Automatic Generation Control for Contract-Based Regulation

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Automatic Generation Control for
Contract
-
Based Regulation


Final

Report

Project No. 15


Client:

Department of Electrical Engineering

Iowa State University


Advisor:

Gerald Sheble


Team Members:

Mark Tiemeier
, EE

Cam Bui
, EE

Chanh Bui
, EE


June

1
, 2005













-

-

ii




Table of Contents


Page

List of
Figures

................................
................................
................................
....

iii

List of Tables

................................
................................
................................
.....

v

List of Symbols
................................
................................
................................
...

vi

List of Definitions
................................
................................
...............................

vii

Abstract

................................
................................
................................
..............

1

Problem Statement

................................
................................
............................

1


General Problem Statement
................................
................................
..........

1


General Solution Approach

................................
................................
...........

1

Operating Environment

................................
................................
......................

2

Intended User(s)

and Intended Use(s)

................................
..............................


2


Intended user(s
)

................................
................................
............................

2


Intended use(s)

................................
................................
............................


3

Assumptions

................................
................................
................................
......

3

Limitations

................................
................................
................................
..........

3

Expected End Product and Other Deliverables

................................
..................

3

Approach

Used

................................
................................
................................
.

4



Design Objectives

................................
................................
.........................

4



Functional R
equirements

................................
................................
..............

4



Design Constraints

................................
................................
.......................

5



Techno
logy considerations

................................
................................
...........

6



Testing Requirements

................................
................................
..................

7



Project Continuation Recommendation

................................
........................

7

Detailed Design
................................
................................
................................
..

7

Resource Requirement
s

................................
................................
..................

12


Personnel Requirements

................................
................................
............

13


Other Resource Requirements

................................
................................
...

13


Financial Requirements

................................
................................
..............

14

Schedules

................................
................................
................................
........

15


Project Schedule

................................
................................
........................

16


Deliverable Schedule

................................
................................
..................

18

Project Team Information

................................
................................
.................

19

Closing Summary

................................
................................
.............................

20

References

................................
................................
................................
......

20

Appendix A

................................
................................
................................
.....

A
-
1


-

-

iii

List of Figures


Page


1
-
1.

AGC model

................................
................................
................................
.

2

1
-
2.

Prime mover model

................................
................................
....................

8

1
-
3.

Generator
-
load model

................................
................................
................

8

1
-
4.

Governor model

................................
................................
.........................

9

1
-
5

Governor, prime mover, generator
-
lo
ad, and tie line models combined

...

10

1
-
6.

Complete AGC model

................................
................................
..............

12

1
-
7

Project Schedule

................................
................................
......................

16

1
-
8

Deliverable Schedule

................................
................................
...............

18

-

-

iv

List of Tables


Page


1
-
1.

Estimated Personnel Requirements

................................
.........................

13

1
-
2.

Revised Personnel Requirements

................................
............................

13

1
-
3.

Revised Other Resource Requirement
s

................................
...................

14

1
-
4

Original Financial Requirements

................................
..............................

14

1
-
5

Revised Financial Requirements

................................
..............................

15


-

-

v

List of Symbols


B


frequency bias factor

D



percent

change in load divided by the percent change in frequency.

K


supplementary control constant

M



angular momentum of
the turbine

ΔP



change in power

ΔP
Mech



change in mechanical power input

ΔP
L



change in power demanded by the load in an area

ΔP
T
ie
-
flow

change in power transmitted over tie line

ΔP
Valve



change in valve position from nominal

R


speed droop characteristic

T
CH



c
harging time constant

T
G



governor time constant

w


frequency of system

w
ref



reference frequency for system, defined as steady state frequency of 60 Hz

Δw



change in system frequency

X
tie



reactance of tie line

Θ



voltage angle

-

-

vi

List of Definitions


ACE


Area control error


the shift in an area’s generation to restore system
frequency and the net interchange between areas to their desired values


Assist a
ction


T
he system shall have logic to know when to
execute



AGC


Automatic generation c
ontrol



Software for generation equipment that
responds to a change in system frequency by increasing or decreasing generator
output


Combined cycle plant


A power plant in which exhaust gases from the
combustion of coal, natural gas, or oil will drive a turbi
ne directly and then be
routed through a boiler to produce steam to drive a steam turbine
.


Controller


an element in a block diagram that controls the output to certain
specifications


Economic dispatch


process of allocating the required load demand be
tween
the available generation units such that the cost is minimized


FERC


Federal
Energy

Regulatory Commission



Regulates and oversees
energy industries in the economic and environmental interest of the American
public
.


Generator



a machine that conv
erts mechanical energy to electrical energy



Governor


an

attachment to a machine
for automatic control or limitation of
speed


MATLAB


computer software tha
t acts much like a calculator but with some
advanced features


NERC


North American

Electric
R
eliability

Council



Formed in 1968, its mission
is to ensure that the bulk electric system in North America is

reliable, adequate,
and secure
.


Nonreheat turbine


turbine which only inputs heated steam once and does not
reheat the steam


Power interchang
e


term related to transmitting power from one control area to
another control area


PowerLearn module


a combination of text, diagrams, example problems, and
homework problems used to educate an individual on certain electric power

-

-

vii

engineering topics.
Multiple modules are

bound together and are used to replace
a

text
book for and introduction to electric power systems
class.


Power system


The combination of power sources (generators), end users
(loads), and transmission networks that combine the two.


Prime mover


an initial source of motive power (as a windmill, waterwheel,
turbine, or internal combustion engine) designed to receive and modify force and
motion as supplied by some natural source and apply them to drive machinery


Simulink


Software
that is bundled with MATLAB

that allows the user to create
block diagrams of a system


Speed droop characteristic


gives the change in
a unit’s output proportional to
its rated output


Telemetry



capability of transmitting or retrieving data over a long
distance
communication links


Tie
-
line


a transmission line that connects two power systems


Transfer function


relates input to output relations

of variables in linear, time
invariant systems


Turbine


a

rotary engine actuated by the reaction or impuls
e or both of a current
of fluid (as water, steam, or air) subject to pressure and usually made with a
series of curved vanes on a central rotating spindle


Rate l
imiting


a
ll AGC designs must account for the fact that generators can not
change their outpu
t too quickly. The AGC must provide a reasonable rate of
change.


Unscheduled flows


refers to power flow over tie
-
lines between two systems that
was not expected and therefore not under a scheduled contract

-

-

2

Abstract


This

project deals with designing an

AGC
mod
ule

that can be used as a teaching
tool. This
includes using current AGC schemes that

must analyze the
performance of a control area under different operating conditions.
This project
necessitates that text and diagrams be integrated into a single

module. MATLAB
will also be used to identify the process’

ability to regulate within NERC
guidelines. The approach to this solution will include research of the approaches
and application of real world values in these approaches.
This project will resu
lt
in a PowerLearn Module that can be used as a training or educational tool. This
result will enable future students to learn about the intricacies of AGC.


Problem Statement


The ge
neral problem of this project was

to produce a PowerLearn Module for
tra
ining or educational purposes. A useable model for AGC
was

produced. It
integrated

text, diagrams, and MATLAB instructions into a complete learning
experience for the reader. An AGC controller will be added to the base AGC
model that is shown in Figure 1
-
1
on the next page
to meet NERC guidelines and
economic dispatch.


The general solution approach is to research about background information
to
familiarize
team members

about automatic generation control, economic
dispatch, and energy prices.
The group

will then conduct research on the
current
approach

to sol
ving the AGC model under normal

operating conditions. Once
the research is completed, a model for AGC can be produced and implemented
in MATLAB. Using real world values,
the group

will test
the

mod
el extensively to
make sure it falls within NERC guidelines.

Throughout the project, the module
will be added to and finalized at the end of the project life.
















-

-

3





Operating Environment


Since the end product is a process and simulation, t
he operating environment is
not applicable


Intended User(s) and Intended Use(s)


The intended users and uses for this project are identified below.


Intended User(s)


The end user of this project will most likely be an electrical engineering student
with
a specialization in power systems. This user will have a high technical

Figure 1
-
1: AGC model


-

-

4

knowledge but this may be their first contact with the subject of AGC.

Professors
will

also use this document as a teaching tool for students.




Intended Use(s)


This PowerLearn mo
dule will be used in a classroom setting, along with other
power systems topics. It can also be used as a stand
-
alone module
. This
module will overview the concept of automatic generation control and also
describe
s

controllers that can be added to increa
se the response time to system
changes.



Assumptions




We will assume a model of a combine
d

cycle generation plant



We also assume a system with a maximum of
three

generators



We will also assume
d

a system
with two control areas that had one

tie line
between

them



We
assumed

the basic block diagram for a two area AGC that was shown
in Figure 1
-
1.



We assume
d

the system is in a normal operating mode



The loss of a generating unit will not be considered




Limitations


Th
e National Electric Reliability

Council has

established limitations for control
area. The limitations are:




The Area Control Error or the power interchange between areas must be
equal to zero at least one time for every ten

minutes



The average power interchange between areas must be zero in ten
min
utes period and follow
limits of the generation system



Power interchange between areas must be returned to zero in ten minutes



Corrective actions must be
accommodating

within one

minute of a
disturbance



Expected End Product and Other Deliverables


The ex
pected end product and other deliverables are outlined below.




MATLAB
Simulink model



block diagrams to demonstrate the automatic
generation control to the user



-

-

5



PowerLearn m
odule


a combination of text and diagrams used as
educational reading




Documents

citing sources of information and individual logbooks for each
team member

as well as other project documentation


Project
Approach
and Results


The approached to be used for this project is defined in the following
subsections. These subsections will ov
erview the design objectives, functional
requirements, design constraints, technical approach considerations and results,
testing approach considerations, and a recommendation regarding project
continuation or modification.


Design Objectives


The design i
ncludes producing a PowerLearn module and an AGC controller to
supplement the PowerLearn module. Both these objectives are outlined below.


1)

PowerLearn module


The PowerLearn module is defined in the
definitions at the beginning of this report. This modu
le will follow the same
format of the previous modules. A sample of a PowerLearn module is
shown in Appendix A.

2)

AGC controller


The team will research and produce a controller that is
adde
d to the base AGC design that is shown in Figure 1
-
1 in an earlier

section. This controller will be discussed in the PowerLearn module and
included as a teaching tool.


End
-
Product
Functional requirements


Automatic generation control is the central control for power output of the
generators,
and
shall have three major
requirements:


1)

Frequency:

To maintain system frequency at or nearest to 60 Hz.

According to NERC, the system frequency shall not over or below 1% of
the nominal (e.g., 60 Hz).


2)

Tie
-
line
Power Flow:

To monitor and maintain a balance
of

p
ower
between control areas.

For example, if the frequency in area one is
decreasing and the net power flow to area one is 30 MW then area one
must increase power to restore frequency to nominal. It would also restore
30 MW it had borrow.


3)

Economic Dispatc
h:

To keep each
area’s

generation at the least cost.
The economic dispatch calculations must carry out once

every
10
minutes.


-

-

6


The final AGC system will also have certain output plots
. These plots are listed
below.


1)

Area frequency


the fre
quency, in hertz,
is
measured for
each control
area
. The output graph will show the system frequency
with respect to
time.


2)

Turbine outputs



the change in output of each turbine in the system will
be measured in MW.

The plots will show the change in MW

versus time.


3)

Tie
-
line flow


the change in tie
-
line flows
are
measured with reference to
area one. It should be known that the change in tie
-
line flows for area two
are just the negation of the flows at area one.

Here, the plots will show the
change in
power across the tie
-
line with respect to time.



The
PowerLearn Module is
a teaching tool for students
in power system classes.
The module
contain
s

the following requirements:


1)

Introduction


the introduction introduces what

AGC is and a brief history
of AGC. The introduction also provides
reasons why automatic generation
control is used, as well as gives
NERC limitations

pertaining to AGC.


2)

Implementation


this section explains how
AGC is implement
ed

into a
power system
. It goes in depth what the inputs of the system are, and
also what
the outputs of the system are. This section shows how AGC
uses feedback to
continually

keep the system frequency at nominal.


Also, ACE cal
culations are discussed in this section.
Examples are
provided to better illustrate what the ACE is actually doing.


3)

Secondary functions


this section explains other functions that
comm
ercial automatic generation control software

use and also describes
the economic dispatch calculation that goes into the AGC system.

Here
again, examples are provided to give an

an
cillary learning experience.


4)

MATLAB Simulink model


the final instructional

section introduces the
Simulink model that the team created.
In detail, each element of the
model is discussed.
Examples are included to allow the reader to get a
hands on exp
erience
with the model. This also gives the reader the ability
to experiment with AGC

to further the learning process.


5)

S
ummary



the final section in the PowerLearn module is the summary.
The summar
y explains to the reader what they should have learned after
reading the m
odule and also what other sources of information are
available to them.




-

-

7

Resultant
Design Constraints


The assumptions and limitations of this project are listed and described and
discussed below.


1)

The PowerLearn module is

a teaching tool and includes only introductory
material on

the subject of AGC. For this reason, certain simplific
ations
were

made. Considering a typical power system i
ncludes a large number
of loads, generators, an
d ties to other systems, the automatic generation
control

for these systems is complex. To make t
he material simplified and
easier to understand, we assume a system with only two control areas
connected by only one tie line. We also assume a maximum of three
generators
in each area
to supply the load.

The block diagram in Figure
1
-
1 shows a simple s
ystem that satisfies all of these assumptions.



2)

The group also assume
s

a model for a combined cycle generation plant.

This will allow the PowerLearn module to focus on a s
ingle

block diagram
and sim
plify the material
.

The decision to
choose

the combined

cycle
generation model was d
etermined by the advisor of the project.





3)

Assuming normal operating conditions furthe
r simplifies the analysis of
automatic generation control
. Considering power systems are designed to
operate in the steady state, we
do

not

consider a system that has
transients.

The calculations in steady state are much simpler than that of
when transients are present.

This

assumption also includes

generators,
transmission lines, and other power systems elements are operating
within de
fined limits.



4)

Other constraints to automatic generation control are detailed below.



Assis
t Action: The system shall have
logic to know when to
execute



Filtering: The system must works under random noise in the
telemetry channel particularly in the A
CE channel.


Telemetry Failure: The system must not take wrong action when a
telemetered value it is using fails.


Unit Control Detection: The system must provide some logic to a
generating unit will not respond input raise or lower signals.


Rate Limiti
ng: All AGC designs must account for the fact that
generators can not change their output too quickly. The AGC must
provide a reasonable rate of change.



-

-

8

5)

The AGC controller must meet all of the NERC criteria relating

to AGC.
Most of these requirements reg
ard to having something completed by a
specific time. The ACE is required to equal zero within 10 minutes of a
load change to minimize the amount of unscheduled flows over the tie
lines. These unscheduled flows
are expensive and any unnecessary
flows sho
uld be eliminated.


Approaches Considered and One Used


The team considered two approaches to write the PowerLearn module and
develop the AGC controller.


The first approach was to use the block diagram in Figure 1
-
1 and the
corresponding material that was

included in the text
Power Generation,
Operation & Control
.

The advantage to this approach is that it is simple and easy
to understand. The disadvantage is that while it reflects a real world solution, it is
in no way a comprehensive look at automatic g
eneration control.


The second approach was to pull together research from the internet, books, and
other academic writings and produce a module and block diagram to overview
AGC. One advantage to this approach is that the group can pick and chose what
m
aterial is best suited for the module. Another advantage of this is that it can
give a complete overview of how AGC works and relate it to real world
computations. One disadvantage of this is that it covers complex material that
students may not understa
nd. Another disadvantage, due to the complexity of
material, is that team members would have to find a way to convey the material
in a simple manner.


It was decided to use the simple block diagram and corresponding material. The
biggest reason for thi
s was to keep the project within its scope. Since
PowerLearn modules are introductory modules, it was decided to keep the
material introductory. Another reason for this was due to time constraints. It was
determined that it would take too long for the t
eam to understand difficult material
and have enough knowledge on it to write a module about it.


Detailed Design


The detailed design of this project begins with the formulation of the base AGC
block diagram. This diagram is shown earlier in this report
as Figure 1
-
1. There
are many components that go into this block diagram. Each component will be
broken down individually and then put together to form the entire functional block
diagram.


The first piece of the puzzle is to model the prime
-
mover of the

generators. To
simplify this model, the non
-
reheat turbine
is

used.

Each generator unit has

multiple valves to control the flow of steam into the turbine. The prime mover has

-

-

9

a charging time constant associated with it. The transfer function of the pr
ime
mover model is shown on the next page in Figure 1
-
2. T
CH

is the prime mover
charging constant and ΔP
Valve

is the per unit change in valve position. ΔP
Mech

is
the change in mechanical output of the prime mover in per unit











Next, a gener
ator
-
load model
is

formulated. While the turbine is outputting
mechanical power, the generator is outputting electrical power. If there is a
change in electrical power demanded, the mechanical power of the prime mover
will have to make up for the differe
nce. This will slow down the rotation of the
turbine since more work has to be done by t
he turbine. This slow down
result
s

in
a reduction of generator frequency. The block diagram for the generator
-
load
model is shown below in Figure 1
-
3.













M is defined as the angular momentum of the machine. D is the percent change
in load divided by the percent change in frequency. D is defined by the equation
below.


w
P
D
freq
L



)
(



(1)



All turbines

in a system are required to have

a governor. This governor

limit
s

the
prime mover to rotate at a c
ertain speed. The governor

compare
s

system
frequency with a reference frequency of 60 Hz to determine if more steam is
needed to be input to keep the prime mover rotating at a constant spee
d. All
turbines are not alike however. To resolve this is
sue, a droop characteristic

-

+

ΔP
Mech

ΔP
Valve

CH
T
s

1
1

Figure 1
-
2
: Prime mover model

ΔP
Mech

D
s
M

1

ΔP
L

Δw

Figure 1
-
3
: Generator
-
load model


-

-

10

keep
s

a unit’s output proportional to its rated output. Thus a generator with a
rating of 700 MW, will output twice as much to compensate for the load change
as a 350 M
W unit. This droop characteristic is determined with the following
equation.


unit
per
P
w
R





(2)


Governors also differ by a governor time constant, T
G
. The final piece in the
governor model is the load reference set point. This set point is d
etermined so
each unit can maintain its dispatch. In the case of a two unit system, if unit 1 is
generating 65% of the power and unit 2 is supplying 35%, then unit 1 will supply
65% of the load change and unit 2 will supply 35% of the load change. The bl
ock
diagram for the governor is shown below in Figure 1
-
4.















Now the tie
-
line model is introduced. Using the DC load flow method, the tie
-
flow
power
is

defined by the admittance in the tie
-
line multiplied by the differenc
e in
angles between area 1 and area 2. This equation is shown below.




2
1
1





tie
flow
tie
X
P


(3)


Since we are concerned with how the tie flow changes,




2
1
1






tie
flow
tie
X
P


(4)


In terms of frequency, this equation resolves to,




2
1
w
w
s
T
P
flow
tie








(5)


Here, T is considered the tie
-
line stiffness. It is defined by the below equation.

w
ref

w

Δw

-

-

+

+

G
T
s

1
1

R
1

ΔP
Valve

Load reference point

Figure 1
-
4
: Governor model


-

-

11


tie
X
T
1
*
377




(6)


We now put together a more complete model for a two area automatic generation
control system. The block diagram shown below is r
epeated from Figure 1
-
1.



































Figure 1
-
5:
Governor, prime mover, generator
-
load, and tie line models



combined



Equations relating this model are given
below.



Load
ref

Load
ref

ΔP
L2

ΔP
L1

ΔP
mech1

ΔP
mech2

ΔP
tie

Δw
1

Δw
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

1
1
1
CH
T
s


2
1
1
CH
T
s


1
1
R

2
1
R

s
T

1
1
1
D
s
M


2
2
1
D
s
M



-

-

12

2
1
2
1
1
1
1
D
D
R
R
P
w
L









(7)


2
1
2
1
2
2
1
!
1
1
D
D
R
R
D
R
P
P
L
tie
















`


(8)


The load reference point shown above in Figure 1
-
5 is defined by a
supplementary control that will force the frequency change to zero. K is defined
as a supplementary control constant.


Considering there are two interconnected systems and that a change in demand
in one area will result in both areas’ generation changing, a control system must
be included in the model to return the tie line flow to its pre
-
change value. This is
because
power systems that sell or buy power is by contract and any change in
that flow wi
ll be costly. This is why the a
rea

control e
rror (ACE) is added. The
ACE represents the shift in an area’s generation to meet the load change in
another area. The ACE is d
efined below.


w
B
P
ACE
net





int


(9)


Where B is a frequency bias factor define below.


D
R
B


1




(10)


The final AGC block diagram is shown on the next page.

















-

-

13


































While the above model d
oes a good job of returning the change in frequency and
change in tie flows to zero given a load change, it is not fast en
ough to meet
NERC standards. A

PID controller
is

added to speed up the response time of the
system to these two inputs.
The developm
ent of this controller is given below.


To develop the PID controller, we first broke the model in Figure 1
-
6 down into an
integrator model. This model is shown on the next page in Figure 1
-
7. The
integrator model gives us the ability to see the state sp
ace variables of the
automatic generation control block diagram. Each integrator represents one
state space variable that we denote in Figure 1
-
7. Notice that we changed the
block diagram for the generator
-
load model. This updated block diagram models
t
he entire power system instead of just the generator and the load characteristics
that the previous model gave. It allows us to better analyze the system.


Figure 1
-
6: Complete AGC model


-

-

14



The resulting state space equations for the diagram in Figure 1
-
7 are stated
below.


3
1
1
1
x
T
k
x
p
p










(11)

4
2
2
2
x
T
k
x
p
p










(12)



5
1
2
1
12
1
3
1
1
3
1
x
T
x
x
T
P
x
T
k
x
T
L
p
p











(13)



6
2
2
1
12
4
2
2
4
1
x
T
x
x
T
x
T
k
x
T
p
p











(14)

7
1
5
1
5
1
1
x
T
x
T
x
G
T











(15)

8
2
6
2
6
1
1
x
T
x
T
x
G
T











(16)



p
p
p
p
p
G
K
x
x
T
x
T
K
x
T
K
R
x
T
x
*
1
1
2
1
12
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
7
1
7


















(17)



p
p
p
p
p
G
K
x
x
T
x
T
K
x
T
K
R
x
T
x
*
1
1
2
1
12
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
8
2
8

















(18)


N
ow we put the state space equations in the matrix form
Bu
Ax
x



, where u is
the input of the block diagram.


The PID controller has a block diagram that looks like the one in Figure 1
-
8,
below. The three constant terms denoted K
p
, K
I
, and K
D

are the proportional,
integral, and derivative constants respectively.







Figure
1
-
8: PID controller block diagram



s
K
s
K
K
D
I
p




-

-

15

Now that we have parameters for the PID controller, we implement these
parameters into the PID controller shown in Figure 1
-
8.

We
insert the PID
controller into the block diagram in Figure 1
-
6 where the integrator controller K/s
was. The block diagram for a two area, PID controlled system is shown in Figure
1
-
9 below with one generator in each area.

Note the difference in the gener
ator
-
load block as well.





























End Product
Testing
Description


Extensive testing was involved in the completion of this project. Not only was our
final automatic generation control block diagram tested, but also the intermedia
te
steps in the development of that block diagram. The testing of our AGC system
was done in the SGI Lab in Coover Hall

at Iowa State University of Science and
Technology
. The testing was completed using the MATLAB Simulink tool.
Testing was done on eac
h
of the
individual block
s

of the AGC system which are
shown in Figures 1
-
2, 1
-
3, and 1
-
4. Tests were also conducted on the
uncontrolled AGC system of Figure 1
-
5, and the integrator controlled system of
Figure 1
-
6. The team developed systems in Figures 1
-
9 and 1
-
10 were also
tested. Each test included inserting the block diagram into Simulink and plugging
PID

PID

1
s
T
K
p1
p1


1
s
T
K
p2
p2



-

-

16

in the values for each
of the
parameters
. Also involved was the addition of the
scopes that would be used to measure the outputs of the system.

The i
nputs for
each of the tests were varied to allow for more data. Each member of the team
was expected to test each block diagram to ensure accuracy. Once the testing
was completed, team members compared outputs to determine if a testing error
was made. T
he testing forms and the completed testing forms are included into
Appendix A of this report.


Project Continuation Recommendation


It is recommended that the project continue as planned through the completion
date. This was decided because it is importan
t that this project be completed.
The group is on schedule and there is no indication that it will waiver off the
schedule. Each member in the group has an investment in this project and to not
complete this project would be a major disappointment.


Reso
urce Requirement
s


Below is a description of the resources that
were

required to complete the
project. Personnel requirements, other resource requirements, and financial
requirements are included in this analysis.
Tables and figures are used to
show
the
original and revised
requirements
.


Personnel Requirements


Table 1
-
1 below shows

the estimated personnel hour
s that were

included in the
project plan. It shows the estimated hours per person, per task for the entire
project. The tasks correspond to the
tasks that were include
d

in the Statement of
Work in the project plan.


Table 1
-
1
:
Estimated Personnel Requirements



When the progress report for the project was written, an updated personnel
requirements table was included. This table is sho
wn on the next page as Table
1
-
2. The reasons for the revision in the personnel requirements follows the table.





Team Members

Task
1

Task
2

Task
3

Task
4

Task
5

Task
6

Task
7

Task
8

Totals

Mark Tiemeier

10

50

40

15

30

7

5

50

207

Cam Bui

8

45

39

16

28

7

4

50

197

Chanh Bui

9

48

39

15

29

8

3

51

2
02

Peter Rufino

9

45

38

13

29

8

4

50

196

Totals

36

188

156

59

116

30

16

201

802


-

-

17

Table 1
-
2
:
Revised Personnel Requirements



At the time of the progress report, task one and task two were completed.
Because
of this, the personnel requirements for those tasks were updated to
ref
lect the final hours worked on those tasks
.
There was

an overestimate of the
time requirement for both tasks one an
d two. Task three was

near completion

at
the time of the progress re
port and showed

a below estimated time requirement
.
The team decided to reduce the requirements for that task as well.

The
estimate
for the testing task was determined

to be an overestimate as well. The testing
task
included

runnin
g the Simulink code fo
r the PID controller

along with the
basic AGC block diagram.
It was determined that this could

be done in a much
smaller time frame than
what was previously
expected. As a result, the
personnel requirements for Task 5
were

reduced by 5 hours per person.

All
other tasks were unchanged at that time.


O
ther Resource Requirements


The development of the project poster
was

a miscellaneous resource
requirement. Included
in this development was

the cost of printing, poster board,
and adhesive. Test copies of
th
e plan were also printed and were

included in the
costs
. This cost was not included

under the other resource requirements section
in the project plan but was included into the total project cost.
On the next page,
Table 1
-
3 shows the

revised cost of th
e poster

that was included in the progress
report
. There was no original cost estimated in this section so a
n

original cost
table is not included.



Table 1
-
3
:
Revised Other Resource Requirements

Item

Team Hours

Other Hours

Cost

Printing of project post
er

15

0

$45.00

Test prints of project poster

0

0

$.50

Poster board

0

0

$10.00

Adhesive

0

0

$3.00

Totals

15

0

$58.50



Financial requirements


Team Members

Task
1

Task
2

Task
3

Task
4

Task
5

Task
6

Task
7

Task
8

Totals

Mark Tiemeier

8

35

30

15

25

7

5

50

175

Cam Bui

6

28

29

16

23

7

4

50

163

Chanh Bui

6

30

29

15

24

8

3

51

166

Peter Rufino

6

28

28

13

24

8

4

50

161

Totals

26

121

116

59

96

30

16

201

665


-

-

18

The original overall financial requirements of the project are shown below in
Table 1
-
4. These requirements
include the labor costs and costs of the other
resource requirements.


Table 1
-
4
:
Original Financial Requirements














The revised overall financial requirements reflect the updated cost of the project
poster as well as the updated labor cost due to a smaller number of hours
es
timated for the project. Table 1
-
5
on the next page

shows this change in
financial requirements









Table 1
-
5
:
Revised Financial Requirements


Item


W
/0 labor

With labor

Poster


$50

$50

Parts or

materials


$0

$0


Subtotal



Labor at $11
per hour




Mark Tiemeier



$2277

Cam Bu
i



$2167

Chang Bui



$2222

Peter Rufino



$2156


Subtotal


$8822


Total


$8872


-

-

19














Schedules


Figure 1
-
7 on the following page shows the original and revised schedules. The
original schedul
e is in blue. The completed schedule is in red and the revised
schedule is in green. The group was forced to push back the implementation of
the AGC controller to the second semester. This is due to a bad estimate on
how long this task would take.

The
time schedule for developing the final report
was also changed because the group realized the projected due date would be
earlier.


Figure 1
-
8 on page … shows the deliverable schedule of the project.






















Item


W
/0 labor

With labor

Poster


$58.50

$58.50

Parts or

materials


$0

$0


Subtotal

$58.50

$58.50

Labo
r at $11
per hour




Mark Tiemeier



$2277

Cam Bui



$2167

Chang Bui



$2222

Peter Rufino



$2156


Subtotal


$8822


Total


$8872


-

-

20








Project Team Information


Cl
ient Information


None


Advisor Information



Dr. Gerald Sheble


Address:

1115 Coover Hall




Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010


Phone:

515
-
294
-
3046




515
-
294
-
4263 (fax)


Email:


gsheble@iastate.edu



Studen
t Team Information


Mark Tiemeier


Team Leader

Electrical Engineer

Address:

2132 Sunset Drive

Ames, IA 50014

Phone:

515
-
296
-
1845 ext. 118




563
-
370
-
4485 (cell)

Email:

mtiemeie@iastate.edu


Chanh Bui


Team

Member

Electrical Engineer

Address:

3507 Lincoln

Way L
ot 21

Ames, IA 50014

Phone:

563
-
508
-
2622 (cell)

Email:

bjosh@iastate.edu



Cam Bui


Team Member

Electrical Engineer

Address:

3507 Lincoln

Way L
ot 21

Ames, I
A 50014

Phone:

563
-
508
-
2636 (cell)

Email:

camqb@iastate.edu




-

-

21

Peter Ovu Rufino


Team Member

Electrical Engineer

Address:

4912 Mortensen Rd #813B



Ames, IA 50014

Phone:

515
-
451
-
3740

(cell)

Email:

prufino@iastate.edu



Closing Summary


The problem presented is to create a module that can be used as an educational
tool for future electric power engineering students. This is an important project in
that our successfu
l completion will allow future students to learn about Automatic
Generation Control. Our success will define how well they are able to learn the
material.
Through thorough research, we will be able to produce such a
document. Our technical knowledge, ab
ility to learn, and communication skills
will enable us to complete this project on time and satisfactorily.


References


FERC Website


About

http://www.ferc.gov/about/about.asp


NERC Homepage

http://www.nerc.com



Shaw Power Technologies Webpage

http://www.shawgrp.com/PTI/software/agc/index.cfm



htt
p://www.fortum.com/document.asp



Power Generation, Operation, & Control

Allen J. Wood, John Wiley and Sons Publishing, 1984


Automatic Control Systems


Benjamin Kuo, Farid Golnaraghi, John Wiley and Sons Publishing, 2003


Power Systems Analysis

Vijay Vittal, Prentice Hall, 2000


Merriam Webster Dictionary Website

http://www.m
-
w.com


Appendices


None