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Introduction to Architectural Design and the Built Environment (2+2) 3

Introduction of the main elements and principles governing architectural
design, its basic concepts and
elements, main determinants of architectural design, user
space interaction, house design principles, and
primary and secondary activities related to residential design.

Mathematics (

Real numbers, functions of one
variable, limit and continuity, derivative, applications of derivative, curve
sketching, extremum.

Technical Drawing & Presentation Techniques (2+2) 3

The definition of architectural tools and paper sizes; freehand drawing; drawing vertical, horizontal,
and curved lines; letter; projective drawings (plan, section, view); the concept of scale; three
drawings of geometric objects (axonometric perspective).

Design Studio I (2+6) 5

building spatial context. By making spatial analys
is in the context of body, activity, logic of construction,
and type of materials, a kind of consciousness is awakened as a design process methodology. Conceiving a
definite time and space, and expressing in three dimensions. Working sometimes as an indivi
sometimes as a team member, and sharing information belonging to all of the projects made at the design
studio. Attending to architectural conferences, reading and writing architectural texts.

Basic Design (2+2) 3

Basic Design Tools as defining ele
ments (point, line, measurement, texture, shape, color, direction, interval,
movement, light and shadow), Basic Design Concepts (repetition, harmony, contrast, hierarchy, balance,
unity) and Visual Perception Principles.

Computer Applications in Architec
ture (1+2) 2

Fundamentals of computer aided design of architectural projects. Computer applications in architecture,
design process and approaches. Data acquisition systems in architecture, modeling and simulation
techniques, conceptual and formal modeling

techniques. Spatial design in computers. Expert systems and
some examples.

History of the Turkish Revolution I (2+0) 2

The Aim of the Revolution and Related Topics / The Decline and Fall of Ottoman Empire, The First World
War / Mondros and Sevres Agreements / Mustafa Kemal and the Organization of the National Struggle /
The Last Ottoman Parliament and the Proclamation of M
ı Milli / The Establishment of Turkish Grand
National Assembly

Turkish I (2+0) 2

Orthographic Rules / Phonetics / Semantics / Wording / Language

Design Studio II (2+6) 5

New trends on space design in houses and offices. The design problems caused
by the interaction between
new Office working and home living conditions. Projects on modern offices and houses.

Building Construction & Materials I (2+2) 3

Classification of building materials; structure of materials; properties of materials; natural
stone, aggregate,
binding building materials, artificial stone, ceramic, glass, metal, wood, paint and liquid covering materials,
plastic, bituminous and tarred materials; wall nucleus and inner and outer coverings; floor and support
materials, roof coveri
ng materials.

History of Turkish Revolution II (2+0) 2

The National War of Independence / Eastern and Western Fronts / Mudanya Agreement and the End of
Sultanate / Lausanne Peace Conference and the Establishment of the Republic / The New Republic / The
position and Progressive Republican Party / The renovations in Education and Culture / The Mousul
Question / The Experiment of Multiparty System

Liberal Republican Party


Turkish II (2+0) 2

Language Families / Accents and Dialects / Verbal and Written Ex

Computer Aided Design (3+0) 3

Introduction of computational tools on architectural design. Application of a well known computer software
for architectural design.

History of Architecture I (3+0) 3

Conditions of spatial formation from Prehistor
ic to Gothic Period, principles of Area Architecture,
environmental factors, architectural elements, structural systems, building materials of the buildings being
discussed in the context of spatial matters, relations of architectural production with art a
nd social events.

Design Studio III (2+6) 5

Learning through images, models, or/and sketches expressing thoughts of space within a spatial context.
Spatial analysis in the context of place, geography, everyday life, awareness of urban context and
ship between activity and program. Understanding spatial organization of the program, construction
design and materials, the logic of computer aid in design and rendering, and presentation. Creating a new
design for more than one activity at a definite pla
ce, and expressing in three and two dimensions.

Sustainable Design
(3+0) 3

Consumption of natural sources, Production of the energy which is useful for
environment and human
health, research the ecological principles in design. Design principles and

strategies of ecological building,
Sample Buildings, Developing of ecological buildings, Research studies on solution of environmental design
problems, Intelligence building design, Use of contemporary construction elements in ecological design.


& Strength of Materials for Architecture (2+2) 3

Introduction, forces, nodes, parallel forces, force pair and torque, general expression of surface forces,
center of gravity, loads, friction, cage systems, inertia, stress and strain, elasticity and deform
ation, axial,
transversal and normal forces, torsion and bending torques.

History of Architecture II (3+0) 3

‘Space’ concept in Islam, functional and structural elements constituting th
e space, frequently used types of
space, their historical and cultural roots and their functional and spatial effects in the building, ‘Space’ in
early Islamic and other public buildings in Anatolia, ‘Space’ in Ottoman Classical, Renaissance and Baroque
riods, Historical and cultural roots of the improvements in art and architecture of Ottoman Classical,
Renaissance and Baroque Periods, Rococo as an extension of Baroque Period, Urban Space in Istanbul
and Rome through 16th century, Social and Cultural con
ditions in Istanbul and Rome through 16th century,
and their reflections in city Architecture.

Building Construction & Materials II (2+2) 3

Functional building materials under structural parts, foundation systems, bearing and non
bearing wall
systems, f
lor and roof systems, vertical circulation systems.

Design Studio IV (2+6) 5

Computer aided presentation, creating a new design for more than one activity at a definite place, and
expressing in three dimensions. Working sometimes as an individual, someti
mes as a team member, and
sharing information belonging to all of the projects made at the design studio develops students’
communication skills both socially and architecturally. Attending to the architectural conferences, reading
and writing architectura
l texts builds a base for design literacy. Being informed about the contemporary
world architecture in the context of thought, space and practice is important.

History of Architecture III (3+0) 3

The effects of Industrialization in the 19

century on ar
chitecture, Architectural Movements during the 19

century in the West, Westernization in Turkey in the 19

century, reflections of new social and spatial needs
in architecture, Early Modernism in the world and in Turkey, Early Modernists (Walter Gropius
, Adolf Loos,
Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Alvar Aalto), Early Republican Architects and
Buildings in Turkey, International Style, Expressionist Architecture, The New York Five: Peter Eisenman,
Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, John

Hejduk and Richard Meier, Conditions of spatial formation
through the period from Modernism to Deconstructivism (Aldo Rossi, Robert Venturi, Theodor W. Adorno,
Georges Bataille, Walter Benjamin, Georg Simmel, Gaston Bachelard, Martin Heidegger, Hans

Gadamer), principles of Architecture, relations of architectural production with art and social events are the
titles to be studied through the lecture.

Design Studio V (2+6) 5


Design of simple and complex buildings. The analysis and synthesis of simple and complex buildings.
Analysis and design of building locations.

Concrete Structures (3+0) 3

Introducing reinforced concrete as a building material and providing knowledge abo
ut the hypotheses and
regulations regarding its computation, its qualifications as a load
bearing material, skew

and pure
(rectangular and flat sections). Description about columns, reciprocal force diagrams, slab types, reinforced
concrete load b
earing systems and their characteristics, reinforced concrete building structures, tall
buildings, and large openings .

Environmental Control I (3+0) 3

Passive climatization: Climate and climatic elements, climatic comfort, explaining of changing in clim
elements, design parameters related to built environment which are effective on climate and energy control
(site, orientation, building envelope, building form, building distance, etc.), design of building envelope.
Lighting: Definition of light, kind
s of lighting; photometry, laws(regulations); visual comfort, design
parameters related to built environment which are effective on light control (windows, room dimensions,
reflectivities of internal surfaces, obstructions, artificial light sources, etc.),

artificial lighting systems. Noise
control: Definition of sound, human health and noise relation, design of built environment as a noise control
system; noise and vibration control in buildings; sound insulation of building elements; acoustical design of

Design Studio VI (2+6) 5

Urban settlement. Effects of transportation and communication, and social, environmental and economical
impacts on architectural design and urban planning. The integration of technical information with

Urban Design (3+0) 3

History and theory of Urban Design, Urban design practice and its applications, Urban Design methods and
tools, contemporary Urban Design methodologies for sustainable developments, and Urban Design

Design and Const
ruction of Structure Systems (3+0) 3

This course addresses the design of structural systems for buildings and bridges. Topics covered include
design procedures, sources of information for design, sources of loading conditions and combinations,
design methods, primary and secondary structural systems, nonstructural components and
interaction. This is a design
oriented course in which students work on a project, in groups of three
ranging from schematic design to a final design report.

servation and Restoration (3+0) 3

Theoretical fundamentals of conservation of historical buildings. Development of contemporary historical
building conservation methods since 19

century. Research phase before restoration, conservation
measures and defini
tion of conservation, restoration techniques, restoration examples, the selection of
restoration sites. Legal issues in Turkey.

Environmental Control II (3+0) 3

Cold and hot water supply systems of buildings and their elements, waste water system and its
design of spaces under consideration, sanitary installation of tall buildings. Fire control, design parameters
related to built environment which are effective on fire control (settlement density, organization of rooms, fire
stairs, etc.), design

of built environment as passive and active fire safety systems. Heating systems and
their elements, ventilating systems and their elements, air
conditioning systems and their elements;
integration of these systems and their elements with architecture. Cur
rent regulations in Turkey (fire
regulation, etc.). Elements of electric installation (Lighting systems, other systems working with electrical
energy); calculation methods of lighting; assembling of artificial lighting system and installation;
, control panels, systems of power distribution; design of electric installation

integration of
architectural project and other subsystems.

Design Studio VII (2+6) 5

Complex building design, planning and urban design: analysis, programming, planning, bu
ilding design,
structural systems, building systems, landscape architecture.

Analysis of Historical Structures (3+0) 3

Conventional and optical measurement techniques for historical buildings, photography in documentation,
technical drawings, definition
of areas which requires restoration. The study of types and methods of
restoration. Restitution and restoration processes.


Project and Construction Management (3+0) 3

Basic concepts, partners of construction works, managerial and economical decisions and their levels
(sector, company, project, operation). Civil engineering sector: organizations and functions. Design and
construction firms: functions, structures, evaluat
ion of investments, methods of works. Cost management:
cost forecast, planning and control. Time and source managements: forecasts, planning and control. Risk
management, quality management and information management of construction works. The role and
ponsibility of an architect on construction works. Cost calculations of construction works of buildings.

Urban Planning and Building Law ( 3+0) 3

Basic principles of development and development plans will be studied by the help of plan examples.
d information will be given according to the rules about architectural profession in development law,
duties and liabilities of technical responsibilities, arrangements about safety of work and workman health.
And also samples of legal documents prepared b
y related governmental departments and judgment
documents of courts according to developments.

Project Research (2+0) 2

Definition of the task: Analysis and evaluation of the requirements of a building by considering land and its
surroundings and other
conditions and factors (physiological, social, technological, aesthetic). Converting
the design information to design knowledge. Development of design methodology and definition of design
priorities. By using the knowledge gained during the whole architect
ure education, candidate’s graduation
project must show the skill to reach the optimum solution, to solve architectural problems and to show the
ability developing alternative solutions.

Introduction to Art and Architectural His
(3+0) 3

This course is intended to analyze the basic concepts and theories underlying the historiography of art and
architectural history by surveying various critical perspectives in these disciplines. Students will learn how
art and architectural hi
storians work with primary materials and formulate arguments.

Steel Structures in Architecture
(3+0) 3

The objectives of this course are to provide; the knowledge of

structural steel

material behavior

advantages/disadvantages of steel as structural
material, the concept of steel connections and their design,
knowledge for design of beams subjected to tension and/or bending, the design knowledge of steel
elements subjected to compression, the concept of steel roof trusses and their design rules, and t
he design
concept of multi
storey steel buildings.

With a greater understanding of the characteristics and inherent
benefits of structural steel, students will be prepared to better utilize steel as a framing material.

Technical Installation Systems
0) 3

Students will gain an understanding of the principles and application of the
installation systems in buildings
such as illumination, heating,
natural and mechanic ventilation
electric installation of buildings,
cold and hot
water supply systems, wast
e water system and its elements,
rainwater plumbing, environmental drain
topics, organization of wet spaces.


Ecology and Architecture (3+0) 3

Consumption of natural sources, Production of the energy which is useful for
environment and human
health, research the ecological principles in design. Design principles and strategies of ecological building,
Sample Buildings, Developing of ecological buildings, Research studies on solution of environmental design
problems, Intell
igence building design, Use of contemporary construction elements in ecological design.

Conventional and Contemporary Turkish House Architecture
(3+0) 3

Cultural and spatial properties of conventional and contemporary Turkish Houses. Comparison of them
respect to social structures of the society. Field studies on examples.

Urban Open Space Design Principals (3+0) 3

This course is concerned with understanding the relationship of home environment (spatial settings,
settlement patterns, built form) wi
th socio

cultural factors and settings. “The analysis of culture
relationship and understanding of culture from the perspective of physical anthropology, cultural
anthropology, behavioral geography, and history.

Modern Architecture and Urban
Design in the 20th Century
(3+0) 3

This seminar provides a critical review of the modern movements in architecture in the early twentieth
century. It explores the cultural, social and political background of the “first machine age” by studying


exemplary wo
rks, design principles and institutions of modern architecture. In this seminar, we will discuss
the birth of new representational techniques in architectural drawing, which inspired many contemporary art
and architectural movements; utopian city designs b
y well
known architects, such as Frank Lloyd Wright
(“Broadacre City”), Bruno Taut (The “Stadtkrone”) and Le Corbusier (“The Radiant City”); and the influential
Bauhaus school as the crystallization of the avant
garde movements.

Drawing as the Extension
of Thought (3+0) 3

This course focuses on drawing as a medium for thinking through and communicating design ideas. Thus, it
introduces various drawing systems to help stimulate the design process, develop design ideas, and
represent design proposals in
the most effective manner. Throughout the course students will perform a
series of short exercises for developing freehand drawing skills required both in the academia and the
professional world.

Landscape within Architecture (3+0) 3

This course introduce
s the perception, aesthetic, comfort, and quality of landscape elements, environmental
quality, concept of landscape quality, basic concepts such as soft
scape and hard
scape within the larger
context of buildings. Within this framework students will learn

to analyze the quality of life during the design
process, inhabitants’ needs, post
occupancy evaluation of design space, and to deliver the suitable
conditions for open spaces within the needs of modern life by evaluating the physical, social and economic


Architectural Sketching (3+0) 3

This is a basic freehand drawing course aimed to capture a specific mood or image (observation), to create
expressive drawings of different components of space (interior and exterior), to convey possible ur
design concepts (urban design), to describe specific details of design problems (building construction).
Students will learn basic sketching techniques to draw complex design systems.

Modern Architecture in Turkey: Early 20th Century (3+0) 3

This cour
se will analyze the modern

garde movements and

in the
20th Century

in Turkey. Students will learn about the architectural developments and socio
expressions of the period through the assigned readings, field trips, and key exercises.

Urban Project (3+0) 3

This course is an urban planning course aimed to interpr
et urban life and develop local
scale proposals. The
aim of the course is to develop the students’ abilities to foster a critical and creative approach in the field of
urban planning. The course is designed as a project work in a specific urban area within

İstanbul. Students
are expected to work in groups of 3
4 to produce their design proposals.

Architecture of the City (3+0) 3

This course provides an introduction to the city as a collective work of architecture built over time. To this
end, this course i
s about urban form and urban process seen in a historical perspective. This course seeks
to develop a fundamental understanding of theories and principles involved in the making of cities; develop
an operational understanding of political and economic poli
cies on the development of the city over time;
and develop a critical framework and the ability to apply that framework toward intervention in the city as
architects, planners, engineers, and as citizens.

Green Project Management (3+0) 3

This course invol
ves thinking green throughout projects, including environmental goals to decision making
and management. Green project management is a key component in nowadays sustainability agenda. It is
aimed at helping project managers on; understanding what it means
to truly think green, discovering the
ethical basis for green project management, seeing how environmental choices and profit can have
compatible goals, learning the steps to move toward green project management, and identifying useful tools
and techniques

Sustainable Buildings (3+0) 3

This course focuses on improving sustainability within the built environment. A sustainable building refers to
a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource
efficient throughout a

cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.
These are achieved productively and with environmental and social sensitivity. Such an integrated and
holistic project management approach requires a new
mindset and novel methods, which are taught in the

LEED AP Preparation (3+0) 3


Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification provides independent, third
verification that a building, home or community

was designed and
built using strategies aimed at achieving
high performance in key areas of human and environmental health. Developed by the

U.S. Green Building
Council in 2000, the

LEED rating systems are developed through an open, consensus
based process led

LEED comm

This course provides the students preparation for LEED AP exams.

Computer Modelling (3+0) 3

This course involves with computer visualisation techniques which is an essential part of the architectural
and design industries. Modelling with computer

programmes is the process of creating an abstract model to
simulate the behavior and response of a wide range of systems and prototypes. The advantage of computer
modelling for architecture is the ability to test multiple scenarios and designs fairly quic
kly. Modifications can
be done on an existing model and these changes allow the designer to explore other options, try out new

Advanced 3D Modelling (3+0) 3

In this course, modelling, lighting, manipulation and navigation of digital models

programmes will
be instructed. Students will learn to import 3D models from AutoCAD, as well as creating 3D models directly
within the program itself.

The programs can be used to apply textures and materials, and lighting and light
effects to create imag
es with realism and atmosphere. Abilities; to use images as a communication tool, to
produce high quality rendered images, to test aspects of architecture in a specific context, and to integrate
information between software packages will be earned.

uction Management and Economics (3+0) 3

This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of the foundation knowledge of the
principles, concepts, processes and procedures pertaining to the economic aspects of management. The
course aims to

teach the basic concepts, skills and tools of construction project management. Also, it aims
to develop student’s knowledge and understanding of the impact of economic factors on the management of
a project and construction firm.

Quality Management in C
onstruction (3+0) 3

This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of the foundation knowledge of the
principles, concepts, processes and procedures pertaining to the management aspects of quality. Also,
students will gain a better understanding of the prob
lems associated with improving quality with emphasis
on its applications in construction concerning quality tools utilized at project and firm level.

Introduction to Research and Research Methods in Construction (3+0) 3

This course provides guidance on r
esearch methodologies and methods with particular attention to
applications in construction. Students in the course learn about research methodologies, the cyclical nature
of applied research, and the iterative process of research writing. The course also
teaches students how to
write a research proposal, it equips students to engage in independent research, and it assists students in
cultivating a mentor
mentee relationship.

Building Technologies (3+0) 3

This course prepares students to apply technical k
nowledge and skills in Building Technology. The
knowledge and skills address maintenance of a building's function and service within a variety of structures

commercial and residential. The course aims at providing a fundamental understanding of the physi
related to buildings and to propose an overview of the various issues that have to be adequately combined
to offer the occupants a physical, functional and psychological well

Design for Safety in Buildings (3+0) 3

A systems approach is a key pr
inciple for “safety in building design”. This course is designed to provide
students with an understanding of the foundation knowledge of the design principles of safety with a special
focus on fire protection, occupant safety and health, natural hazard
s, security for building occupants and
assets and related regulations.

Light and Space (3+0) 3

This course examines the interaction of light and space, spatial and formal considerations with respect to
daylight in architecture, physiological and psychological effects of lighting and architectural lighting design.

Landscape, Health and Design (3+0)


This course addresses the health benefits of interaction with natural settings. It will provide an overview of
theories in environmental psychology related to natural environments (e.g., restorative environments;
biophilia hypothesis); methods of resear
ching natural landscapes; and the application of research to the
design of nature
related spaces in urban environments. It is directed to look at different scales of the


environment, such as neighbourhood settings and to address different groups of people
as older people and
children. Students will be expected to evaluate design projects and assess the health consequences of
contemporary urban forms.

Research Topics in Architecture: Ageing Environments (3+0) 3

This course examines research and design of ag
eing environments. It discusses how the neighbourhood
environment is related to different aspects of healthy ageing. Ecological theories of ageing and research
methods suitable for older people will be studied. The purpose is to understand how these tools
can inform
the design of ageing friendly environments. Attention will be given to the use of open and green spaces
particularly at the neighbourhood scale

and how they may promote the health and quality of life of older
people. Students will be exposed t
o design projects targeted to older people and expected to discuss and
evaluate how these projects may affect their health and well

Culture, Architecture and Design (3+0) 3

This course focuses on environment
behaviour studies (EBS) and examines how

EBS knowledge can
inform the design of culturally meaningful environments. The course is based on the premise that cultural
variables play a significant role in design. The course builds on Amos Rapoport’s (and relevant authors in
EBS) writings to define
culture and to discuss the importance of culture for design. Studens will learn about
cultural research in EBS and be exposed to examples of design projects in different cultural contexts.
At the end of the course, students will be expected to identi
fy contemporary features of the built
environment (in design and planning projects) which reflect efforts to address culture as a relevant factor.

Portfolio Presentation Techniques (3+0) 3

This course focuses on the organization and preparation of a portf
olio that shows a student's creative
works. Students will learn visual composition and organization techniques, document visualization methods
and 2D and 3D image and drawing output presentation techniques. This course, in addition, examines
computer image

editing, paper and digital portfolio preparation.

Spatial Sociology (3+0) 3

This course focuses on the concept of sociology of space which is the primary concern of theoreticians such
Georg Simmel
Michel Foucault

Henri Lefebvre
David Harvey
Manuel Castells

d Soja
, Anthony
Martina Löw

Pierre Bourdieu
. Spatial sociology focuses on how social

factors affect and shape
spatial environment. This course is designed to enhance student understanding of the basic concepts of
spatial sociology are land use, social control, public space,

urbanization, migration, preindustrial city,
industrial city, pos
industrial city, urban transformation, gentrification, information city, capitalist spaces,
global cities.

History of Spatial Perception (3+0) 3

Perception refers to an interaction between the subject and the stimulus. The subject chooses, organizes

interprets the stimuli in a perceptual process. In this course the theories of perception (Gestalt, Gibson,
Gregory), methodological approaches (phenomenological, empirical) and dimensions of perception (visual,
auditory, depth) will be explored.

ch Methods in Environment and Behaviour Relations (3+0) 3

This course introduces chosen approaches and concepts in exploring environment
behaviour relations.
Students will work in groups for certain topics in various workshops during the semester. The basi
concepts are spatial legibility, user satisfaction, post
occupancy evaluation, user culture, privacy
arrangement, spatial hierarchy, spatial perception, sociofugal and sociopetal spaces, and social logic of

Methods for Architectural Design and An
alysis (3+0) 3

This course aims to introduce special techniques that are used in both in architectural design and
architectural design analysis. In this course the nature of architectural design and architectural design
analysis will be discussed. Students

will work on specific spaces or buildings to discuss and implement
given concepts and techniques.

Freehand Drawing (3+0) 3

This course

is structured through

a set of short, instructive exercises to develop freehand drawing skills. It is
designed to suit

mixed ability groups and combines study of small
scale objects, buildings, places, and

Each exercise focuses on specific materials, techniques, and media.

The exercise trains the

in the strategic use of different media and technique
s, as a tool
kit with which to think and describe
the world around them.

Universal Design (3+0) 3


The course provides a detailed introduction to the Universal Design philosophy and a theoretical
understanding of design tools and techniques.

Analysing Design
(3+0) 3

This course will provide an introduction to theories and practices in analysing design. It builds on theories
and methods from different disciplines, such as environmental psychology and design
related studies to
analyse and critiq
ue ‘design’. Design is seen as a process and ‘designers’ as creators of different
processes, activities, and design outputs.

Architecture & Pschology
(3+0) 3

This course deals with the psychological processes of the interaction between man and his
environment, as
for example spatial perception, spatial thinking, orientation behaviour, or spatial experience, territorial
behaviour, living requirements and satisfaction, local identity.

Environment & Design
(3+0) 3

This course crosses over several subj
ect disciplines to cover elements of landscape architecture, urban
planning, architecture and environmental technologies.

Space & Psychology (3+0) 3

The study of how changes in physical space and related physical stimuli can affect the behaviour of
duals is a main concern of the discipline called “Environmental Psychology”. Thus this course will
provide an introduction to theories and methods in Environmental Psychology. It focuses on understanding
how spatial arrangements of physical elements affect

people’s behaviour by addressing basic topics such
as perception and cognition, personal space, territoriality and crowding. A main concern is to portray to
students that designers and architects can create psychosocially supportive design buildings and s
Thus, this course also discussesseveral perspectives on urban planning.

Urban Pschology (3+0) 3

The course will provide an introduction and theories and methods in urban sociology, touching on basic
topics such as perception and experience in citie
s, urban infrastructure, health, and cultural differences in
cities. It covers several advanced topics in the field such as urban politics, neighbourhoods, and
immigration. Finally, it will discuss several perspectives on urban planning.The class will focu
s on
developing writing and methodological skills as well as understanding of the substantive topics in urban


(3+0) 3

The city’s historical buildings
from the earliest historical era on, contuniuing with Byzantine, Roman Empire,
The Crusades, again Byzantine, the whole Ottoman Empire era

will be surveyed.