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6
-
Stroke

Project Proposal and Feasibility Study


11

December

2009

Team 14

John Mantel

Andrew

DeJong

Tim Opperwall

Marc Eberlein

Jim VanLeeuwen




1


Executive Summary

Fossil fuels are being used at an alarming rate and unconventional methods need to be
considered to help reduce the dependence on these fuels.
The goal of this project is to
increase the efficiency of a standard internal combustion engine.
This will effec
tively
reduce
fuel consumption
, and therefore emissions, without

significantly

compromising on
power. To accomplish this, a four stroke engine will be modified to a six stroke engine
by adding a steam cycle
, such that the engine (1) intakes, (2) compresse
s, (3) combusts,
(4) recompresses, (5) injects water, (6) exhausts.


The project i
s split up into three major sub
components.



The injection system
will

be designed and implemented to be able to inject
a
precise amount of
water
at a specific time
.
An elect
ronic
engine
control
unit
(ECU)

will adjust the amount of water injected based on the temperature of the
engine. If the engine is running too hot, more water will be injected.



The current camshaft

and valves

will be removed
.
The ECU will
use a crankshaft
p
osition sensor to monitor the engine’s rotation and control the timing on
overhead electronic valves.



C
alculations and experiments

will

determine the amount of water
to inject per
cycle

and the relative efficiency of the engine
.
Power and fuel consumption

tests
will be conducted before and after the modification to verify these calculations.

The budget for this project is projected to be
approximately
$
825
. However, this is offset
by purchasing the water injection control system through a project in ENGR 3
15.
Consequently the effective budget for ENGR 339 is $675.

This semester long feasibility study determined
the above ECU method
as
a
feasible
project and
will be implemented in Engineering 340 to achieve the design goals.



2


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

2

1.

Introduction

................................
................................
...........................

Error!
Bookmark not defined.

1.1

Team Profile

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

4

1.1.1.

Tim Opperwall

................................
................................
................................
.......................

4

1.1.2.

Andrew DeJong

................................
................................
................................
.....................

4

1.1.3.

John Mantel

................................
................................
................................
..........................

4

1.1.4.

Jim

VanLeeuwen

................................
................................
................................
...................

4

1.1.5.

Marc Eberlein

................................
................................
................................
........................

4

1.2

Project Motivation

................................
................................
................................
........................

5

1.3

Project Description

................................
................................
................................
........................

5

2.

Project Objectives

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

5

2.1

Design Objectives

................................
................................
................................
..........................

5

2.2

Design Norms

................................
................................
................................
................................

5

2.2.1.

Transparency and Integrity

................................
................................
................................
...

5

2.2.2.

Stewardship

................................
................................
................................
..........................

6

3.

History and Research

................................
................................
................................
............................

6

3.1

Existing Patents

................................
................................
................................
.............................

6

3.1.1.

US Patent 1339176


May 4, 1920

................................
................................
........................

6

3.1.2.

US Patent 3964263


June 22, 1976

................................
................................
.....................

6

3.1.3.

US Patent 4736715


April 12, 1988

................................
................................
.....................

6

3.1.4.

US Patent 6253745


June 3, 2001

................................
................................
.......................

6

3.1.5.

US Patent 6311651


November 6, 2001

................................
................................
..............

6

3.2

Recent Work

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

6

3.2.1.

Bruce Crower’s Engine

................................
................................
................................
..........

6

4.

Testing

................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

7

4.1

Dynamometer Testing

................................
................................
................................
..................

7

4.2

Em
issions Testing

................................
................................
................................
..........................

7

4.2.1.

Orsat Testing

................................
................................
................................
.........................

7

4.2.2.

Gas Chromatography

................................
................................
................................
............

8

4.3

Fuel Consumption

................................
................................
................................
.........................

8

5.

Therm
odynamic Analysis

................................
................................
................................
......................

8

6.

Water Injection System

................................
................................
................................
.......................

10

7.

Design Alternatives

................................
................................
................................
.............................

12

7.1

Design A: Camshaft Design

................................
................................
................................
.........

12

7.2

Design B: Electronic Control System

................................
................................
...........................

14

7.3

Budget Analysis

................................
................................
................................
...........................

16

7.4

Decision Matrix

................................
................................
................................
...........................

16

8.

Project Management

................................
................................
................................
..........................

17

8.1

Ta
sk Delegations

................................
................................
................................
.........................

17

8.1.1.

Controls

................................
................................
................................
...............................

17

3


8.1.2.

Thermodynamics

................................
................................
................................
.................

17

8.1.3.

Cam Analysis

................................
................................
................................
.......................

17

8.1.4.

Testing

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

17

8.1.5.

Inventor modeling

................................
................................
................................
...............

18

8.1.6.

Website

................................
................................
................................
...............................

18

9.

Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

18

10.

Special Th
anks

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

19

10.1

Ren Tubergen

................................
................................
................................
..............................

19

10.2

Ned Nielsen

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

19

10.3

Nick He
ndriksma

................................
................................
................................
.........................

19

10.4

Paulo
Ribeiro

................................
................................
................................
...............................

19

10.5

David B
enson

................................
................................
................................
..............................

19

10.6

Gary G
eukes

................................
................................
................................
................................

19

11.

Appendix

A

................................
................................
.........................

Error! Bookmark not defined.

12.

References

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

24




4


1.

Team Introduction


From left: Tim Opperwall, John Mantel, Andrew DeJong, Marc Eberlein, and Jim VanLeeuwen.

1.1

Team Profile

1.1.1.

Tim Opperwall

Timothy Opperwall

is from
Grandville
, Michigan and will be graduating with a
Bachelors degree in Engineering with a mechanical concentration.

He is looking into
Mid
-
West graduate programs as well as employment in the West Michigan area.

1.1.2.

John Mantel

John Mantel

is from
Chelsea
, Michigan and
will be graduating with a Bachelors degree in
Engineering with a mechanical concentration.
He is pursuing professional basketball
opportunities in Europe but has plans to return to the engineering field in the future.

1.1.3.

Andrew DeJong

Andrew De
J
ong

is from
Gr
and Rapids
, Michigan and will be graduating with a Bachelors
degree in Engineering w
ith a mechanical concentration. He is pursuing graduate school in
the Washington, D.C. area.

1.1.4.

Marc Eberlein

Marc Eberlein

is from
Jamestown Township
, Michigan and will be graduating with a
Bachelors degree in Engineering with a mechanical concentration.

He is currently
employed at Highlight Industries and hopes to continue working there full time after
graduation.

1.1.5.

Jim VanLeeuwen

5


Jim VanLeeuwen is fr
om Jenison, Michigan and will be graduating with a Bachelors
degree in Engineering with a mechanical concentration. He
is

actively seeking full time
employment opportunities in both manufacturing and design.

2.

Project Introduction

2.1

Project Motivation

The mo
dern world is driven by
fossil fuels.

Consequently, society has been consuming
exhaustible resources at an ever increasing rate. There are many possible long term
solutions including nuclear, hydroelectric, solar and geothermal energy sources.
However, the
se solutions cannot be realistically implemented quickly and effectively.
In
the short term, unconventional and hybrid solutions must be implemented to reduce the
consumption of fossil fuels and provide more valuable time for the long term solutions to
be
implemented.

The goal of this project is to increase the efficiency of a standard
internal combustion engine. This will effectively reduce fuel consumption, and therefore
emissions, without compromising on power.

2.2

Project Description

To further the resear
ch in short
-
term, unconventional solutions,
a
one
cylinder,
four
-
cycle, 1
6
-
horsepower, internal combustion engine

will be modified

with the goal of
higher efficiency
.
The modified engine will run six cycles by adding a
water injection

and an exhaust

cycle
to the end of the traditional four cycles. The first four strokes will be
an intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust identical to the original engine.
In the

fifth stroke
,

water will be injected into the hot cylinder and will expand into steam
. In the

sixth stroke
, the steam and leftover combustion gases will be exhausted.
The modified
engine will be more efficient because the
fifth stroke

is a second power stroke that

uses
heat otherwise lost

to the atmosphere.

3.

Project Objectives

3.1

Design
Objectives

The

main objective for this project is a working
six
-
stroke internal combustion engine.
The desired
outcome

is to observe decreased fuel consumpt
ion for the same power
output. Along the way
,

a number of intermediate goals will be set to track progress and
analyze risks.
The specifics of these goals are further discussed in the Camshaft Design
and Electrical Control System sections.

3.2

Design Norms

As Christian engineers, this team needs
to

consi
der more than just
time
and money in the
decision making process.

Design norms, such as transparency, integrity, and stewardship
will be included in every decision.

3.2.1.

Transparency and Integrity

6


This project is part of larger research with the goal of greater

efficiency. Withholding
data and calculations, or reporting falsified or
incomplete

data, is not conducive to
advancing research.
Researchers

and

users of this technology need
to
know that it will
work
. Consequently, a

large part of this project will be t
horoughly documenting all the
calculations and modifications.
A
ll our progress and data will be documented and made
public.


3.2.2.

Stewardship

It is the responsibility of all Christians (including Calvin College, its students, and this
team) to use natural
resources in way that honors God. The way fuels are currently used
can be improved to better protect resources. Increasing fuel efficiency is one way the
team can respond to this calling.


4.

History and Research

4.1

Existing Patents

4.1.1.

US Patent 1339176


May 4, 19
20

Leonard H Dyer patented the basic idea of using a water injecting fifth stroke to increase
efficiency and simplify the cooling of an internal combustion engine.
1

4.1.2.

US Patent 3964263


June 22, 1976

Robert C Tibbs expanded on Dyer
’s

patent to include a pis
ton with a higher heat capacity
and an exhaust system that condenses and filters the

water after it is exhausted from the
cylinder.
2

4.1.3.

US Patent 4736715


April 12, 1988

Gregory J. Larsen patented a 6
-
stroke engine that supercharges and reheats the intake ai
r.
The two intake ports for the cylinder are cam actuated.
3

4.1.4.

US Patent 6253745


June 3, 2001

US Patent 6311651


David M Prater patented a

six stroke engine that contains the combustion
products in a separate heat regenerator, injects water into the rege
nerator, and then opens the
regenerator to the cylinder, providing another power stroke.
4

4.1.5.

US Patent 6311651


November 6, 2001

Satnarine Singh patented a six stroke engine with a computer controlled water injection
system. The patent calls for a turbine
that removes additional energy from the exhaust
steam and a condenser that recycles the used water.
5

4.2

Recent Work

4.2.1.

Bruce Crower’s Engine

7


Bruce Crower, owner of Crower Cams and Equipment Company, modified a
four
-
stroke
diesel engine to run a
six
-
stroke cycle
similar to the one proposed in this project. His ran
for over an hour and was only warm to the touch.
6

Crower was not available for
comment
due to medical issues.

5.

Testing

5.1

Dynamometer Testing

T
o determine if power is maintained, increased, or reduced
,

testi
ng of the engine
will be
conducted on the unmodified and modified engine cycles
. This testing aids in
determining the level of success of the project.

In an attempt to do preliminary testing of the unmodified engine, the
group contact
ed
Gary Geukes at

F
astbikes USA,

a local business that was
willing to test
the
engine
on

its

motorcycle dynamometer.
To
test the engine, the team
attached a small tire to the engine
and

built

a frame

to hold the engine steady during the testing.

Unfortunately
, since this

dynamometer was designed for high
-
power motorcycle engines,
the unmodified engine was unable to provide enough torque to spin the dynamometer at a
speed high enough to prevent stalling. Consequently, the unmodified engine stalled every
time it contacted t
he dynamometer.

Ren Tubergen,

the industrial consultant for this project, provided contact information

for
John Farris

in
the
Grand Valley State University

engineering department
.

Mr. Farris has
access to a small

engine dynamometer
used

t
o test engines

in

the Baja
. Mr. Farris has not
responded to the team’s attempts to contact him.

At this time,

attempts to test the unmodified engine have been placed on hold to allow
other areas of the project to continue moving forward.


5.2

Emissions Testing

To analyze
the efficiency

of combustion in

the engine, the concentrations of the
combustion products in the exhaust gases must be determined
.
The two methods
explored to accomplish this were
Orsat test
ing

and gas
chromato
graphy
.

5.2.1.

Orsat Test
ing

In
Orsat test
ing,

the exhaust gasses are piped through separate containers filled with
different
solutions

(potassium hydroxide, pyrogallol, etc). As the gasses pass through the
solutions, specific combustion products (carbon monoxide, oxygen, etc) are
absorbed

into
the so
lutions, reducing the volume of the emission gases.
7

From this we can calculate the
compo
sition of the emission gases. Professor Sykes suggested that Materials Testing
Consultants might be able to conduct an Orsat test on the unmodified engine. However,
th
ey do not have the facilities for this type of test. Research into other possible venues for
this test has been unsuccessful.

8


5.2.2.

Gas
Chromato
graphy

After contacting Calvin’s chemistry department, Professor David Benson has suggested
that gas chromatography c
ould be used to analyze the exhaust gases.

He was also
optimistic that this

test could be performed using Calvin’s existing equipm
ent. Gas
chromatography passes

the exhaust gases through a capillary tube
containing a silicone
solid. As the gases are forced

through the solid, the components separate out in a
predictable order.
G
as chromatography is most often used for environmental monitoring
and industrial chemical fields.
8
,
9
,
10

5.3

Fuel Consumption

To determine the change in fuel consumption, tests will be run
before and after the engine
modifications. These tests will observe the amount of fuel consumed to achieve a certain
amount of work. A

likely way to do this would be to drive a water pump to move water
from one place to another. This would require a quanti
fiable amount of work and the
power could be controlled by a valve on the water flow.

Another way would be to simply
measure the fuel consumption at a known power during the dynamometer testing.

6.

Thermodynamic

Analysis

Each

of the
six

stages of the
six
-
stro
ke operation
will

be

broke
n down

into
thermodynamic states
to find critical unknowns in the design process.
These

occur

after
each of the six strokes. B
ecause the engine is
an open

system, the thermodynamic state
before the intake

must be examined

to take into
account atmospheric conditions
.

So there
are seven thermodynamic states to be examined.

T
hese thermodynamic calculations
will determine

the
amount of
water

injected during
the fifth stroke
.
T
he appropriate heat reduction and steam content
ar
e

crucial variable
s
.
Having the correct amount of water injected into the system will insure that the
right
amount of heat is removed by turning
the water into steam
. This sudden expansion
provides additional power.


For the thermodynamic state directly b
efore intake
,

atmospheric conditions

are assumed
(
22 °C and 101 kPa
)
.
This defines the first thermodynamic state.

D
irectly after intake,
t
he pressure is
assumed to
still
be atmospheric.

The volume of the
air will be determined from the dimensions of the c
ylinder. The amount of gasoline in the
cylinder will be determined by the fuel consumption test. By measuring fuel consumption
over a specific amount of time over a constant, known, drive shaft speed the fuel
consumption per cycle will be calculated. This
defines the second thermodynamic state.

9


For the third thermodynamic state, after compression, three variables

are known
: the
volume and pressure of the air in the cylinder, and the mass of the gasoline

in the
cylinder
. The volume and pressure
will

be calc
ulated assuming ideal gas properties and
using the compression ratio for the cylinder. The mass of gasoline used was known after
the second thermodynamic state and this amount will not have changed with
compression. The variable that will be unknown is

t
he temperature of the air inside the
cylinder
.
The proposed method for finding this temperature is to place two thermocouples
in the
head

at known distances from the inside face of the cylinder. Since there will be a
linear regression from the temperature
inside the cylinder to the temperature of the
outside air, the two known temperatures will be calibrated to find the unknown
temperature inside the cylinder
. This defines the third thermodynamic state.

The fourth thermodynamic state is the expansion of the

cylinder

due to combustion
. For
this state, the known variables are the

composition of combustion products from the
exhaust gas test, and

the volume of the
products.
The exhaust gas test will measure the
composition of the combustion products and how muc
h fuel was actually ignited in the
engine. From this information, the mass of fuel used, and therefore, heat added to the
engine will be determined. The

two thermocouples

method

will be used
to find the
te
mperature inside the cylinder. This defines the
fourth thermodynamic state.

The fifth thermodynamic state is after the first exhaust stage.

The combustion products
could either be exhausted to the atmosphere or recompressed to retain additional heat.
However, recompressing the products would be a loss o
f work and could cause the
engine to stall, especially during start up. Additionally, recompressed products would
result in a high cylinder pressure which would require the water injection pressure to be
extremely high. Higher injection pressures require a

larger pump and present greater
safety risks. Consequently, the combustion products will be exhausted to a heat
exchanger that will pre
-
heat the water before injection. This retains the heat inside the
cycle without reducing power.

The temperature will be

measured by a thermocouple in
the exhaust stream. The composition of the gas remaining the cylinder is known from the
exhaust gas test. This defines the fifth thermodynamic state.

The sixth thermodynamic state is after the water injection.
A

small amount

of water is
injected into the cylinder which lowers the

engine operating
temperature

by making
steam.
This sudden expansion drives the piston down and
provides power for the crank
shaft.

The temperature of the

injected

water

will be measured with a ther
mocouple. The
amount of water is determined by the water injection control unit such that the water
removes just enough heat to maintain the optimal operating temperature. The temperature
of the steam will be determined by the two thermocouple method. This

defines the sixth
thermodynamic state.

10


The seventh thermodynamic state is after the final exhaust. The pressure and temperature
of the surrounding atmosphere are the known variables
. The composition is again known
from the exhaust gas tests. This defines

the seventh thermodynamic state.

The full
thermodynamic calculations so far can be seen in Appendix A

The most important part of this energy balance analysis is the power output by the
driveshaft.
The desired outcome of this project is to increase the am
ount of power output
per
gasoline consumed.

7.

Water Injection System

To inject the water during the 5
th

stroke, a water injection system
will

be installed to the
head of the cylinder. The proposed system will pump water from an open water tank to a
solenoi
d triggered fuel injector positioned on the head of the engine. For the final
prototype, it would be best if the amount of water injected could be adjusted to maintain
an optimum engine temperature. To do this, a con
trol system was designed by Tim
Opperwal
l
and Andrew

DeJong

in Engineering 315 during the

2009

fall semester. This
proposed system is diagramed in Figure
1
. The
controller

is a flexible, open
-
source
prototyping board

made by Arduino, shown in Figure 2. The board is programmed using
a C based com
puter language and transforms the resistance of
a
thermocouple

located on
the engine

into a variable power supply to the pump. As the engine heats, the controller
increases the power to the pump, which forces more water into the engine every cycle to
cool
the engine. This design will be used to set and maintain an optimal operating
temp
erature in the engine cylinder.

11



Figure
1
: Proposed water injection system.



Figure 2. The Arduino prototype board.

12


Preliminary experimenting has been conducted to determine the unmodified engine’s
normal operating temperature.
For the purpose of the controller, the operating
temperature of the engine can be represented by
an

exterior temperature. Figure 3 shows
exterio
r temperature of the unmodified engine during a warm start. The temperature
converges to 105
°
C which will be calibrated to the internal temperature. A desired
temperature will be chosen based on thermodynamic calculations. Then the controller
will be progr
ammed to begin injecting water into the cylinder when the engine
temperature reaches the desired temperature. The amount of water injected will slowly be
adjusted

to

maintain an equilibrium at the desired temperature.


Figure 3: Preliminary Engine Temper
ature Data.

8.

Design Alternatives

Based on research and professional advice, there are two main alternatives being
considered.

8.1

Design A:
Camshaft

Design

The first option, Design A,
utilizes a mechanical control of the engine cycles. The
engine
will need a

n
ew

camshaft that is geared to turn one revolution every three revolutions of
the crankshaft instead of the current speed of one revolution every two revolutions of the
crankshaft. Being a pushrod engine, the camshaft is geared directly to the crankshaft.
T
his makes it impossible to change the number of teeth on each shaft to achieve the
correct speed due to size issues. Because of this, a third shaft
will

be installed and a
double reduction gearing system will be used. This is shown in Figure
4
.


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature (*C)
Time (s)
Exterior Engine Temp
Ambient Temperature
Desired Ext Temp
13












Figure 4
: Reduction
g
earing for
c
amshaft
.

The existing cam design consists of a 29 tooth beveled gear on the crankshaft mating to a
58 tooth beveled gear on the camshaft.
The proposed

design will remove the existing
gears and use straight
-
toothed gears on all three shafts. The reduction ratio at each shaft
has not been determined yet, but will be close to a 29
-
58 tooth pair of gears for a 1:2
reduction between the crankshaft and the re
duction shaft and 20
-
30 tooth pair of gears for
a 2:3 reduction between the reduction shaft and the camshaft. This will give an overall
gear reduction of 1:3 between the crankshaft and the camshaft.

The proposed design consideration o
f an idler

shaft as p
reviously described
would
cause

the camshaft
to

turn
i
n the opposite direction as before the modification. This, however,
would not be a problem because a new cam will be designed and the lobes on the cam
will be designed 2/3 the size of, and at opposite a
ngles of the previous cam. There should
not be any issues with vibration and balance of the engine because the camshaft is quite
symmetrical about its axis of rotation because the only asymmetrical protrusions are the
lobes. The cam design will be done in
Autodesk Inventor and the 3D model will be used
to verify the lift and duration of the valves throughout the entire six strokes.

Instead of paying a lot of money to have this camshaft made
, a home
-
made camshaft
design will be considered
.
This will be done

because it will save money and
allow

several
attempts at

achieving the correct timing
. A steel shaft will be used as the base and
machined down so that it fits in the existing bearings in the crankcase. The lo
b
es will be
designed

in Inventor and laser cut

from steel slightly oversize and then ground down for
more accuracy.
Mr. Tubergen has generously offered later cutting services for this
project. The lobes

will then be welded onto the shaft at the proper angle. The gear will be
placed on the shaft and wi
ll use a key to lock it into position and a pair of setscrews to
keep it there. This will allow for easy removal in case another camshaft needs to be
fabricated.

C
rankshaft

Camshaft

Reduction Shaft

14


The lower end of the engine will need to be heavily modified for the new camshaft design
to be

implemented. This will include building a new cover for the lower end that extends
out and allows room for the idler shaft. This is shown in Figure
5
.




Figure
5
: Cutaway
v
iew of
c
rankcase
m
odification
.

Because the cover needs to extend out, a new bearing will be placed in it for the
crankshaft. This is because the diameter of the crankshaft is reduced inside the new
co
ver. Also, to have enough of the crankshaft left to attach to driven mechanisms, a
coupling will be used and the crankshaft will be extended. The idler shaft will be
supported by two bearings mounted in the new cover. These bearing will be slotted and
room

will be left in the design to shim them for greater accuracy. For ease of fabrication,
the cover will be made from steel plate, welded together as accurately as possible and
then machined for accuracy. The machining will start on the bottom of the cover t
hat the
idler shaft will be mounted on and all bearing holes and mounting holes will be machined
from that reference point. The stock gasket
will
be used to prevent oil leakage or a new
gasket can be cut from gasket material if the stock

gasket

wears out
.

8.2

Design B:
Electronic Control System

The second option, Design B,
is to completely remove the cam and actuate the valves
electrically. This will most likely include the use of solenoids and springs as the actuators
to open and close the valves. A whole new
head will be designed for this purpose instead
of modifying the current head.
This method is already implanted in most modern
automotive engines. The proposed design and equipment will heavily draw from these
previous solutions.


Crankshaft

Added Crankcase Cover

Idler Shaft

Idler Shaft Bearing Support

Original
Crankcase

15


This design has many optio
ns. First,
the decision must be made on

whether to use two
solenoids for each valve or only one.
Based on
the spring rate of the current valve springs
an approximate estimate of the force needed to open the valves is known.
Another design
consideration is
whether to use springs to assist the solenoids. This would take some of
the load off the solenoid, but still allow the system to be completely controlled
electrically. Because the system will need to be adjusted to allow for slight delay times,
the valves
will need to be designed so they do not interfere with the piston even if the
valve timing is off. This will allow
modifications to

the timing until
the engine

runs the
most efficiently without breaking valves and causing damage to
the

engine.

The valves w
ill be actuated using the same
ECU

as the water injection system. The same
board

will be programmed to actuate the solenoids as well as the injector.
The proposed
expanded control system is diagramed in Figure 6.


Figure 6
: The

expanded engine control un
it.

A
four
-
stroke cycle

program will be written

based on the current four
-
stroke cycle, and
the lift and duration of the valves will mimic that cycle as closely as possible. For the six
-
stroke cycle, the program will be changed to two thirds the speed and

a water injection
cycle

will be added.

16


A huge benefit to having electromechanical valves is the ability to change the engine
from a four stroke to a six stroke with no mechanical changes. All that

will need
to be
done is

to switch
program
s
. Hopefully this can be done on the fly so the engine can be
started up and warmed up in four
-
stroke mode and then changed over to six
-
stroke mode
after it is up to temperature.

Building a new he
ad also provides
a lot of flexibility in the design. It allows
the

design
to
include
a spot for the water injector rather than try to fit it into the current head with
major modifications. Also, with more completely redesigned parts and less modifications,
there is less of

a chance of ruining the engine. Another benefit to this design is that it is a
good project in itself. If the six
-
stroke cycle does not materialize
as

calculated, the
building of an engine head with an electromechanical drive train that runs on the origin
al
four
-
stroke cycle will be a great success.


8.3

Budget Analysis

The budget shown in Table 1 outlines the estimated costs associated with each design
alternative.

Table 1. Estimated budgets for design alternatives.


8.4

Decision Matrix

Item
Design A Costs
Design B Costs
Notes
Camshaft
$200
Idler Gear
$100
Electric Valves
$200
Crankshaft Position Sensor
$300
Engine
$0
$0
Provided by Engr. Dept.
Water injection
Diesel Fuel Injector
$50
$50
Fuel Pump
$75
$75
Pressure Regulator
$25
$25
Control system
$100
$100
Paid for by ENGR 315
Instrumentation
Thermocouples
$50
$50
Paid for by ENGR 315
Pressure sensor
$25
$25
Testing
Dynomometer
$0
Orsat
$0
Total
$625
$825
ENGR 339 Total
$475
$675
17


Various design norms,
obj
ectives
, and concerns have been combined into a decision
matrix between Design A and B to aid in deciding a design path. Table 1 outlines this
decision matrix. The cost is a proportionality based on the proposed budget in Table 1.
Design B is perceived to
be safer than Design A because it has fewer moving parts and is
more easily controlled. Design A is perceived to be more difficult to construct because it
involves moving parts with high stresses and very small tolerances. Design
A posses no
adjustability
in the physical parts because of the high cost associated with custom
camshafts; whereas Design B can easily be modified by changing the ECU programming.
Design A has higher transparency because of its physical nature. It is generally easier to
conceive ho
w a physical object works than lines of code. Design B is more sustainable
because the parts can be re
-
used in later research or projects; Design A involves custom
materials that will only work for this one engine under specific circumstances.

Table 2. De
cision matrix for the design alternatives.


Via the decision matrix, the proposed design for the engine modifications is Design B,
the electrical control system. This design offers the best chance of success as well as
fulfilling the design norms.

9.

Projec
t Management

Heavy consideration has been given to each team member’s personal strengths and
weaknesses. The tasks are divided based on the strengths and skills set of each member.

9.1

Task Delegations

9.1.1.

Controls

There are two main aspects of controls that need

to be addressed. Water control will be
handled mostly by Tim and
Andrew

as part of their controls class final project. Marc
Eberlein
will also help them with the overall engine control system due to his expansive
knowledge of engines.

9.1.2.

Thermodynamics

The

thermodynamics calculations will be completed by John

Mantel and Jim
VanLeeuwen
because of their general interest in that particular topic.

9.1.3.

Cam Analysis

Along with the modifications to the engine comes an analysis of the camshaft. The
camshaft needs to b
e
addressed

either by construction of a new camshaft and gear system
or by an electronic control system
.
Marc, Jim, and Tim are in charge of this

project.

9.1.4.

Testing

Criteria
Weight
Design A
Design B
Cost
20
0.59
0.41
Safety
40
0.3
0.7
Ease of Construction
10
0.4
0.6
Adjustability
20
0
1
Transparency
5
0.6
0.4
Sustainability
5
0.4
0.6
Total
100
33
67
18


Various
emissions, temperature, and power
tests need to be carried out on the engine to
colle
ct data before and after modifications have been made
.
This is a total team effort
simply because of the scope of the task.

9.1.5.

Inventor modeling

Detailed model of the engine, cam shaft, cylinder, etc. is to be completed by
Andrew

and
Marc because of their proficiency in
Autodesk

Inventor.

9.1.6.

Website

Website design and construction
will b
e completed by Tim and
Andrew

because of their
general interest in that particular topic.

A full Gantt chart with task specifica
tions can be found in

Appendix B
.

10.

Progress

10.1

Camshaft Reverse Engineering

The timing of the current cam shaft must be known to program the electronic control
system. This was accomplished by attaching a wheel marked with 360 degrees to the
crankshaft. A fixed needle was then pla
ced pointing at the wheel and the crankshaft was
rotated through its two full revolutions while measuring the angle of rotation from top
dead center, and also measuring the movement of the intake and exhaust valves with the
end of a calipers.



Figure 7:C
am timing from top dead center


10.2

Water Injection Control System

The water injection control system as mentioned before was successfully built and test as
part of Engineering 315 Control Systems. The full report on this project can be seen in
Appendix C in t
he IEEE format it was required in.

19


11.

Conclusion

Through the decision matrix and feasibility report it was decided that
, Design
B
,

the
electrically controlled
system
is the superior method of modifying the engine. This is
be
cause it offers the best chance

of
success as defined by the decision matrix. The
course

of actions resulting
from

thi
s decision would include buying solenoid valves
, conducting
further research, and assembling the electrical control unit. This semester long feasibility
study
determined

D
esign A

as un
feasible and
concluded that D
esign B

will

be
implemented in Engineering 340 to achieve the design goals.

12.

Special Thanks

12.1

Ren Tubergen

Mr. Tubergen is owner of

Gumbo Product Development and

has agreed to work with the
team as an industrial consu
ltant
. He
has been especially valuable in pointing out risk
s and
opportunities

in our project

as well as in providing team and project management advice.

12.2

Ned Nielsen

Professor Nielsen is the faculty advisor to Team 14.
With experience in automotive
engineering, h
e is a valuable resource for advice on project issues and has helped us find
contacts for specific help.

12.3

Nick Hendriksma

Mr. Hendriksma is an engineer working

for

the General Motors in the company formerly
known as Delphi. He is extremely knowledgeable on fuel injectors and has agreed to act
as a mentor for our team.

12.4

Paulo
Ribeiro

Professor Ribeiro has helped the team through his knowledge of control systems. He is

working with several team members on the engine control unit as part of a project for his
Engineering 315 controls class.

12.5

David B
enson

Professor Benson has provided some guidance for the team for future exhaust gas
composition testing. He is also a valuab
le contact in the Calvin College Chemistry
Department

who has volunteered some of his time and knowledge to help the team.

12.6

Gary G
eukes

Mr. Geukes is founder of FastBikes


USA who generously allowed the team to attempt
dynamometer tests on his motorcycle d
ynamometer. Despite the unsuccessful result of
those tests, his help is much appreciated.



20


13.

Appendix A


Thermodynamic Calculations

"Analysis of thermodynamic states after each of the six engine cycles."


"Specs"

diameter_bore=90[mm]

Stroke_bore=66[mm]

r=8

r=V_open/V_comp

V_open
-
V_comp=pi*(diameter_bore/2)^2*Stroke_bore



"Thermodynamic state 1: Intake"


T_outside=25[C]

P_inside=P_atm

V_air=V_open

T_cylinder_2=100[C]

P_atm=101.3[kPa]

m_dot_fuel=(2/3)[gal/hour]

m_dot_N2=1

m_dot_O2=1



h_O2=enthalpy(O2,t=
T_outside)

h_N2=enthalpy(N2,t=T_outside)

h_fuel=enthalpy(C8H18,t=T_outside)


m_dot_air=0.79*m_dot_N2+0.21*m__dotO2




E_dot_air=m_dot_O2*h_O2+m_dot_N2*h_N2

E_dot_fuel=m_dot_fuel*h_fuel




E_dot_intake=E_dot_air+E_dot_fuel





"PRESSURE WASHER FROM HOME"

"Thermodynamic state 2: Compression"


P_2=P_inside*8

s_2=entropy(air, t=T_cylinder_2, p=P_2)

T_cylinder_2=T_cylinder_1

V_air_2=V_air_1

m_fuel_2=m_fuel_1


h_air_2=enthalpy(air, t=T_cylinder_2)

h_fuel_2=.87*enthalpy(n
-
OCTANE, p=P_2, t=T_cylinder_2)+.
13*enthalpy(n
-
HEPTANE, p=P_2,
t=T_cylinder_2)



E_dot_air_2=m_dot_air_2*h_air_2

E_dot_fuel_2=m_dot_fuel_2*h_fuel_2

21



E_dot_compression=E_dot_air+E_dot_gas



"Thermodynamic state 3: Combustion"


m_exhaust=1

V_exhaust=1

T_cylinder_3=1

Power_shaft_1=1

s_3=s_2

AF_actual=35

"Estimation based on IC lab from last year."



"Combustion Equation"




"C8H18(liquid) + (n_O2)*O2 + (3.76*n_O2)*N2 = (a)*C8H18(vapor) + (b)*CO2 + (c)*H2O + (d)*O2 +
(e)*N2"

"Combustion Equation"




2*n_O2=2*b+c+2*d


8=8*a+b


18=18*a+2*c


2*3.76*n_O2=2*e

"Value of 3.76 given by assumption of air
composition."


n_O2=(1
-
a)*12.5


n_O2*4.76=AF_actual






"Thermodynamic state 4: Recompression"


P_4=8*P_3

T_cylinder_4=1

m_exhaust_4=1

V_exhaust_4=1







"Thermodynamic state 5: Re
-
expansion"


m_water=1

T_cylinder_5=1

Power_shaft_2=1

V_steam=1

T_water=20[C]

C_p_water=1



E_dot_steam=m_dot_water*C_p_water*(T_cylinder
-
T_water)



E_reexpansion=E_dot_steam+Power_shaft_2

22






"Thermodynamic state 6: Exhaust"


T_steam=275[C]

m_dot_exhaust=m_dot_fuel+m_
dot_air

P_atm_6=P_atm



h_fuel_6=enthalpy(C8H18,t=T_steam)

h_CO2_6=enthalpy(CO2,t=T_steam)

h_H2O_6=enthalpy(H2O,t=T_steam)

h_O2_6=enthalpy(O2,t=T_steam)

h_N2_6=enthalpy(N2,t=T_steam)


E_dot_fuel=m_dot_exhaust*((y_fuel*h_fuel_6)/MW_fuel)

E_dot_CO2=m_dot_CO2*((y_CO2*h_CO2_6)/MW_CO2)

E_dot_H2O=m_dot_H2O*((y_H2O*h_H2O_6)/MW_H2O)

E_dot_O2=m_dot_O2*((y_O2*h_O2_6)/MW_O2)

E_dot_N2=m_dot_N2*((y_N2*h_N2_6)/MW_N2)


E_dot_exhaust=E_dot_fuel+E_dot_CO2+E_dot_H2O+E_dot_O2+E_dot_N



23


14.

Appendix B


Gantt Ch
art












24


15.

References




1

United States Patent and Trademark Office. <http://patft.uspto.gov>

2

Ibid.

3

Ibid.

4

Ibid.

5

Ibid.

6

“Inside Bruce Crower’s Six
-
Stroke Engine.” Autoweek.com.
<http://www.autoweek.com/article/20060227/FREE/302270007>

7

Cumming, Alexander C. and Sydney Alexander Kay.
A Text
-
book of Quantitative Chemical
Analysis
. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1913), 269
-
272.

8
"Gas Chromatography." Wake Forest University Chemistry Department, n.d. Web. 22 Nov.
2009.

<http://www.wfu.edu/chem/courses/organic/GC/index.html>.

9

Colorado University Organic Chemistry Lab M
anual, n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.
<http://orgchem.colorado.
edu/hndbksupport/GC/GC.html>.

10

Tissue, Brian M. "Gas Chromatography." Virginia Tech University Chem
istry Department,
n.d. Web. 22
Nov. 2009. <http://www.files.chem.
vt.edu/chem
-
ed/sep/gc/gc.html>.