BIO-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - Yimg

pumpkincentersulkyΒιοτεχνολογία

16 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

190 εμφανίσεις

BIO
-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

What is Chemical Engineering












?

What is Biochemical
Engineering


The

application

of

chemical

engineering

principles

to

conceive,

design,

develop,

operate,

or

utilize

processes

and

products

based

on

biological

and

biochemical

phenomena
;

this

field

is

included

in

a

wide

range

of

industries,

such

as

health

care,

pharmaceutical,

agriculture,

food,

enzymes,

chemicals,

waste

treatment,

and

energy
.




It

is

the

branch

of

chemical

engineering

which

deals

with

the

design

and

construction

of

unit

processes

that

involve

biological

organisms

and

molecules
.


History of Biochemical Engineering


In

the

discipline's

initial

stages,

biochemical

engineers

were

chiefly

concerned

with

optimizing

the

growth

of

microorganisms

under

aerobic

conditions

at

scales

of

up

to

thousands

of

liters
.





While

the

scope

of

the

discipline

has

expanded,

this

focus

remains
.

Often

the

aim

is

the

development

of

an

economical

process

to

maximize

biomass

production

(and

hence

a

particular

chemical,

biochemical,

or

protein),

taking

into

consideration

raw
-
material

and

other

operating

costs
.



The

elemental

constituents

of

biomass

(carbon,

nitrogen,

oxygen,

hydrogen,

and

to

a

lesser

extent

phosphorus,

sulfur,

mineral

salts,

and

trace

amounts

of

certain

metals)

are

added

to

the

biological

reactor

(often

called

a

fermentor
)

and

consumed

by

the

bacteria

as

they

reproduce

and

carry

out

metabolic

processes
.

Sufficient

amounts

of

oxygen

(usually

supplied

as

sterile

air)

are

added

to

the

fermentor

in

such

a

way

as

to

promote

its

availability

to

the

growing

culture
.



APPLICATIONS


Biotechnology


Pharmaceutical Engineering


Genetic Engineering


Biomedical Engineering


Waste Water Treatment



Challenges
of Biochemical Engineer

Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering


Microbiology



Biochemistry



Cell Growth Kinetics



Bioreactor Design



Applications Of Bioreactors In Chemical Engineering

Microbiology


Microbiology

is the study of
microorganisms
, which are
unicellular or cell
-
cluster microscopic organisms.




Micoorganism


A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small
that it is microscopic (invisible
to the naked eye).




Viruses


Bacteria




Algae



Fungi




Protozoa


CLASSIFICATION

OF MICROBES

Kingdom protist

Bacteria

Blue
-
Green Algae

Fungi

Algae

Protozoa

Molds

Yeasts

Eucaryotes

Procaryotes

Procarytoic

Cell


Characteristics


No nuclear membrane (genetic
material dispersed throughout
cytoplasm)


No membrane
-
bound organelles


Simple internal structure


Most primitive type of cell
(appeared about four billion years
ago)

Procarytoic

Cell Structure


Plasama

Membrane:
which serves as a
diffusion barrier
between the cell
and its environment. All living cells have plasma membranes.


Cell

Wall
:

which

is

very

different

from

the

plasma

membrane
.

One

of

the

primary

functions

of

the

cell

wall

is

physical

support
.

Some

kinds

of

bacterial

cell

walls

also

have

other

functions
.

Prokaryotic

cell

walls

are

composed

at

least

partially

of

peptidoglycan,

which

is

a

kind

of

hybrid

between

polysaccharide

and

protein
.


Nucleoid:
which is an essentially imaginary "structure." This is the central
region of the cell, where the DNA is largely located.


Naked DNA


Ribosomes
:
The function of a ribosome is to make protein, following
instructions sent from the DNA's genes.


Cytoplasm:
fluid substance that fills the interior of the cell. Cytoplasm is
often described as a "rich, organic soup.
"