a
daily basis," she said.

Nazari is delighted with the programme, which is being rolled out by a commercial provider and the ministry of
education with financial backing from the United States.

The Mobile Teacher software was developed by
Paiwastoon, an Afghan IT company, with $80,000 dollars in US aid and is
designed to tackle one of the worst illiteracy rates in the world by riding the growing wave of mobile phone use.

Despite millions of girls now attending school, Afghanistan's literac
y rate among women remains at just 12.5 percent,
compared to 39.3 percent for Afghan men, according to United Nations figures.

"This is the first time audio
visual literacy learners have the chance to receive lessons on their cellphones," Mike
Dawson, CEO

of Paiwastoon, told AFP.

The company has experience in the field, having previously managed the "One Laptop Per Child" programme that
handed out 3,000 computers to women and children in Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Baghlan and Jalalabad.

"We can make the job

of the teachers easier by using the video and the audio and the questions and exercises," Dawson

"Cellphones are cheaper than any computer and people are familiar with it. And also, the maintenance is much easier."

The free app can be installed on

all mobile phones with a memory card slot and a camera. Individual lessons, which will
also be made available on the ministry of education website, will teach new words and phrases.

"We try to get to as many people as possible. The other thing, we can ad
d more subjects like English, Arabic, Pashtu,
health, agriculture," Dawson added.

"For rolling out Ustad Mobile

we are looking to talk with the phone companies and the media to make people aware
of the programme.

"We interviewed phone shop owners abou
t the software and they are willing to install it for people like they install other
software on mobiles," Dawson said.

"People don't realise how powerful these phones are, they work like computers."

At the moment, some 100 students are using the Mobile
Teacher in a pilot project in Kabul, 65 percent of them women,
with plans to roll the project out across the country, the education ministry said.

"Our focus and target is mostly on uneducated women," said director of programmes, Allah Baz Jam.

The ministry would do everything it could to promote the Ustad Mobile for women and would also distribute the
software on CDs and DVDs, he told AFP.

At the pilot project class in Kabul, Samira Ahmadzai, a

24 year
old mother of two, wearing an all
enveloping burqa also
said she had been unable to attend school because of the Taliban.

"And later, I got married. Now with the permission of my husband, I've come to the literacy centre to learn to read and

The Taliban were ousted by a US
led invasion in 2001, and have since waged an insurgency against the Western
government of President Karzai.

Today, of Afghanistan's 8.4 million schoolchildren, 39 percent are girls, the education ministry says.

But US
led NATO troops will withdraw from Afghanistan by the end of 2014, and rights activists fear that some of the
gains made by women in the past decade could be lost as Taliban pressure on the government increases.

For now, though, the Mobile Teacher

is bringing new hope to those who missed their chance of an education in the past.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology


Easy Access to information: It has become very easy to get access to relevant in
formation at any time anywhere. This
has been possible because of modern technologies like broadband internet. Lots of data is being published and indexed
online, sites like Wikipedia and Youtube have great original content which can be used in research o
r entertainment.
Information is power, and those who find information and use it well always succeed. With smart gadgets like the ipad ,
iphone , galaxy tablet , users can easily have access to information through these smart gadgets because they use
ernet. So a user on a train can easily read breaking news while traveling, they can also buy and sell stocks while in the
bedroom using the internet. These smart gadgets make it easy to access internet and this simplifies the way we get

ages innovation and creativity

Since technology is challenging, it sparks the brain to work to its full potential. In
the past, it used to be very difficult to start a business, one had to have lots of capital and they even had limited access
to busines
s information. Today, it is very easy to start a business while at home. Let’s look at companies like
which enable creative people sell their works online, this encourages creativity. Another good example is which helps creative pe
ople get funds for their projects through crowd funding. On this platform,
creative developers post projects seeking for funding from the community, this helps them generate lots of cash for
their good ideas which latter leads to creation of new Jobs. The

other creative works which have been facilitated by
modern technology include Google , Apple , Facebook , Microsoft , Amazon , etc

Improved communication: Communication is like water to life. We can not develop without communication. Modern
y has blessed us with advanced communication technology tools. These can include e
fax machines, electronic
mail, mobile phones, videoconferencing, instant text messaging applications, social networking applications. All these
modern communication technolo
gy tools have simplified the way humans and businesses communicate. I can easily talk
to my relative oversees using a mobile phone or video chatting services like Skype.

Convenience of Traveling: Modern transportation technology makes it very easy to tra
vel long distances. Transport is a
very important both in our lives and in the business world. Transportation technology has evolved with years. In the
past it used to be slow and expensive to move long distances. Now days, I can cover a 10 miles distanc
e with in a few
minutes or hours using electric trains or airplanes.

Improved housing and lifestyle: This is another great way how modern technology has simplified our lives. If you
compare the type of housing we used to have in 1900 and the architecture
of houses today, the difference is very big.
New architectural technology has improved the types of housed we build now days. People with money can afford
town floating housed and glass homes. Most of the items in our house are now automated, for examp
le, doors use
finger prints which guarantee security. Remote webcams which you can use to monitor what goes on at your home.

Improved Entertainment: Modern technology has played a big role in changing the entertainment industry. Home
entertainment has im
proved with the invention of video games and advance music and visual systems like smart
televisions which can connect live to internet so that a user can share what they’re watching with friends. Easy access
and storage of music, services like iTunes allo
w users to purchase and download music on their ipods at a small cost, this
is a win

win situation for both musicians and the users. Because musicians can easily sell their music via iTunes and the
user can also have a wide selection of which music to bu
y without having troubles of going to a physical music store.

Efficiency and Productivity: Modern technology has helped businesses increase production. Humans are slow and some
times they fail to deliver on time. So many businesses have integrated modern t
echnology in their production line, most
of the hard work has become so simple and the results are better than those of humans. Let’s look at a farmer who uses
modern technology right from the day or preparing the farm land to the day of harvesting. They s
ave a lot of time and
money during this process.

Convenience in Education: Learning is a process and it is part of our daily lives. Modern technology has made it simple
for students to learn from any where through online education and mobile education. A
lso students now use modern
technology in classrooms to learn better. For example, students use ipads to share visual lessons and examples with
peers in the classroom. This has made learning more convenient and fan. Also new modern educational technologies

support individual learning which gives a chance to students to learn on their own with no need of tutors.

Social Networking: Modern technology has made it simple to discover our old friends and also discover new people to
network with. This is a benefi
t to both individuals and businesses. Many businesses have embraced the social
networking technology to interact with their customers. Users of social networks can share information with friends,
live chat with them and interact in all sorts of ways.

Changed the health industry: Now days most hospitals have implemented modern technology in surgical rooms, this has
reduced on mistakes made by doctors. Humans can easily make mistakes because of work overload and stress factors.
Also the business communit
y has developed health applications which can enable us monitor our health and weight.
These applications can be used on mobile phones, so users can have them at any time of the day.


Increased loneliness

Social Isola
tion is on the increase, people are spending more time playing video games, learning
how to use new modern technologies, using social networks and they neglect their real life. Technology has replaced our
old way of interacting. If a user can easily intera
ct with 100 friends online, they will feel no need to going out to make
real friends which at a later stage leads to loneliness.

Job Loss: Modern technology has replaced many humans; robots are doing of the jobs which used to be done by
humans. Many packin
g firms have employed robots on production lines to increase on production and efficiency, this is
good news for businesses because it helps them make more money and serve customers in time, but it is bad news to
employees because they get replaced by a ro


Increased dependency on modern tools like calculators has reduced on our creativity. You can find a
student when they can solve a very simple mathematical equation without using a calculator. This affects the way this
student uses their b
rains and reduces on the level of creativity.

World destruction weapons: Modern technology has been the main aid in the increasing and endless wars. It aids the
manufacturing of modern war weapons which will require testing. So when these weapons get into
the hands of
criminals, they will use them for their selfish reasons.

Can we create a fairer world?

LEDC's vs MEDC's

The North
South divide

The most common indicator of development is to look at the wealth of a country, and compare it to others. This is d
by calculating the

Gross National Product (GNP)

of a country. The GNP is calculated by dividing the total value of goods
and services produced in the country by its population. It is always calculated in US dollars so that you can easily
compare countr

Using GNP an alternative map of the world can be created, showing the developed and developing countries. There are
many different ways of describing these countries. Developing countries used to be known as the
"Third World"

commonly are called


(Less Economically Developed Countries). Developed countries used to be called the




(More Economically Developed Countries).

However another way of describing them is to divide them up as North (the developed countries) and Sout
h (the
developing countries).

Using GNP per capital, a distinct North
South divide can be seen, and this is shown on the map below:

As you can see the


does not mean the Northern Hemisphere (this is a common mistake that people make).
most of the countries in the "North" are in the Northern Hemisphere, countries like Australia and New Zealand
are most definitely not.

Just using GNP however does not always give an accurate picture of how developed a country is. Other indicators of
pment can be used to identify social,economic and environmental differences between countries that will affect
their standard of living.

Indicators of development

Many different indicators can be used to assess the development of a country. Some of the mos
t common are listed


Infant mortality rate (per 1000):

The number of children who die before they are 1 year old, measured per 1000 born.
You would expect a less developed country to have a high rate due to poorer diet and health care.

UK = 6; Mozambique = 123)


Life expectancy (years):

The average age that someone living in that country will live to. You would expect it to be
highest in the more developed countries, where there is better access to health care and a better diet.

UK: Male = 74, Female = 79; Mozambique: Male = 44, Female = 46)


Daily calorie intake:

The amount of food eaten by a single person on average. There is a recommended daily calorie
intake for an adult which is not reached by many developing

countries, especially in rural areas.


Population per doctor:

The total population divided by the number of doctors in the country.

Example countries:

UK =
300; Mozambique = 33,333)


Adult literacy (%):

The percentage of the population who are literate
(in other words they can read and

Example countries:

UK = 99%; Mozambique = 37%)


Percentage of GNP spent on education (%):

The amount of money spent each year on education, as a percentage of
the total wealth of the country. This can be sometimes

a rather mis
leading figure though, as you can see from the
example. The amount of money spent on education is this country is far more than that spent in Mozambique, however
it is a smaller percentage ofthe overall wealth of the country.

Example countrie

UK = 5.3%; Mozambique = 6.3%)


Percentage working in agriculture (%):

A less developed country would be expected to have a far higher percentage of
people still working in agriculture, mainly as subsistence farmers, growing only enough for them and the
ir family. A
more developed country would have far more technology in farming, and therefore less workers, as well as having far
more people working in the manufacturing and service industries.

Example countries:

UK = 2%; Mozambique = 85%)


Percentage liv
ing in urban areas (%):

As countries develop, there tends to be a mass in
migration into the cities,
causing rapid urban growth. Therefore you would expect a more developed country to have a higher percentage of
people living in the urban areas.

Example co

UK = 90%; Mozambique = 32%)


Access to clean water (%):

In Britain, we take clean, safe water for granted, but that is not the case in many of the less
developed countries of the world. This can lead to outbreaks of diseases such as cholera,
dysentry and typhoid.

The Human Development Index:

The Human Development Index was devised by the United Nations in 1990 and uses a number of indicators of
development to give each country in the world a development score. The score ranges from 0 to 1, wit
h 1 being the
most developed. No country has reached a score of 1, although some, such as Japan and Canada have attained marks
well over 0.9.

The indicators of development used in the index are:


Life Expectancy

The GNP per person, adjusted to take

into account the cost of living in that country.

The HDI is a more effective measure than just using GDP, as it brings in social considerations also. However it still has
problems because it does not show any of the regional differences within a country.

Millennium Development Goals

Eight international development goals established by United Nations

Signed in September 2000

Commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and
discrimination against

All 193 UN member states and 23 international organisations agreed to reach the goals by 2015



To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger


To achieve universal primary education


To promote gender equality and empower women


To redu
ce child mortality


To improve maternal health


To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases


To ensure environmental sustainability


To develop a global partnership for development.

Specific Targets to meet these aims:

Halving, between 1990

and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day

Halving, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people suffering from hunger


that by 2015 all children (boys and girls) are able to complete a full course of primary schooling

Eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education as soon as possible, but certainly no later than
2015 at all levels of education

ing by two
thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under 5 mortality rate

Halving, by 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water

Halving the proportion of people without access to sanitation

To accelerate progress, the G8 Finan
ce Ministers agreed in June 2005 to provide enough funds to the World
Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the African Development Bank (AfDB) to cancel an additional $40 to
$55 billion in debt owed by Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)

rogress towards reaching the goals has been uneven. Some countries have achieved many of the goals (Brazil)
while others are not on track to realize any (Benin).

A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress to date and concluded with the adoption

of a global
action plan to achieve the eight anti
poverty goals by their 2015 target date. There were also new commitments on
women's and children's health, and new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty, hunger, and disease.


The processes by which people, their cultures, money, goods and information can be transferred
between countries with few or no barriers, a growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide.

Types of globalization


The growth of transnatio
nal corporations (TNC), and the growth of world

wide trade.


Linked to the growth of TNC's and the marketing of world products such as Coca
Cola. Due also to improving
technologies such as media.


Dominance of Western democracies in
global decision making and the view that democratic societies and the
model to which other countries should aspire.


Increasing migration and mixing of populations and cultures.


The realization that many environmental threats

are caused on a global level and are international in
there nature.

Development of globalization

key factors 1850

Improved communications technology for a few MEDCs

emergence of the telegraph

1850s, development of telephone
and a first internation
al link 1930s.

Emergence of early TNCs such as Siemens

Global market for packaged goods Heinz, Coca
Cola etc., Development of
wireless technology (BBC world services 1921)

Emergence of international organizations, League of Nations (1923)

development of

air travel, Start of global tourism

Thomas Cook Package holiday.

Development of global events

Olympic Games 1896

1950 onwards...

Free trade

Removing tariffs (tax of imports) had promoted easier and faster trade.

International Organizations

Has promo
ted free trade, and trade blocs have encouraged free trade within countries

Oil money

High oil prices in 1970s, lead to money being loaned to developing nations, and this started their
industrialized state.


have shifted production to the developin
g world and created global connections.

Communications technology

Satellite communications have led to growth of mobile and internet communications.

Transport technology

containerization since the 1960’s have led to increasingly cheap, automated and eff
methods of transport. Ships cannot carry 9000+ containers. Cheap air travel has revolutionized transport.


The global consumer has contributed to soaring demand for goods from all over the world.

The media

Large global media corporations

have contributed to the sense of a connected world.

Positive impacts of globalisation

Globalisation is having a dramatic effect

for good or ill

on world economies and on people's lives.

Some of the positive impacts are:

Inward investment by TNCs helps

countries by providing new jobs and skills for local people.

TNCs bring wealth and foreign currency to local economies when they buy local resources, products and services. The
extra money created by this investment can be spent on education, health and i

The sharing of ideas, experiences and lifestyles of people and cultures. People can experience foods and other products
not previously available in their countries.

Globalisation increases awareness of events in far
away parts of the world.
For example, the UK was quickly made aware
of the 2004 tsunami tidal wave and sent help rapidly in response.

Globalisation may help to make people more aware of global issues such as deforestation and global warming

and alert
them to the need for sustain
able development.

Negative impacts of globalisation

Critics include groups such as environmentalists, anti
poverty campaigners and trade unionists.

Some of the negative impacts include:

Protestors in London

Globalisation operates mostly in the interests
of the richest countries, which continue to dominate world trade at the
expense of developing countries. The role of LEDCs in the world market is mostly to provide the North and West with
cheap labour and raw materials.

There are no guarantees that the wea
lth from inward investment will benefit the local community. Often, profits are
sent back to the MEDC where the TNC is based. Transnational companies, with their massive economies of scale, may
drive local companies out of business. If it becomes cheaper t
o operate in another country, the TNC might close down
the factory and make local people redundant.

An absence of strictly enforced international laws means that TNCs may operate in LEDCs in a way that would not be
allowed in an MEDC. They may pollute the
environment, run risks with safety or impose poor working conditions and
low wages on local workers.

Globalisation is viewed by many as a threat to the world's cultural diversity. It is feared it might drown out local
economies, traditions and languages an
d simply re
cast the whole world in the mould of the capitalist North and West.
An example of this is that a Hollywood film is far more likely to be successful worldwide than one made in India or China,
which also have thriving film industries.

Industry ma
y begin to thrive in LEDCs at the expense of jobs in manufacturing in the UK and other MEDCs, especially in

globalisation campaigners sometimes try to draw people's attention to these points by demonstrating against the
World Trade Organisat
ion. The World Trade Organisation is an inter
government organisation that promotes the free
flow of trade around the world.

International Organizations

The IMF is based in Washington, it channels loans from the world's richest nations to countries that ap
ply for help.

The governments then must agree to fund free

market economies that are open to investment from the outside.

Other important organizations that work alongside the IMF are The world trade organizations and the world bank.


Strict conditions imposed on the countries receiving loans from the IMF and the World Bank. Receiving
governments may be required to cut back on health, education and sanitation and housing programs in order to repay
their debt.


TNC's are very large global companies. They have an headquarters, research development establishment and a
production center in many other countries.

Technological advances in transport, along with developments in computerization and communications have br
about the growth in the size, number and influence these TNC's.

TNC's are usually located in:

major cities

around China as they will be able to afford cheap labor

many in Europe as it is a first world country

America as it is a large country

able Living

Sustainable living is a lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's or society's use of the Earth's natural resources
and personal resources. Practitioners of sustainable living often attempt to reduce their carbon footprint by altering
ethods of transportation, energy consumption, and diet. Supporters of sustainable living aim to conduct their lives in
ways that are consistent with sustainability, in natural balance and respectful of humanity's special relationship with the
Earth's natur
al ecology and cycles.

What are the ways of making cities more sustainable?

Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it

Conserving natural environments such as historic buildings

Building on brownfield sites

Building carbon neutral homes

Creating an efficient public

transport system.

Case studies

London Olympics 2012

Some people would say London Olympics were sustainable because:

All structures built would be permanent and used even after the Olympics.

The project will create 12,000 permanent new jobs.

11,000 new hom
es were created.

Some would disagree because:

Building of Olympic sites have resulted in many wildlife habitats being destroyed.

Over 300 businesses had to be moved for the Olympic sites. This resulted in some job losses.

Local residents were affected
during the building works by noise, dust and visual pollution.

Case Study 2

The Liana Project

This was a project that was run by the Rainforest Action Network (RAN) to protect rainforests and their inhabitants.

Residents collect Liana vines and use them to

create wooden furniture or rattan (wicker) style product such as mats,
baskets, bowls etc.

RAN found a market for the products in Brazil and USA and gave money, technical knowledge and equipment to set up
businesses which are then run by the local commun
ity for the benefit of the local community.

It was sustainable because:

Many local people were employed

Encouraged people to look after trees