Developments in next generation applications and services

pullfarmInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

3 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

132 εμφανίσεις



Developments in next generation
applications and services


NOVEMBER
2011







Canberra

Purple Building

Benjamin Offices

Chan Street

Belconnen ACT


PO Box 78

Belconnen ACT 2616



T

+61 2 6219 5555

F

+61 2 6219 5353

Melbourne

Level 44

Melbourne Central Tower

360 Elizabeth Street
Melbourne VIC


PO Box 13112

Law Courts

Melbourne VIC 8010


T

+61 3 9963 6800

F

+61 3 996
3 6899

Sydney

Level 5


The Bay Centre

65 Pirrama Road


Pyrmont

NSW


PO Box Q500

Queen Victoria Building

NSW 1230


T

+61 2 9334 7700


1800 226 667

F

+61 2 9334 7799




© Commonwealth of Australia
2011

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the
Copyright Act 1968
, no part may be reproduced

by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction

and rights should be a
ddressed to the Manager,
Editorial Services
, Australian Communications and Media Authority,

PO Box 13112 Law Courts, Melbourne Vic 8010.


Published by the Australian Communications and Media Authority




Contents





a
c
m
a


|
iii


Executive summary

1

1. Methodology

3

2. Introduction

4

3. Connectivity

6

E
-
health


7

E
-
education

8

SoHo and
teleworking

9

Application security

9

Video and voice

10

Extending connectivity services

11

4. Collaboration

13

Cloud applications

13

Social media

14

Visual collaborative applications

15

5. Distributed applications

17

Distributed grid computing

17

Security

18

Motivation

19

Projects and applications

19

6. Issues for regulation

20

Increased complexity

20

Increased fragmentation

20

User
-
centric responses

21

7. Conclusion

22

Glossary

23








a
c
m
a

|
1


Executive summary

Next generation networks (NGN) provide common
internet protocol (
IP
)
-
based
accessible

infrastructure that is increasingly available to customers
.

In the past,
dedicated networks delivered single services, such as the voice telephone service. By
allowing interconnection to other

like networks


such as the internet, NGNs effectively
remove
carriage technology barriers to provide a broad foundation for next generation
applications and services. This has implications for providers, users and regulators, as
it not only changes the shape of applications and services, but also the nature of
inter
action in a converging industry.


In this report
,

the term NGN is used broadly to describe a suite of technology
developments that are occurring in core and access network architecture
environment
s

and

are facilitating the development of innovative applic
ations. Its focus
is on
the inherent NGN properties of
:

>

connectivity (always
-
on communications)

>

collaboration (sharing and centralising resources and capabilities)

>

distributive networking (aggregation of disparate resources and capabilities).

Next generat
ion applications primarily provide connectivity that is characterised by
being ‘always on’ and readily accessible. Connectivity
is providing

the catalyst for

e
-
health and teleworking service solutions. There are also ongoing developments in
next generatio
n access network infrastructure, such as fibre, wireless and femtocells
that extend broadband connectivity and are supporting developments in video
telephony and high definition (HD) voice applications.
However, t
he shared
infrastructure of next generation

networks poses challenges in managing the security
and reliability of information.


Collaborative applications
rely
on the high
-
speed network connections of next
generation access services along with cloud computing for data storage and
management. Many
of these applications, most notably social media applications, are
both device
-
agnostic and platform
-
independent, which reduces take
-
up barriers. Cloud
computing
is changing

the existing application
service model
from requiring

software
installation

on a local
machine
or
the
purchase

of
application
-
specific

infrastructure to

one that

access
es

collaborative applications on a common access platform
. This
enabl
es

people to share, discuss, innovate, create
,

value and produce information
,
regardless of th
eir location
.
Such
flexibility brings many benefits for users, but also
increased fragmentation of service components
. This

challeng
es

regulatory models
based on assumptions that service provision can be directly related to a specific
carriage service or c
arriage service provider

(CSP)
.


Distributed applications combine the resources of thousands of individual computers to
harness computing power to solve complex problems. Because a distributed
application system segments a large task into many smaller task
s, computers around
the world can each perform a small task simultaneously to reduce computation time
from years to months or even days. Next generation access networks make distributed
applications possible by providing the connecting infrastructure to ut
ilise the disparate
computing and data resources.


The growth in use of multi
-
function devices
, which

are always connected to provide
access to multiple applications, adds to an already complex service environment.
Intelligent smartphones can activate dec
isions made under different circumstances




2

|
a
c
m
a



months or years after a user has installed an application, and connections can be
created without user awareness. This smart functionality tests the bounds of users’
reasonable awareness and informed consent provis
ion.


The challenge for regulation is to accommodate not only the changes in the next
generation access technologies used to provide convergent communications services
but also the fragmentation of service components across different service providers
.
Th
is includes

service initiation agreements and the variety of techniques that can be
used to deliver services and applications in the next generation environment.








a
c
m
a

|
3


1.
Methodology

The ACMA undertakes research into Australians’ use of and participation in
communications and media to understand the broader changes occurring in th
is

environment. Technology developments that introduce innovative services and
applications, change supply arrangements
,

and impact on consumers’ service use and
preferences challeng
e some of the concepts and structures on which current
regulatory arrangements are based.


This research assists the ACMA in identifying the application of regulation to existing
and new platforms, services and applications in a converging communications
e
nvironment.


Information in this report has been gathered using desktop research and focuses on
those applications and services facilitated by next generation networks.


This report is the fourth in a series examining
the pressures of technology changes
and developments on
current regulatory arrangements
:

>

Technology developments in the digital economy

(
August 2010
)

provides an
overview
of the major develop
ments in networks and services that support the
digital
economy

infrastructure technologies, smart technologies and
developments in the digital community. The report details how digital technologies
a
ffect the interaction between individuals and organisati
ons that now communicate
using multiple forms of media in
a
variety

of
environments
.

>

Developments in home networks

(
February 2011
)

explore
s

digital communi
cations
developments
occurring
in
the home network environment
. It
examine
s

technological developments and product migration issues for homeowners, service
providers and those in the industry
that
enabl
e

service delivery and digital content
in the home beyond the network boundary, where th
e consumer has an
increasingly active role.

>

Sensing and monitoring

Recent

developments

(
September 2011
)

examine
s

the
technologies
that support
data collection and
information
-
harvesting
,

and how
particular sectors of the digital economy

are taking advantage of developments in
sensing and monitoring
.

It also

discusse
s

some potential implications of
these
digital capabilities for users.

Infrastructure developments are discussed further in
this current report.


C
omments on this report are welcome and can be submitted
to
the
following
address:

Manager, Technology Applications Section

Australian Communications and Media Authority

PO Box 13112

Law Courts

Melbourne V
ic

8010





4

|
a
c
m
a



2.
Introduction

Next generation networks (NGN) provide common accessible infrastructure and are
increasingly more available to the customer through broadband access technologies.
In the past, vertically integrated dedicated networks delivered single services such as
the v
oice telephone service. By allowing interconnection to other like networks such as
the internet, NGNs effectively remove carriage technology barriers
that
provide a
broad foundation for next generation applications and services.

They also create an
opportu
nistic low
-
risk environment where new applications can be implemented first on
a small scale to test the market, and then globally.


In Australia
,

NGN

services and applications are
already
delivered by

the

major carriers

and service providers

that operate core next generation networks. These

applications
and
services

are available to users via
t
echnologies
layered
over legacy access
networks.
The NBN
is expected to
provide

next generation

access

infrastructure

through

fibre to the home to full
y integrate with service provider
network
s.



Next generation access services facilitate access and carriage while the applications
provide an interface for information exchange. They differ from traditional access
services as they are ‘always on’ and enab
le the integration of voice, data, images and
video applications.


Figure 1 depicts the next generation structure that enables the hosting of converged
applications in
a
shared environment.


Figure
1

Next
g
eneration
e
nvironment











a
c
m
a

|
5


In describing the next generation service environment, this report identifies the
emerging applications by categories defined by the fundamental NGN properties
:

>

connectivity (always
-
on communications)

>

collaboration (sharing and centralisation of
resources and capabilities)

>

distributive
networking
(aggregation of disparate resources and capabilities).

The current application
,

network and service
-
specific regulatory frameworks are being
challenged by these technology developments.


This report foc
uses on the developments in NGN access technologies
that
have
spurred growth in connectivity,
and
collaborative and distributed applications
. It

examines regulatory implications arising from this more complex and fragmented
service environment.





6

|
a
c
m
a



3.
Connecti
vity

Broadband technologies and penetration play an underpinning role in the development
of connectivity
-
based applications. Next generation applications built on connectivity
are primarily based on the ‘always
-
on’ or accessible concept.


In Australia, t
he next generation access networks of both fibre
-
optic cable and 4G

wireless, through their ubiquity, low

latency and high bandwidth
,

will promote the use
of richer media applications with multiple simultaneous services.
1

NGN connectivity
applications rely on minimum threshold coverage requirements for the application to
have utility. NBN Co intends to
make
available

enabling broadband infrastructure to all
Australians
, which

will potentially provide universal access for ne
xt generation
applications. In that context, the National Broadband Network

(NBN)

is expected to
drive developments in information exchange, storage and access, interactive
applications such as two
-
way communications
,

automated monitoring

that move
s

data
t
o
people

rather than people to data
, and application
-
based overlays such as private
networks.


For disparate information technology architecture

which can comprise multiple
requesting clients and responding servers

to work effectively, c
ontinuous network
connectivity is required. Figure 2 outlines the basic connectivity components of
w
eb

services

that support many next generation applications. The underlying building
blocks of
all
IP
-
based networks
provide the necessary addressing

and

communications protoc
ols
.

A
t a higher layer, the universal resource locator (URL), as
a text
-
based identifier
,

provides the connectivity of web
-
based applications.


Figure
2

Client

server architecture




This chapter explores further the connectivity applications in e
-
health, e
-
education and
the residential environment of teleworkers.





1

S. Acharya,
ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar highlights future communication technologies
, ITU,
media release, 6 December 2010.






a
c
m
a

|
7


E
-
h
ealth

The Australian
G
overnment is tackling the issue of rising healthcare costs and an
ageing population by reforming
Australia’s healthcare system.
2

One of the key drivers
in reforming healthcare includes e
-
h
ealth
,

which aims to change the way healthcare is
delivered by adopting new and advanced information and telecommunications
applications and services customised for
healthcare.
3

E
-
health solutions seek to

complement or

substitute the consultation and monitoring processes between medical
service providers and those
who
require these services.


According to National ICT Australia (NICTA), three key barriers to widesprea
d
e
-
health
communications
adoption in Australia are regulation, innovation and interoperability.
NICTA highlights that pervasive broadband access, which facilitates the connectivity
between patient, healthcare provider, service provider and healthcare
facility,
addresses these barriers.
4


While some e
-
h
ealth applications are being delivered over existing broadband
technologies, the NBN access network is expected to improve universal access to

e
-
h
ealth services, decrease cost
s
,

and provide
a faster and
more efficient service
.
5



The National E
-
Health Transition Authority
6
,

a government body established to
develop ways of electronically collecting and securely exchanging health data, has
noted that future
e
-
h
ealth projects and applications, such as the pe
rsonally controlled
electronic health record (PCEHR) system
7
,

will require faster and more reliable next
generation access technologies.
8

For example, a patient’s PCEHR may contain high
-
quality medical images such as a magnetic resonance image (MRI) and co
mputer
-
aided tomography (CAT) scan that can be transferred and downloaded by the medical
specialist for diagnosis in order to propose
and monitor
treatment more easily.
9



Next generation access services bridge the distance between the specialist and the
f
acility by using technologies like
HD

video or telepresence for patient to specialist
consultations. Video for healthcare requires high
-
grade image acquisition hardware
and software, with controlled levels of ambient light and reflections, image
compressio
n techniques and high
-
quality visual displays so a
specialist
, at the other
end of a communication, can correctly validate and diagnose a patient’s condition with
confidence.
10



Video consultations may also promote enhanced
and more efficient
use
of a
specialised workforce.
The
NSW

Department of

Health has implemented



2

Department of Health and Ageing, National Health Reform,
www.yourhealth.gov.au/internet/yourhealth/publishing.nsf/content/home
,

viewed 5 July 2011.

3

V. Della Mea
, ‘What is e
-
Health (2): The death of telemedicine?’,
Journal of Medical Internet Research,
2001;3(2):e22,
www.jmir.org/2001/2/e22/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

4

National ICT Australia,
Telehealth and pervasive broa
dband; Australian and International experience
,
www.nicta.com.au/pub?doc=4423
,

viewed 5 July 2011.

5

Medical Technology Association of Australia (MTAA),
New inquiry into the National Broadband Network
,
F
ebruary 2011,
www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ic/NBN/subs/Sub076.pdf
,

viewed 5 July 2011.

6

National E
-
Health Transition Authority,
www.neh
ta.gov.au/
,
viewed 5 July 2011
.

7

Department of Health and Aging, Personally controlled electronic health records,
www.yourhealth.gov.au/internet/yourhealth/publi
shing.nsf/Content/pcehr
,

viewed 5 July 2011.

8

Peter Fleming, ‘The Future is Now: Electronic Health in Australia’, Korean, Australian and New Zealand
Broadband Summit 2011,
http://dbcde.viostream.com/schedule/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

9

National E
-
Health and Information Principal Committee,
National E
-
Health Strategy
, 30 September 2008,
www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/604CF066BE48789DCA25751D000C15C7/$File/Na
tio
nal%20eHealth%20Strategy%20final.pdf
,
viewed 5 July 2011
.

10

American Telemedicine Association,
Telehealth Practice Recommendations for Diabetic Retinopathy
,
February 2011,
www.americantelemed.org/files/public/standards/DiabeticRetinopathy_withCOVER.pdf
,
viewed 5 July 2011.





8

|
a
c
m
a



videoconferencing consultation covering multiple metropolitan, regional and rural NSW
healthcare facilities. By connecting each healthcare facility, doctors are able to engage
in real
-
time consultations with patients
,

especially
at
remote healthcare facilities where
specialised
support
to other doctors
i
s prohibitively expensive.
11

The Grampians Rural
Health Alliance (GRHA)
12

achieved a similar outcome by connecting more than 40
healthca
re facilities in western Victoria with high
-
speed access services to provide
customised videoconferencing units that enabled rural healthcare facilities to maximise
resources

by

reduc
ing

travel demands on doctors
,

and
better
coordinat
ed

support for
patient
s and their families.
13



Automated healthcare monitoring is another application that relies on the high bit
-
rate
and bi
-
directional capabilities of next generation access technologies. As medical
sensing devices become miniaturised, they are following the
trend in consumer
electronics of being connected to the internet. These devices are able to sense,
monitor and transmit vital patient information in real
-
time, which can assist the
patient’s doctor in decision
-
making and the treatment process. The capabili
ty to
transfer important patient medical statistics to the healthcare provider may also result
in fewer non
-
essential clinical visits and
give

patients more personalised healthcare.
An example of at
-
home patient monitoring is a cardiac device
that
can auto
matically
send vital information to the doctor
,

without any patient intervention
,

using a Wi
f
i
connection.
14

Over 200,000 people
worldwide
are using remote monitoring of cardiac
devices.
15


E
-
e
ducation

Improvements in the connectivity of computing devices,
coupled with the proliferation
of fixed and wireless next generation access services
,

has facilitated a shift in the way
primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions deliver education to students.


According to the University of Melbourne, stu
dents expect to have access to a range
of technologies to support their education at any

time of the day, from any location and
on a range of devices.
16

These educational services can also support learning at a
distance for some students who
want
to attend
a metropolitan university, but for some
reason
cannot physically attend. Monash University describes this process as

moving
data rather than moving people

.
17



E
-
education applications have similarities to those in the e
-
health environment as they
use int
eractive consultation and emerging haptic applications. Haptic applications
deliver tactile feedback of remote mechanical mechanisms through local tactile
controls and remote sensors. Such learning practices may include interactive
telepresence conferencin
g for a virtual classroom

an online collaborative
environment for fellow students to study

and

have virtual reality experience or third
-
dimensional learning with haptics. These integrated learning services can be facilitated
by ubiquitous connectivity and
fast data rates shared by the campus and the student’s
point of learning. The availability of anytime connectivity is also made possible through
the use of other next generation applications. For example, Apple’s iTunes
gives



11

NSW Health, Submission to the Inquiry into the Role and Potential of the National Broadband Network
Discussion Paper,
www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ic/NBN/subs/Sub117.pdf
, viewed 5 July 2011.

12

Grampians Rural Health Alliance (GRHA),
www.grampianshealth.org
.au/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

13

Voice and Data
, ‘Rural health alliance turns to videoconferencing’, Vol. 10, No. 3, May 2011, pp. 22.

14

Biotronik,
www.biotronik.com/wps/wcm/connec
t/int_web/biotronik/home
, viewed 5 July 2011.

15

Access Economics,
An improved HTA economic evaluation framework for Australia
, May 2009,
www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/htareview
-
039/$FILE/039_Medical%20Technology%20Association%20of%20Australia%20pt%203.pdf
, viewed 5 July
2011.

16

University of Melbourne
, Inquiry into the

role and potential of the National Broadband Network
,
www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ic/NBN/subs/Sub120.pdf
, viewed 5 July 2011.

17

ibid.






a
c
m
a

|
9


university lecturers the abili
ty to upload their recorded content for anyone with access
to iTunes to receive the content, generally free of charge.
18



SoHo and teleworking

T
he home computer and mobile phone ha
ve

had dramatic effects on the profile and
flexibility of the workforce. Nex
t generation access networks extend connectivity
,

mobility
and teleworking applications in
to the small office home office (SoHo)
environment.


Developments, such as the ‘virtual office’ and ‘virtual desktops’, offer all of the features
of a modern office w
ithout the need
for all staff
to be physically located in
one
office.
The SoHo teleworker or
business
will increasingly be able to function as if located in
the central office.
19



For the SoHo
business
, the equivalent of desktop virtualisation is the acquisition of
business applications and
services from a cloud application provider. Next generation
access services enable the SoHo entrepreneur to take advantage of email and other
office software from th
e cloud and pay for only those resources
when they
are actually
required.
20



Application security

Security of information becomes an important consideration when using the shared
infrastructure of next generation networks.
A common teleworking concern abou
t the
security and segregation of business traffic from other domestic traffic can be
addressed through the use of a ‘zero’ or thin client host and a virtual private network
(VPN). A thin client is
a
computer program that provides a
virtual
window to
appli
cations and content contained on another computer known as a server.
A VPN
ensures secure and reliable communications over open shared networks such as the
internet.


Security can be implemented in a number of ways depending on the application
, the

type of

user and application restrictions required. These technically based
mechanisms may be applied to different layers within the next generation architecture.


The
IPSec
VPN establishes a secure encrypted ‘tunnel’ from a remote site to a central
site.
21

As it

is implemented at the network layer, all traffic for that connection is
secured. IPSec is the set of security extensions to the internet protocol developed by
the IETF.
22

IPSec tends to be used for secure connectivity of separate site
s

within an
organi
s
ation. It impacts on the configuration of the clients and servers.


Consequently,

SoHo teleworkers and mobile workers are moving towards a less
complex session
-
based or secure sockets layer (SSL)

VPNs.
23

As SSL VPNs are
implemented at the application layer
, the secure VPN traffic can be interleaved with
the user’s traffic that may be simultaneously sharing the same internet connection.
An
advantage of an SSL VPN is that it does not require additional software to be installed
,




18

Apple’s iTunes U,
www.apple.com/education/itunes
-
u/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

19

Small Office Home Office (SoHo),
http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/Small
-
Office
-
Home
-
Office
, viewed 5 July 2011.

20

PRWeb,
www.prweb.com/releases/2011/03/prweb5205894.htm
; Amazon Elastic Compute Clo
ud,
http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
; Microsoft Windows Azure,
www.microsoft.com/windowsazure/
.

21

Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol,
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_0t/12_0t1/feature/guide/l2tpT.html
, viewed
5

July 2011.

22

An Introduction to IP Security (IPSec) Encryption,
www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk583/tk372/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094203.shtml
, viewed 5 July
2011.

23

VeriSign Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): How it works,
www.verisign.com.au/ssl/ssl
-
information
-
center/how
-
ssl
-
security
-
works/
, viewed 5 July 2011.





10

|
a
c
m
a



as it can use the web browser a
s the client. It is used for browser
-
based home banking
and e
-
commerce applications.


Video and voice

Next generation access networks support video telephony, HD voice and telepresence
applications
,

which all contribute to a successful teleworking

experience.


With next generation access connectivity, the voice transmission quality is based on
efficient use of digital pathways rather than coping with the restricted transmission
capabilities of twisted copper pair.


HD voice employs wideband codecs
,

which add significantly to the clarity and tonal
quality of the communication. G.722 is the broadband codec standard for HD voice
and it can be found both in high
-
end handsets and some non
-
branded IP phones.
24

G.722.2, also known as adaptive multi
-
rate wid
eband (AMR
-
WB), is increasingly being
used for mobile handsets to improve the quality of experience.
25

The adaptive nature
of AMR
-
WB is typical of next generation services, as it reflects the adjustment of the
quality of the voice service for the bit rate f
easible for a specific connection. Work is
also nearing completion in the IETF Codec working group on the Opus codec
,

which is
planned to have multiple operating modes to accommodate many different
applications

from extremely low
-
latency high
-
quality links

between production studios
to voice applications on very low bit
-
rate channels.


Video is the key
to

creating a better office
-
like experience
,

through the use of
telepresence to provide for face
-
to
-
face meetings.

Telepresence delivered over next
generati
on networks enables high
-
quality bi
-
directional connectivity of video and
audio; this
,

coupled with a customised environment to create a same room experience,
including eye
-
to
-
eye contact, is what sets telepresence

apart from traditional video
conferencing.


These systems are becoming less costly and smarter, employing centralised video
routers
that
not only monitor all end points in a meeting, but also match the capabilities
of each end

point with the current state

of the window or pane in which the image is
viewed. The telepresence system adaptively changes the audio and visual resolution
in response to the conference participation activity of each location.
26

With next
generation access services, the link to a loca
tion can be optimised for a more
immersive experience, allowing for multi
-
site conferences in a SoHo environment.
27




Telepresence is a focus in international standardisation activities. Standardisation
efforts are currently underway within ITU


Telecommu
nication Standardization Sector
(ITU
-
T) Study Group 16
28
,

the Telepresence Interoperability Protocol (TIP) Activity
Group (TIP was developed by Cisco Systems) within the International Multimedia
Telecommunications Consortium
29

and the ControLling mUltiple st
reams for
tElepresence (CLUE) working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
30





24

G.722: 7 KHz audio
-
coding within 64 Kbit/s,
www.itu.int/rec/T
-
REC
-
G.722/e
,
viewed 5 July 2011.

25

G.722.2: Wideband coding of speech at around 16 kbit/s using Adaptive Multi
-
Rate Wideband (AMR
-
WB),
www.itu.int/rec/T
-
REC
-
G.722.2
-
200307
-
I/en
, viewed 5 July 2011.

26

H.26
4: Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services,
www.itu.int/rec/T
-
REC
-
H.264
-
201003
-
I/en
, viewed 5 July 2011.

27

Vidyo,
www.vidyo
.com/service/index.php
, viewed 5 July 2011.

28

ITU
-
T, Question 5/16


Telepresence systems,
www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/studygroups/com16/sg16
-
q5.html
,
viewed 5 July 2011.

29

Telepresence

Interoperability Protocol (TIP) Activity Group,
www.imtc.org/activity_groups/tip.asp
, viewed
5 July 2011.

30

ControLling mUltiple streams for tElepresence (clue) Working Group,
www.ietf.org/proceedings/80/clue.html
, viewed 5 July 2011.






a
c
m
a

|
11


With both telepresence and video telephony, full
HD

clarity is also influenced by the
quality of the camera or webcam. Before the availability of next generation a
ccess
services, bandwidth restrictions and signal degradation in transmission were major
determinants of video quality. The improved transmission provided by NGNs enables
better use of the capabilities of camera and display features.


Extending connectivit
y services

There are considerable ongoing developments in next generation access network
infrastructure to extend the connectivity
of
fibre
-
optic fixed access and mobile wireless
broadband networks.


T
hese developments include the infill of wireless black
spots in buildings using
f
emtocells

small cells intended to provide mobile phone coverage within a single
small building
and connect to the core mobile network via the
customer’s
broadband
connection. Next generation fixed access networks are facilitating
femtocell adoption
where additional indoor
m
o
bile
network coverage is needed. A high proportion of
mobile
customers access both voice and data services at a predictable fixed location
such as the home or work. For the
mobile

network operator, femtocells

may allow the
operator to offload data or voice services from the macro
-
cellular network. Optus is
currently offering a
f
emtocell solution in the
Australian
consumer market.
31


Of more relevance to the teleworker or mobile worker is the proposed smaller ve
rsion
of

a

femtocell

a low
-
power personal femtocell or
attocell

(see
F
igure
3
).
A
n

attocell

has a very short
-
range small base station for mobile phones

that

can be connected
(via USB) to a computer with internet access. The attocell relays phone calls and
mobile internet access over the broadband connection and allows mobile phones to
bypass international roaming or other charges and operate as if on their home
network.
32

For example, a mobile network operator might allow an international
traveller to connec
t their attocell via USB to their notebook computer in their hotel
room. If the notebook was connected to the hotel’s Wi
f
i service, the guest could call
home using a mobile telephone
via his home mobile network
and only be charged as if
making a call from
home, thereby
not connecting to
another carriers mobile network
and
avoiding expensive roaming charges. The attocell extends the reach of a local
mobile cellular network via a broadband connection to anywhere in the world. Both
femtocells and attocells ext
end the underlying access to support connectivity
applications.


Figure
3

Attocell
p
rototype

Ubiquisys
f
emtocell
t
echnology


Source: Ubiquisys
33




31

Optus,

Optus 3G Phone Zone,
www.optus.com.au/dafiles/O
CA/OptusHome/HomeRedesign/mobile
-
phones/homezone/
, viewed 7 October 2011.

32

All VoIP News,
Personal femtocell to cut roaming costs on iPhone,

www.allvoipnews.
com/personal
-
femtocell
-
to
-
cut
-
roaming
-
costs
-
on
-
iphone.html
, viewed 5

July 2011.

33

Ubiquisys,
www.flickr.com/photos/ubiquisys/5427667113/in/photostream/
, viewed 5 July 2011.





12

|
a
c
m
a



Connectivity applications are fundamental to the exchange of information over next

generation networks. For users
,

they provide anytime and anywhere access to both
traditional communications services, such as voice, and emerging converged services
that are changing the way we work and live. For industry
,

there is the challenge of
migrat
ion, innovation and creation of services to capitalise on the opportunities of
ubiquitous connectivity. As more people and things are being connected, we are likely
to see a corresponding growth in this type of application.






a
c
m
a

|
13


4.
Collaboration

Collaborative a
pplications provide the means for people, regardless of location, to
share, discuss, innovate, create
,

value or produce information. Collaborative
applications rely on the high
-
speed network connections of next generation access
services, along with access

to cloud computing, for data storage and management.
Many of these applications, most notably social media applications, are both device
-
agnostic and platform
-
independent, which reduces take
-
up barriers and encourages
their use
.



Generally
,

cloud
-
hosted

collaborative applications can be characterised by features of
next generation access networks

such as general mobility,
support for a wide range of
services

and unfettered
user
access to multiple providers
.
Smartphone and tablet
devices complement the ac
cess network features in providing media, such as pictures
and recorded video, that can be uploaded, blogged and immediately presented in a
common and collaborative place.


The continued expansion of
collaborative
next generation
applications in the person
al,
social and enterprise landscapes

through the use of
multiple last
-
mile technologies
and interworking with
existing

networks

has implications
for
the way that information
is created, distributed, managed and consumed.


Cloud applications

Cloud computi
ng is challenging the service model of installing an application on a local
computer or purchasing dedicated infrastructure. Cloud computing is not just the
delivery of remotely hosted computing
;

it
also encompasses the provision of
collaborative
device
-
agnostic applications and services.


There is a number of
common
cloud applications in general use by consumers. These
include webmail,
social networking and data storage

from various providers
.
Skype is
a well
-
known cloud application that provides
voice and video communication services.
Recent integration with Facebook allows Skype to be an online application without
having to install software. For the user, the service is provided by a process that will
operate as long as the user has internet acce
ss.


Assisted global positioning system (GPS) is another cloud
-
based application. Satellite
signal recognition and the necessary calculation could be provided from a remote
server to enable a faster acquisition and fix of the user’s location. The user may

not be
aware that a remote server is involved in assisting the GPS process. Users familiar
with standalone GPS units expect GPS to be integrated into their devices.


Skype and assisted GPS show different aspects of cloud applications. With Skype, the
use
r is aware of external assistance, but is indifferent to the location of the server
providing that assistance. With assisted GPS, the service is provided with a facility and
smoothness that may lead the user to believe that the service is entirely provided

from
the

user’s

handheld device.


Google Docs

is another cloud application that provides word processing, spreadsheet
and presentation applications in a web browser.
34

Google Docs also features a
collaborative function to allow multiple users, from dispar
ate locations, to work
together on the same document at the same time.
35

Whiteboard collaboration sites,
such as Dabbleboard
36

and Stixy
37
,

allow users to create a personalised space by



34

Google Docs,
http://docs.google.com
, viewed 5 July 2011.

35

Google Apps for Business,
www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/collaboration.h
tml
, viewed 5 July 2011.

36

Dabble Board,
www.dabbleboard.com
, viewed 5 July 2011.





14

|
a
c
m
a



dragging widgets such as notes, to
-
do lists and photos, to be shared with

other
people.


The Cloud Foundry, an open source
Platform as a Service

(PaaS), supports
developers in choosing a cloud environment suited to building their software
applications.
38

The Cloud Foundry service aims to negate the need for software
developers
who are
collaborating on a project to be concerned with the underlying
infrastructure, as all services they require are facilit
ated from within the cloud.


Cloud
-
based applications enable new services to be acquired quickly and provide cost
savings for bus
iness. These cost savings may be realised when applications are
shared across a number of units within a company or different users. The speed of
next generation access services is necessary for users to acquire many applications
and to have a richer exper
ience when using them.


Concerns remain about privacy and security in cloud computing. One report states that
over 80 per cent of those organisations with more than 1,000 employees in the US
have at least one cloud
-
enabled service, yet concerns about the s
ecurity of their
content remain a barrier for them to take up further cloud services.
39

Richard Stallman,
an advocate for free software and the founder of the Free Software Foundation
40
,
argues that cloud applications, also referred to as Software as a Servi
ce (SaaS),
wrests some direct control from the user.
41



Social media

The rise of social media
would be difficult to imagine without
wide

access to
next
generation access networks. The ability to network existing applications, information,
converged devices

and people has provided rich opportunities for application
developers to link resources in an environment of collaboration.


Blogs and microblogs allow a user to create and share a personal kind of news that
interests both the author and other like
-
minde
d individuals. People blog about news,
current affairs

or

technology
,

or simply share their opinion on any given topic. Readers
of the blog may then provide their own thoughts or share ideas and in
so
doing create
a collaborative experience between the blo
g’s author and its readers.


With the availability of wireless broadband, bloggers are now just as likely to blog

on
the go


using their laptops, tablet devices or smartphones. Wordpress
42
,

a popular
blogging website, has developed a tablet application
th
at
encourages this practice.
43



Twitter

where people can share short updates of events to anybody connected to the
internet

is the most widely known microblogging application.
44

Initially, users were
only able to compose ‘tweets’ from a computer connected to the internet;
with

users in
the US
then
able to use the SMS function in their mobile phones to post messages.
45

Now, with the prevalence of smartphones and next generation wir
eless access






37

Stixy,
www.stixy.com/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

38

The Cloud Foundry,
www.cloudfoundry.com/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

39

Management Insight Technologies,
The Arrival of Cloud Thinking
, November 2010,
www.ca.com/~/media/files/whitepapers/the_arrival_of_cloud_thinking.aspx
, viewed 5 July 2011.

40

Free Software Foundation,
www.fsf.org/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

41

Richard Stallman,
Who does that server really serve?
, 18 March
2010,
www.gnu.org/philosophy/who
-
does
-
that
-
server
-
really
-
serve.html
, viewed 5 July 2011.

42

Wordpress,
www.wordpress.org
, viewed 5
July 2011.

43

Wordpress for Apple’s iOS,
http://ios.wordpress.org/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

44

Twitter,
http://twitter.com/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

45

Twitter blog,
Introducing Fast Follow
, and other SMS tips,
10 August 2010,
http://blog.twitter.com/2010/08/introducing
-
fast
-
follow
-
and
-
other
-
sms.html
, viewed 5 July 2011.






a
c
m
a

|
15


services,
users can
post whenever and wherever they choose, and link recipients to
rich multimedia applications
, more easily
than
previously
.


Social networking applications have fostered social collaboration
, allowing

users to
keep in touch w
ith friends or associates, be informed of events and arrange social
gatherings. Staying connected is becoming the imperative in the social landscape.
Smartphones and tablets have extended the

always connected


feature to users


social lives whil
e


on the
go

. As social networking sites continue to evolve
and

provid
e
users with more rich media content, such as instant uploads of photos and videos from
a mobile device, the need for more bandwidth over the wireless environment is
expected to rise.
46



Visual

collaborative applications

Collaborative applications such as blogs, wikis and
text
-
centric
instant messaging
have been used to share thoughts and ideas using words and pictures. Video
communication links now provide the mechanism for people to communicat
e, either at
work or socially, with each other more fully and in real
-
time. Although visual
collaboration is not a new technique,
the

recent rise of next generation access
services has seen a transition from low
-
quality one
-
to
-
one communication, limited by

low bandwidth access, to an immersive group
-
to
-
group
HD

visual and audio
experience.


High
-
quality immersive audio is a requirement for group
-
to
-
group audiovisual
collaboration when a request to repeat or clarify some point made during the
conversation m
ay frustrate the groups’ dynamics. This is in contrast with one
-
to
-
one
discussion where repetition or re
-
phrasing may impact on just the two people involved
and serve to avoid misunderstandings. As humans can
sense

and locate
sound

sources

in
spa
t
ial
dimensions, immersive audio can
help

a participant to locate the
speaker if more than one visual screen is used. Examples of some applications taking
advantage of next generation access services include Skype group video calling for
individual home
-
users a
nd the professional Cisco telepresence system.


The data rate requirements for
HD

group visual collaboration may be difficult to
achieve with traditional wireless technologies. Some fixed
-
line networks, such as the
various classes of asynchronous digital
subscriber line (ADSL) technologies
,

may not
meet the bandwidth requirements due to the high upload data rates required. For
example, Cisco’s home telepresence system requires a minimum 3.5 Mbps upload
and download for a full 1080p
HD
video call and 1.5 Mb
ps upload and download for a
720p video call.
47

Skype’s group video
-
calling recommended data rates

are:

>

512 kbps upload and 2 Mbps download

for a group of
three

people

>

512 kbps upload and 4 Mbps download

for a group of
five

people

>

512 kbps upload and 8 Mbps

download

for a group of
seven or more

people.
48


Video traffic is expected to become the dominant driver for more bandwidth in the near
future, with some predicting that
90
per cent of all network traffic to be video by 2015.
49

The additional upstream capac
ity offered by next generation access networks provides
the capability for fully immersive group
-
to
-
group visual collaboration. Significant



46

Google Plus,
www.google.com/+/demo/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

47

Cisco,
Cisco ūmi. The new way to be together,

data sheet,
http://homedownlo
ads.cisco.com/downloads/datasheet/1224664394739/umi_Data_Sheet_enUS.pdf
, viewed
5 July 2011.

48

Skype,
How much bandwidth does Skype need?
,
https://support.skype.com/en
-
us/faq/FA1417/How
-
much
-
bandwidth
-
does
-
Skype
-
need
, viewed 5 July 2011.

49

Cisco,
Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010
-
2015
,
www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11
-
481360_ns827_Networking_Solutions_White_Paper.html
, viewed 7 August 2011.





16

|
a
c
m
a



changes in consumer communications are expected when there
is
a higher proportion
of users with next generation acce
ss service connections that will support group
-
to
-
group visual collaboration.
50





50

Verizon Inve
stor Quarterly



Third Quarter 2010
, states that ‘by the end of the third quarter, Verizon had
3.9 million FiOS internet and 3.3 million FiOS TV customers’,
http://i
nvestor.verizon.com/financial/quarterly/vz/3Q2010/3Q10Bulletin.pdf
, viewed 5 July 2011.






a
c
m
a

|
17


5.
Distributed applications

Distributed applications combine the resources of thousands of individual computers to
harness computing power to solve complex problems. Because a
distributed
application system segments a large task into many small

discrete

tasks,
computers
anywhere in

the world can each perform
these discrete

task
s

simultaneously to reduce
computation time from years to months or even days. Next generation access
n
etworks make distributed applications possible by providing the connecting
infrastructure to utilise the disparate computing resources. Next generation IP
technology also provides the common bridge for the interaction of components of
applications.


Googl
e has a next
-
generation computing platform. That platform is optimised to deliver
virtual applications to its users worldwide. Google uses grid
-
like technology
with
in its
distributed computing system.
51



Distributed
grid
computing

Distributed
grid
comput
ing is able to harness the unused central processing unit (CPU)
cycles of a computer to perform complex operations
.
52

Gartner has identified next

generation analytics as a top 10 strategic technology for 2012
: ‘
Analytics is also
beginning to shift to the
cloud and exploit cloud resources for high performance and
grid computing
.’
53

As shown in
F
igure 4,
distributed grid computing
employs a
resource manager or scheduler function to break down a very large problem into
discrete tasks and then distribute each t
ask among thousands of ordinary desktop
computers or even high
-
end servers. Distributed
grid
computing is also referred to as
volunteer or public computing, as computer users volunteer their computing resources
for a project.





51

Stephen E. Arnold,
The Google Legacy,
Chapter 3: ‘Google Technology’,
www.infonortics.co
m/publications/google/technology.pdf
, viewed 11 October 2011.

52

OpenGrid Forum,
www.gridforum.org/About/abt_overview.php
, viewed 20 October 2011.

53

Gartner, ‘Gartner Identifies the Top 10 Stra
tegic Technologies for 2012’, media release, 18 October 2011,
www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1826214
, viewed 20 October 2011.





18

|
a
c
m
a



Figure
4

Distributed
c
omputing
m
odel




By installing a
software
agent application on their computer, users can make
it

available for distributed computing. When the computer is idle, the agent will request a
task from the resource manager and upon completion send the results back.
Next
generation access networks have made it possible to connect and harness
the power
of di
sparate resources through

distributed computing
.


Security

Distributed computing requires user
s

to download and compile a software agent on
their computers
,

which then send processed data to a central server. There are a
number of security concerns with t
his process
54
,

such as those outlined by the
Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC)
,

developers of the open
source software agent used in many distributed computing projects.
55

It is not always
apparent whether or not the correct data, or

what type of data, is being transferred
back to the main distributed computing servers.


The distributed computing model
has been
developed in a trusted environment where
users can share their computing resources, but there is also the risk of opportunistic
attacks, which could compromise personal information. A method to mitigate security
concerns of potential volunteers is a proces
s known as ‘sandboxing’, in which a
segregated environment is created on a volunteer’s computer
that
limits the agent’s
ability to access files or applications outside that environment.
56





54

Security issues in volunteer computing,
http://boinc.berkeley.edu/trac/wiki/SecurityIssues
, viewed 5 July
2011.

55

Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC),
http://boinc.berkeley.edu/
, viewed 5 J
uly
2011.

56

Sandboxing,
www.kernelthread.com/publications/security/sandboxing.html
, viewed 5 July 2011.






a
c
m
a

|
19


Motivation

To solve complex problems, researchers were, and still
are, required to utilise highly
complex and expensive supercomputers. Distributed computing can realise greater
processing power than that available from a single supercomputer and provides
researchers with a flexible, cost
-
efficient way of performing comp
lex calculations.


Computer processing power continues to increase with microchip manufacturers now
producing multi
-
core processors to allow for parallel processing.
57

This type of
architecture can now be found in most new consumer
-
grade computers. Accordi
ng to
IBM, a typical user only utilises about
10

15

per cent of a computer’s processing
power.
58

The software agent may utilise the multi
-
core processing architecture and
allocate computing resources for distributed computing applications, thereby making
mo
re efficient use of the computer and possibly reducing calculation times. The
consequence of this increase in the computing power of personal
-
use computers is the
increase in the resources available for distributed computing projects.


High
-
speed fixed a
nd wireless broadband access
makes it quicker
for a task to be sent
to a volunteered computer and the results returned to the server. As
the processing
speeds of
computers increase, the latency associated with sending and receiving data
becomes more signif
icant
. C
onsequently
,

high
-
speed access is an important factor in
making distributed computing projects more viable.


Projects and applications

A

number of distributed computing projects aim to achieve significant social benefit
such as the Folding@home
project
,

which seeks to understand protein folding

(
linked
to diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s
)
.
59

The World
Community Grid
60

has a number of humanitarian projects
underway,
such as gaining
an insight into and enhancing water
-
filter
ing materials for the estimated 1.2 billion
people who lack safe drinking water
61

or finding new materials for solar cells and
energy storage devices.
62



Next generation access networks have paved the way for bandwidth
-
intensive
applications to be distribu
ted throughout the internet using a unified IP
-
based
architecture. As next generation access networks become more pervasive, people are
increasingly more willing to be always connected to the internet. Distributed computing
can take advantage of the ‘alway
s connected, always available’ access of millions of
personal computers and devices around the world, to continually harvest, utilise and
share resources throughout the distributed computing grid.




57

Intel FAQ, What is multi
-
core architecture?,
http://software.intel.com/en
-
us/articles/frequently
-
asked
-
questions
-
intel
-
multi
-
core
-
processor
-
architecture/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

58

IBM,
How it Works: World Community Grid,
podcast transcript, 13 February 2007,
www.ibm.com/podcasts/howitworks/021307/images/HIW_12102008_tr.pdf
, viewed 20 May 2011.

59

Folding@home,
http://folding.stanford.edu/
, viewed 5 July 2011.

60

World Community Grid,
www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
, viewed 5 July 2011

61

World Community Grid,
Computing for Clean Water
,
www.worldcommunitygrid.org/research/c4cw/overview.do
, viewed 5 July 2011.

62

World Community Grid,
The Clean Energy Project Phase 2
,
www.worldcommunitygrid.org/research/cep2/overview.do
, viewed 30 July 2011.





20

|
a
c
m
a



6.
Issues for regulation

The challenge for regulation is to

accommodate
:


>

the changes in the technologies used to provide services

>

the fragmentation of service components across different service providers and
service initiation agreements

>

the different techniques that can be used to deliver services and applicati
ons in the
next generation environment.


Increased complexity

The provision of a multipurpose access connection is a feature of next generation
access services. This access service may be the platform on which a number and
variety of carriage services are
provided to a number of users in the same premises.

The access service provider may not be aware of the services being provided or the
identity of the users.


In the
legacy access environment
, it
is
a simple task to identify the CSP and the party
to which

the carriage service
i
s provided. In the residential market, a carriage service
is
provided to an individual

and
any
others at the residence

for
their
use. All services
are
provided by an access provider, which
charges

for the telecommunications
services
acquired.


In the next generation access environment, the supply chain is fragmented with
possible
contributions from access providers,
CSP
s, carriers, content service
providers, retail service providers (RSP) and the customer. From a user perspective,
man
y elements in the supply chain will not be known or
will be
beyond the
user’s
control. For example, a user
may use a smartphone to make a VoIP call via a Wifi
network while at a caf
e
.
The call uses the
cafe’
s Wifi infrastructure and internet service
to
authenticate with the user

s service on a server that could be located anywhere. The
call then can be carried via a number of packet networks before reaching its
destination
, which

could be on a legacy network.
S
uch a call can use private, carrier,
interne
t and legacy networks for carriage
,

and be initiated by a service anywhere in the
world.



User awareness and the ability to exercise control at relevant points in the supply
chain becomes more important in this environment when the intelligence of a
device
(for example
,

a smartphone) incorporates decisions of
if
,
when

and
what

network
,

and
with
what

content a communication link may be created.


As the provision and use of applications and services increases in complexity, a
ny
necessary regulatory act
ion may need to be targeted directly to particular service
features or
,

where it is more difficult to regulate an associated piece of infrastructure or
an associated service provider, the
use of those features. This highlights the need for
flexible regulat
ory tools to adjust to the widening range of service options available in a
next generation access environment.


Increased fragmentation

Next generation access services create a situation where users may be using terminal
devices that are multi
-
functional
and always connected. Historically, being connected
required specification of the object to which an entity was connected but
,

with next
generation access, connection is expected to be unlimited in scope.

That is,
there is a
capability to
connect

with

any
device
,

anywhere
,

at
any time
.

The connection could be
to a printer in the next room or to a camera in another continent.

For the user, the
connection to a distant location that involves the use of a carriage service could be an





a
c
m
a

|
21


unconscious activity. A use
r may be aware of acquiring a video stream from a remote
location, but may not be aware that some features of an application are being provided
from the cloud or
will
trigger certain telecommunication activities.


For example, a mathematical or image proc
essing application could use software and
the capabilities of the local processor from the local terminal for routine requirements,
but could use a remote processor for the computational ‘heavy lifting’
. This

switch
,

from
using

local to remote facilities
,

could be hidden from the user.
63

The speed with
which an application can request and receive a response may disguise the fact that
there has been some use of a carriage service.


Some t
elecommunication regulation
s

assume that the provision of
a
service

can
be
related to

a

specific carriage service or
CSP
.
Such

assumption
s

may no longer be
valid in a next generation access environment

where the relationship between services
and carriage may not be fixed or known
. Where an application simply responds to a
requ
est without adding information

for example
,

when performing a

GPS

calculation

it may need to be differentiated from an application that provides
additional information to the user
,

such as including map and traffic conditions in
calculating an expected arrival time.



User
-
centric responses

With intelligence and memory in smartphones and other devices, instructions or
permissions can be acted on months or years after a user has inst
alled an application.
The user may then knowingly or unknowingly permit a telecommunication
s

service to
be initiated.
R
egulation generally addresses
conscious
activities

that have an
immediate impact or an impact in the near future.
However, p
rogrammable d
evices
may
permit
delayed actions, actions triggered by the activities of another party and
actions unwittingly permitted that occur independently of the customer

CSP

relationship. For example, smartphone or tablet applications may collect device or
locati
on information
. E
ven though the user accepted a licence agreement,
he or she

may be unaware of when or how a connection is being initiated in the transmission of
the acquired data.


Any future interventions many need to take into account the specific ci
rcumstances of
end user licence agreements. For example, it may not be sufficient to ascertain who
ticked a box when agreeing to an end user licence agreement, if the problematic
communication was outside the
user’s
awareness. If the active user of a devic
e does
not have full knowledge of a connection in terms of the parties connected, the timing
and the content, then the customer paying for the service, or an ISP providing access,
may consider they are not responsible for the connection.


These service de
livery arrangements highlight a growing need for consumer
information and awareness of contractual and service obligations
,

and a capacity to
take action with relevant service providers where redress may be required.





63

See the reference to ‘unconscious connectivity’ in
Monica Alleven, ‘
From MWC: Is Cellular Always
Necessary?’
,
Wireless Week
,

www.wirelessweek.com/News/2011/02/Business
-
From
-
MWC
-
Cellular
-
Always
-
Necessary
-
Shows
-
and
-
Conferences/
, viewed 5 July 2011.





22

|
a
c
m
a



7.
Conclusion

The transition to IP
-
bas
ed access networks that support next generation applications
and services is changing the delivery of communications. An opportunistic
environment has been created where new applications can be implemented first on a
small scale to test the market, and the
n globally
.

This has led to a growth of diversity
of applications and services for both users and providers.


As next generation access becomes increasingly ubiquitous, a convergence of
communications
-
, media
-

and internet
-
based applications is occurring
at the
application and service level. Both the migration of traditional services and the
development of new applications and new ways of interacting are part of this process.


Next generation access technologies pose challenges for current regulation in
va
rious
ways
. Firstly, ac
commodating new service features and applications made available
,
do not necessarily fit in current regulatory frameworks.

Secondly,
dealing with the
fragmentation of service components across different service providers and service
agreements

and innovative service delivery arrangements

is also testing regulation
.


The ACMA continues to monitor the developments and convergence of next
generation applications and services
,

and welcomes comments on this report.






a
c
m
a

|
23


Glossary

3G

third
generation mobile telecommunications

A broadband mobile telecommunications platform
supporting multimedia voice, video and data services.
WCDMA and CDMA2000 are the respective 3G
technologies derived from the GSM and CDMA 2G
technologies.

ACMA

Australian
Communications and Media Authority

Commonwealth regulatory authority for broadcasting, online
content, radiocommunications and telecommunications,
with responsibilities under the
Broadcasting Services Act
1992
, the
Radiocommunications Act 1992
, the
Telecom
munications Act 1997

and related Acts.
Established on 1 July 2005 following a merger of the
Australian Communications Authority and the Australian
Broadcasting Authority.

ADSL

Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line

Transmission technique that dramatically i
ncreases the
digital capacity of telephone lines into the home or office.

AMR
-
WB

Adaptive Multi
-
Rate Wideband

See G.722.2

BOINC

Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

An open source middleware system for volunteer and grid
computing.

carriage service


As defined in the
Telecommunications Act 1997
, a service
for carrying communications by means of guided and/or
unguided electromagnetic energy.

carrier

The holder of a carrier licence.

cloud

In computing, the use and access of files, se
rvices and
application through a computer network, such as the
internet.

CLUE

ControLling mUltiple streams for tElepresence

An IETF working group that will create specifications for
SIP
-
based conferencing systems, namely telepresence.

Codec

Coder
-
decoder

A device or software program capable of encoding
analogue voice signals into digital bit streams and decoding
digital bit streams back into analogue voice signals.

CSP

carriage service provider

Person supplying or proposing to supply certain

carriage
services, including a commercial entity acquiring
telecommunications capacity or services from a carrier for
resale to a third party. Internet and pay TV service
providers fall within the definition of carriage service
providers under the
Telecom
munications Act 1997
.

e
-
education

electronic education

All forms of electronically supported learning and teaching
for personal, primary, secondary and tertiary education.

e
-
health

electronic health

The use in the health sector of digital
data

transmitted,
stored and retrieved electronically

for clinical, educational
and administrative purposes, both at the local site and at
distance.

G722

Describes the characteristics of an audio (50 to 7000 Hz)
coding system that may be used for a
variety of higher
quality speech applications.





24

|
a
c
m
a



G722.2

Describes the high
-
quality Adaptive Multi
-
Rate Wideband
(AMR
-
WB) encoder and decoder that is primarily intended
for 7 kHz bandwidth speech signals. AMR
-
WB operates at
a multitude of bit rates ranging f
rom 6.6 kbit/s to
23.85

kbit/s.

GPS

global positioning system

A space
-
based global navigations satellite system that
provides location and timing information.

GRHA

Grampians Rural Health Alliance

An organisation that supports improved regional health
out
comes by providing technology, applications and
communications solutions to connect the region's health
services.

haptics

Tactile feedback technology

HD Voice

high definition voice

See G.722.2

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

A large open
international community of network designers,
operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the
evolution of the internet architecture and the smooth
operation of the internet.

internet

A large, heterogeneous collection of interconnected
systems that
can be used for communication of many
different types between any interested parties connected to
it. The term includes both the ‘core ’internet’ (ISP networks)
and ‘edge internet’ (corporate and private networks, often
connected via firewalls, NAT boxes,
application layer
gateways and similar devices). The internet is a truly global
network, reaching into just about every country in the world.

See RFC 3935.

IPSec

Internet Protocol Security

A set of security extensions to the internet protocol.

ISP

internet service provider

ITU

International Telecommunications Union

An intergovernmental organisation within which the public
and private sectors cooperate for the development of
telecommunications.

ITU
-
T

Telecommunication Standardization Sector

The dut
ies of the ITU
-
T are to study technical, operating,
and tariff questions and to issue recommendations on them,
with a view to standardising telecommunications on a
worldwide basis. This included recommendations on
terrestrial networks, interconnection with

radiocommunication systems in public telecommunication
networks and the performance required for these
interconnections.

NBN

National Broadband Network

An Australian Government initiative that will deliver high
-
speed broadband to all Australians. The NBN

is a new,
wholesale
-
only, open access, high
-
speed broadband
network.

NGN

A Next Generation Networks (NGN) is a packet
-
based
network able to provide Telecommunication Services to
users and able to make use of multiple broadband, quality

of service
-
enabled transport technologies and in which
service
-
related functions are independent of the underlying
transport
-
related technologies. It enables unfettered access
for users to networks and to competing service providers





a
c
m
a

|
25




and services of their
choice. It supports generalised mobility
which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of
services to users.

NICTA

National ICT Australia

Established in 2002 to address a long
-
term structural
under
-
investment in strategic information and
communicat
ions technology research that had impacted on
Australia’s ability to fully capture the productivity and
瑲慮sf潲m慴a潮al⁢ 湥fi瑳⁴ 慴ai湦潲m慴a潮⁡湤
comm畮ic慴a潮s⁴散桮潬ogy⁣慰慢ility⁣a渠n敬iv敲e

乓t⁈敡l瑨

New South Wales Health

Supports the executi
ve and statutory roles of the NSW
Minister for Health and monitors the performance of the
NSW public health system

PaaS

Platform as a Service

Provides a user with all the infrastructure needs to run
applications over the internet.

PCEHR

Personally Contro
lled Electronic Health Record

A secure electronic record of a person’s medical history
s瑯牥搠tn搠d桡re搠d渠n 湥t睯wk c潮湥c瑥t⁳ys瑥tsK


RFC

Request for Comments

A set of documents used by the IETF as the primary vehicle
for communicating information with regards to TCP/IP
protocols.

RSP

retail service provider

Retail network service providers and application/content
service providers provide services to end users

and have a
direct customer relationship with the end users.

SaaS

Software as a Service

A software delivery model where software and any
associated data is stored on a server and can be accessed
by users over the network or the internet.

SFOA

Standard Fo
rm of Agreement

Improves the level of information disclosure to customers of
carriage service providers who provide services in
accordance with standard forms of agreement.

smartphone

A mobile phone offering advanced capabilities and
computing functionali
ty.


SSL

Secure Socket Layer

A security protocol that is integrated into web browsers to
provide encryption and authentication services between the
user’s browsers and a website.

p潈o

Small Office Home Office

A term used to denote where a user can be at home or in a
small office, and communicate with servers within the
enterprise network.

TIP

Telepresence Interoperability Protocol

A protocol focused on improving the interoperability of high
-
end video conferen
cing systems between different vendors.

telepresence

In computer networking, the ability to connect
geographically separated people via high
-
quality audio and
video streams.

thin client

A computer that relies on a server to perform the data
processing and only shows the user the end result.

virtualisation

A technique that allows multiple operating systems (or
virtual machines) to run on a single physical machine.





26

|
a
c
m
a





VPN

virtual
private network

A set of security protocols that allows devices to send and
receive data securely over the internet.

Wifi

wireless fidelity

A wireless networking standard used for connecting devices
to a computer network.