Quark Matter Under Extreme Conditions - TUM

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

93 εμφανίσεις

Neda

Sadooghi

Sharif University of Technology

Tehran
-
Iran

Munich
-
January 2011


1

Force

Strength

Theory

Mediator

Strong

1

Chromodynamics

Gluon

Electromagnetic

10
-
2

Electrodynamics

Photon

Weak

10
-
7

Flavordynamics

W
+
, W
-
, Z
0

Gravitational

10
-
39

Geometrodynamics

Graviton

2

Strong nuclear force

Electromagnetic force

Weak nuclear force

Gravitational force

Theory of Everything

3

Big Bang



10
19

GeV

10
14

GeV

100
GeV

~10
-
4

eV

Inflationary
Epoch

QCD Phase
Transition

100
MeV

QGP

EW Phase
Transition

Interaction

Couples to

Gauge Bosons

Mass (
GeV
/c
2
)

Strong

Color charge

Gluon

0

Electromagnetic

Electric

charge

Photon

0

Weak

Weak

charge

W
+
, W
-
, Z
0

~100

Fermions

Family

E
-

Charge

Color

Weak
Isospin

Spin

1

2

3

LH

RH


Leptons

ν
e

ν
μ

ν
τ

0

-

1/2

-

1/2

e

μ



-
1

0


Quarks

u

c

t

+2/3

r

g


b

1/2

0

1/2

d

s

b

-
1/3

0

SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1)

4

Quark flavors

Quark colors


Quantum

Electrodynamics

(QED)

describes

the

force

between

electrically

charged

particles

in

terms

of

exchange

of

massless

and

neutral

photon
s


Elementary

process

(three

point

vertex)
:







5

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)









Coulomb

Repulsion





Coulomb

Attraction

6

7

Quantum
Chromodynamics

(
Q
C
D
)

Elementary process(
es
)


Gluons carry color
-
charge

Gluon
-
Gluon
Self
-
Interaction

8

Flux Lines



Electric

flux

between

a

pair

of

equal

and

opposite

charges



Dipole

field

pattern

Chromoelectric

flux

between


a

quark

and

an

antiquark




Flux

tube

Quantum
Chromodynamics

(
Q
C
D
)



Static potential between a quark
-
antiquark

pair








9

r


0 ↷ A(r)


0 ↷ V(r)


0

Asymptotic Freedom

r
r
r
A
r
V




)
(
)
(
r
r
A
ln
1
)
(


fm
MeV
/
880
~







10

String Tension

σ
~ 880
MeV
/fm

A force sufficient to lift three elephants
!!!

11

Confining Potential

Hadrons are color singlet

Color Confinement


Helicity
:





For

massless

particles
,

helicity

and

chirality

are

the

same


Right

handed

particles

have

positive

helicity

(
chirality
)


Left

handed

particles

have

negative

helicity

(
chirality
)


Up

and

down

quarks

can

be

regarded

as

massless



A

theory

including

only

up

and

down

quarks

should

be

symmetric

under

global

chiral

transformation



12

13



Spontaneous
Chiral

Symmetry Breaking:

(Pseudo) Goldstone Mechanism:
SU
L
(2) x SU
R
(2)



SU
L+R
(2)

π
+

π
-

π
0

The mysteries of Mexican Hat Potential

15

Big Bang



QCD Phase
Transition

100
MeV

QGP

QCD phase transition at T
QCD
~2.4 x10
12

K~ 200
MeV



16

Core of our Sun ~ 1.57 x 10
7

K ~1.3
keV

Room temperature ~ 27 C ~ 300 K ~ 25
meV

17

N

Temperature

Baryonic Chemical Potential

d

u

s

s

d

u

u

s

d

s

d

u

u

d

s

u

s

d

u
s

u
d

s
d

QCD Phase Diagram

Hadronic

Phase

Quark Gluon Plasma Phase

Color Superconducting phase

Confinement
-
Deconfinement

phase
transition

Tc~170
MeV

Chiral

Symmetry
Restoration

Early Universe

RHIC

LHC

SPS

2SC

CFL

Neutron Stars

Hadron

gas

Nuclear Matter

Hadronic

Fluid

μ
c
~310
MeV

18

Neutron stars:

Laboratories of Matter under
Extreme Conditions


Neutron

star

is

a

type

of

stellar

remnant

that

can

result

from

gravitational

collapse

of

a

massive

star

during

a

supernova

event



When

a

giant

star

dies,

it

can

collapse

into

a

black

hole

or

implode

into

an

ultra
-
dense

neutron

star


Pauli

exclusion

principle

supports

the

neutron

star

against

further

collapse

(they

are

made

almost

entirely

of

neutrons)


19

Natural laboratory for extreme conditions




20



Outer crust 0.3
-
0.5 km

Ions and electrons

Inner crust 1
-
2 km

Electrons, neutrons, nuclei

Outer core ~9 km

Neutron
-
proton Fermi liquid

Few % electron Fermi gas

Inner core 0.3 km

Quark
-
Gluon Plasma/

CFL Color Superconductor

???

0.3
-
0.4
ϱ
0

0.5
-
2.0
ϱ
0

>2
ϱ
0

Neutron star radius: 12 km








Radius

6.4x10
3

km

~6.96 x10
5

km

12 km

Mass

6x10
24

kg

2x10
30

kg

2.4x 10
30

kg

Density

5 g/cm
3

(Mean density)

162.2 g/cm
3

(Core)

2.7 x10
14

g/cm
3

(Core)

Surface gravity

g

~28
g

7x10
11

g

Escape velocity

11 km/s

617.7 km/s

1.3x10
5

km/s

Temperature

(Core)

5700 K

1.57 x 10
7

K

10
11

K~ 1
-
10
MeV

21

108
x

Earth

~3x10
6

x

Earth


56
x

Earth


1.2
-
2 Solar mass


~10
4

Solar T

1/3

c


Neutron Stars



22

kg
12
10
5
.
5




900


23

Pulsars

are

highly

magnetized
,

rotating

neutron

stars

that

emit

a

b e a m

of

electro
-
magnetic

radiation


Because

neutron

stars

are

very

dense

objects,

the

rotation

period

and

thus

the

interval

between

observed

pulses

is

very

regular



Atomic

Clocks





The

observed

periods

of

the

pulses

range

from

1
.
4

msec

to

8
.
5

sec


Extremely

large

magnetic

fields



Ma杮g瑡rs

Surface
:

B~
10
14
-
10
15

G

Inner

field
:

B~
10
18
-
10
20

G




24









0.6 G

100 G

4000 G

4.5 X 10
5

G

~ 45 T


10
8

G


10
14
-
10
15

G


10
18
-
10
20

G


Measured at the magnetic pole


The Earth’s B field

Hand
-
held magnet


The magnetic field in

strong sunspots


The strongest, sustained

magnetic fields

achieved in the lab

The strongest fields ever


detected on non
-
neutron


stars

Typical surface

magnetic fields of radio

pulsars


Magnetars
: Inner fields


Like those used to stick papers on a


refrigerator


Within dark, magnetized areas on


the solar surface


Generated by huge electromagnets


Strongly
-
magnetized, compact

white dwarf stars

The most familiar kind of

neutron star


Soft gamma repeaters and anomalous


X
-
ray pulsars

Extreme Magnetism



Vacuum

Birefringence

(double

refraction)


Polarized

light

waves

change

speed

and

hence

wavelength

when

they

enter

a

very

strong

magnetic

field



Photon

Splitting


X
-
rays

split

in

two

or

merge

together
.

This

process

is

important

in

fields

stronger

than

10
14

G



Scattering Suppression


A

light

wave

can

glide

past

an

electron

with

little

hindrance

if

the

field

is

large

enough

to

prevent

the

electron

from

vibrating

with

the

wave



Distortion of Atoms


Fields

above

10
9

G

squeeze

electron

orbitals

into

cigar

shapes
.

In

a

10
14

G

field,

a

hydrogen

atom

become

200

times

narrower






25

Calcite crystal: Some letters showing the
double refraction

Liquid Crystal Displays are also
birefringent


26

N

Temperature

Baryonic Chemical Potential

Effects of Extreme Magnetism on Quark Matter

Hadronic

Phase

Chiral
-
SB phase

Quark Gluon Plasma Phase

Color Superconducting phase

Tc~170
MeV

Early Universe

RHIC

LHC

Neutron Stars

27


Center

of

mass

energy


√s=200
Ades
=
for=
Au⭁u
=
coll楳楯i
=

Collision with 99.7% speed of light


Ultra
-
RHIC


The

energy

density


ε= 5.5
des
⽦m
3


The

pressure

generated

at

the

time

of

impact


10
30

atmospheric pressure



28

Question:

Deconfinement

Phase Transition



29






30


Color

Glass

Condensate

(CGC)

sheets




Initial

singularity

at

the

time

of

collision



Glasma

phase

(Out

of

Equilibrium

Physics)



Not

expected
:

Strongly

correlated

QGP

(
Perfect

Fluid
)



Mixed

phase

(quarks,

gluons

and

hadrons)



Hadron

Gas

?

CGC

Initial
Singularity

Glasma

sQGP

Hadron

Gas

?


The

evolution

of

matter

produced

in

the


Little

Bang

is

comparable

with

the


Big

Bang

(same

evolution

equations)



t=10
-
21
-
10
-
20
sec

t=10
-
22
-
10
-
21
sec

t=0
-
10
-
22
sec






32

Perfect Liquid: Strongly Correlated QGP

Electric Plasma

m
-

strongly correlated ??

Deconfinement

Dual superconductivity

m
-
correlation

e
-
confined

Magnetized Plasma

e
-
strongly correlated

Confinement

sQGP

(Color) Superconductivity

e
-
correlation

m
-
confined ??

CS

T

μ
B

T~ 2
T
c

Idea supported by the conjecture of
AdS
/CFT duality

T
c

1101.1120
Shifman

et al


Chiral

Magnetic

Effect


33

Parity

Violation in QCD


Strong CP Problem

Question:
Is the world distinguishable from its
mirror

image?

Answer(s):



Weak interaction violates P and CP



Strong interaction:


Experimentally: No evidence of
global

strong CP violation







C:
Matter↔
Antimatter

P: Mirror symmetry

Neutron’s EDM
~ 0

Theoretically:
QCD
θ

≠ 0
(


topological charge
)

Experimental bound for
θ

< 3x10
-
10



Strong CP problem

The existence of
topological charge



Matter
-
Antimatter asymmetry
in the Early Universe !!






Chiral

Magnetic

Effect


34

Local

(event by event) P and CP Violation in QCD

Theory: Fukushima,
Kharzeev
,
Warringa
,
McLerran
, (2007
-
09)

Lattice:
Polikarpov

et al. (2009
-
10)

B~L





Charge

separation

stems

from

the

interpaly

between

the

strong

magnetic

field

in

the

early

stage

of

heavy

ion

collision

and

the

presence

of

topological

configurations

in

hot

matter


B
J


~
Charge separation


Electric current

QGP in the
deconfined

phase


Chiral

Magnetic

Effect


35

Local

Parity Violation in QCD


Chiral

magnetic Effect

B

u
R

u
L

p



d
R

d
L

d
R

u
R

u
R

d
R

0


L

R

Charge Separation

B
J


~

Chiral

Magnetic

Effect


36

RHIC

Non
-
Central HIC


s
NN

~ 200
GeV

b~4 fm

eB

~1.3

m
π
2


=
B~=4x㄰
18
G

LHC

Non
-
Central HIC


s
NN

~ 4.5
TeV

b~4 fm

eB

~15

m
π
2


B~ 5x10
19
G

D.E.
Kharzeev
, L.D.
McLerran
, and H.J.
Warringa

(0711.0950)


Very Strong Magnetic Field

RHIC

Non
-
Central HIC


s
NN

~ 200
GeV

b~4 fm

eB

~1.3

m
π
2


B ~ 4x10
18
G

10
19

Gauss

10
14

Gauss

eB

(MeV
2
)

The strength of B is comparable with Magnetic Field in
Neutron Stars

37

N

Temperature

Baryonic Chemical Potential

Hadronic

Phase

Chiral
-
SB phase

Quark Gluon Plasma Phase

Color Superconducting phase

Tc~170
MeV

RHIC

LHC

Neutron Stars


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

38

QED Superconductivity vs. Color Superconductivity

q

q

Ingredients:

(
QED
) A liquid of
fermions

with
electric

charge

(
Q
C
D
)
Quarks

with
electric

and
color

charges

(
QED
) An
attractive

electromagnetic

interaction between the
fermions

(
Q
C
D
) An
attractive

strong

interaction between two
quarks


(
QED
) Low temperature: T<
T
c

(
Q
C
D
) Low temperature: In neutron stars T<100
MeV

≪ Big Bang T~10
19
GeV

(
QED
)
QED
Meissner

Effect


Photons

acquire mass

(
Q
C
D
)
Q
C
D

Meissner

Effect


Gluons

acquire mass

Results:


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

39

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (I):

Sh.
Fayazbakhsh

and NS: PRD (2010)

Normal

ChSB

CSC

Normal

CSC

ChSB

Normal

ChSB

CSC

Normal

Normal

ChSB

ChSB

ChSB


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

40

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (II):

De

Haas
-
van

Alphen

oscillations

before

the

system

enters

the

regime

of

LLL

dominance

Low
μ
: Only
chiral

phase
transion

2
nd

order
phase
transition from
chiral

SB
to the Normal phase


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

41

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (III):

Low T:
Chiral

and
Color

phase
transions


Results

42

1.
The

type

of

the

phase

transition

between

chiral

SB

and

the

Normal

phase

changes

with

B
:

2
nd

Order



1
st

Order


2
.

Increasing

B

has

no

effect

on

the

type

of

phase

transition

between

the

color

symmetry

breaking

and

the

normal

phase

(
2
nd

order)


3
.

De

Haas
-
Van

Alphen

oscillations



CSC
-
Normal
-
CSC

phase

transition

4
.

For

eB
>
eB
t
:

The

effect

of

T

and

μ

are

partly

compensated

by

B


5
.

For

eB
>
eB
t

~

0
.
5

GeV
2
:

System

is

in

the

LLL

dominant

regime


43


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

44

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (II):

Intermediate
μ
:
C
hiral

and

Color

phase
transions


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

45

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (II):

Large
μ
: Only

Color

phase
transion


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

46

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (III):

Intermediate T:
Chiral

and

Color

phase
transions


Effect of Strong Magnetic Fields on

Color Superconductivity

47

Effects on QCD Phase Diagram (III):

Large T: Only
Chiral

phase
transion