Introduction to Community Asset Management (CAM)

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Training Toolkit for Engineers

1.1/ P/
1


Introduction to

Community

Asset

Management

(CAM)


Training Toolkit for Engineers

1.1/ P/
2

Community Asset Management

Introduction



Community

asset

management

envisages

improved

capacity

for

the

management,

life
-
time

planning,

construction

and

physical

maintenance

of

common

assets

to

be

carried

out

by

the

communities

of

the

urban

poor

themselves

in

partnership,

where

appropriate,

with

local

government,

local

businesses,

NGOs,

state

and

national

government

on

one

hand,

and

with

technical

maintenance

service

providers,

such

as

Building

Centres,

on

the

other



Training Toolkit for Engineers

1.1/ P/
3

Conceptual Framework


The

three
-
circle

diagram

represents

the

concept

behind

the

preparation

of

this

tool

kit
.




Placing

an

asset

at

the

centre,

the

training

programme

looks

at

the

most

important

tasks

each

of

the

three

categories

of

stakeholders

namely

the

community,

the

technical

service

providers

and

the

asset

owners

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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4

Conceptual Framework

ASSET
-
OWNERS

Asset
-
owners

refers

to

all

agencies

which

own

these

public

assets,

State

or

Central

Government

departments

such

as

the

Education

department

(schools),

the

Health

Department

(Primary

Health

Centres)

or

the

State

Housing

Boards/Development

Authorities

and

the

Municipal

Corporations



COMMUNITY



Communities

form

the

second

group

of

stakeholders,

and

refer

to

the

specific

group

of

people

who

are

benefited

by

the

building/use

it/are

affected

by

its

physical

condition


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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5

Conceptual Framework

TECHNICAL


SERVICE

PROVIDERS


The

term

technical

service

providers

here

refer

to

agencies/

building

centers

who

are

charged

with

the

task

of

carrying

out

maintenance

activities

and

require

technical

skill

and

expertise

for

the

same
.

Building

Centre

are

best

suited

to

be

these

service

providers




Training Toolkit for Engineers

1.1/ P/
6

Community


Accept `ownership’ of the
asset


Accept housekeeping
responsibilities


Contribute to condition
survey and repair


Contribution NOT
to be taken for


granted

Asset
-
owners




Budgeting and maintenance
schedules


Inventory and Condition Surveys
of Buildings and other assets


Acceptance that
users can help in
maintenance

Technical
-

Service Providers


Develop maintenance skill
and know
-
how


Market these skills

ASSET


Attitude of engineers
to community to
change


Links between each
other to be
strengthened

Partnership,
including private
participation
between each other
for maintenance


Partnership with each
other


Direct reporting system
to avoid time delays

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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7

CAM Field Research in India


As

part

of

the

community

asset

management

project,

field
-
work

was

conducted

in

three

cities

-

Hyderabad,

Bhubaneswar

and

Ranchi



during

March
-
May

2001
.

The

purpose

was


To

understand

the

PREPAREDNESS

for

community

asset

management,



DEMAND

for

technical

advice

on

community

asset

management

and



the

SUPPLY

of

technical

advice

through

the

building

centres
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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8


In

each

city

the

team

selected

two

authorised

settlement

sites

for

detailed

local

survey

and

interviews
.




Four

main

groups

were

consulted

as

part

of

the

field

research

-

the

local

authorities,

the

users

and

current

managers

of

the

community

buildings,

the

individual

households

and

building

centres

in

each

respective

area
.


CAM Field Research in India

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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9

Observation on Demand


More

people,

even

in

the

poorer

communities,

contribute

financially

to

their

community

buildings

rather

than

through

physical

effort

or

both


Cultural

buildings

tend

to

be

developed

on

a

regular

basis

on

the

initiative

of

the

community


Buildings

suffer

neglect

if

there

is

dependency

on

landlords,

engineering

departments

or

NGOs
.

However,

in

most

cases

users

are

aware

of

maintenance

problems,

although

they

may

not

know

the

correct

reason

for

them

or

the

techniques

of

correction

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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10

Observation on Demand


The

accommodation

of

one

in

six

households

was

in

need

of

major

repair
.

People

are

likely

to

spend

consistently

on

repair

where

the

users

better

understand

maintenance

tasks
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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11

Observation on Preparedness


local

authorities

do

not

have

the

most

up

to

date

information

about

community

assets,

their

current

state,

the

resources

available

to

manage

them,

and

even

resources

already

spent

on

their

management



Overall

the

delivery

of

national

policies

on

public

participation,

decentralisation

and

community

development

to

local

communities

is

a

success
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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12

Observation on Preparedness


Although

local

administration

is

implementing

community

friendly

policies,

their

own

practice

has

not

fallen

in

line

and

they

are

unable

to

communicate

the

programme

aims

to

their

own

departments

or

to

the

target

groups
.



Most

respondents

could

not

elaborate

upon

the

way

community

buildings

were

managed

or

maintained

and

how

their

contributions

were

used
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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Observation on Supply


Overall

the

building

centres

have

good

infrastructure,

but

production

of

building

materials

is

the

main

activity
.


Wherever

training

programmes

are

being

conducted,

the

maintenance

aspect

is

not

taught
.



Amongst

the

artisans,

there

is

general

lack

of

awareness

about

the

employment

opportunities

after

training

in

maintenance
.


Maintenance

related

work

is

not

looked

upon

as

a

profitable

venture

by

those

artisans

that

were

interviewed
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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State of Preparedness & Relative Training


Municipal

Corporation

workers

may

benefit

from

awareness

training

in

community

asset

management,

skills

in

out
-
reach

to

community

networks

and

technical

training

to

engineers

on

conducting

maintenance

works

and

technical

training

to

community

liaison

workers

to

identify

community

needs



NGOs

may

benefit

from

awareness

training

about

maintenance

and

its

technical

aspects

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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15

State of Demand & Relative Training


Empowering

people

in

charge

of

community

buildings

and

providing

them

with

training

in

technical

aspects

identifying

and

supervising

maintenance

works,

resources

management

and

working

with

the

community


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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State of Supply & Relative Training


For

Building

Centres

Managers

training

they

receive

must

have

technical

aspects

of

maintenance

and

training

in

community

out
-
reach

and

building

a

profile

of

an

efficient

and

quality

centre

for

supply

of

building

products



Artisan’s

training

in

technical

aspect

of

maintenance

is

mandatory

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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17

UK Study Visit

A

team

from

India

working

on

the

project

went

on

a

12
-
day

visit

to

the

United

Kingdom

which

covered

London,

Bristol,

Dudley

and

Liecester


Lewisham

Community

Refurbishment

Scheme

(CRS)

The

CRS

scheme

offered

training

and

employment

to

local

youth

in

construction
.

This

was

linked

to

a

repairs

programme,

since

most

of

the

Council

housing

(government
-
owned

)

was

in

a

very

bad

shape

and

in

need

of

repair

The

scheme

brought

a

marked

improvement

in

indicators

such

as

drug

abuse

cases

and

teenage

pregnancies
.



Training Toolkit for Engineers

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18

UK Study Visit

On
-
Site

Bristol



This

is

an

example

of

a

partnership

between

a

city

council,

and

two

Govt
.

Departments

which

is

working

very

well
.

The

key

is

perhaps

the

tie

up

with

on
-
going

site

work/

projects

for

employment,

and

this

is

also

linked

to

National

Vocational

Qualifications

(NVQ)

qualifications
.


Apart

from

socio
-
economic

details,

work

record

(includes

details

of

previous

employment

and

special

comments)

The

computer

in

the

on
-
site

office

is

also

connected

on
-
line

to

the

computer

at

the

job

centre

(equivalent

of

our

employment

office)

and

job

vacancies

are

also

known

through

this
.

This

matching

ensures

connection

between

demand

&

supply
.



Training Toolkit for Engineers

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UK Study Visit

Community

Refurbishment

Scheme,

Dudley


This

scheme

forms

part

of

the

community

development

plan

for

the

Burough
.



The

Role

of

CRS

as

part

of

the

community

development

plan,

is

to

complete

physical

environmental

improvements

to

both

land

and

houses,

linked

to

structured

training

for

unemployed

people
.



With

all

training

linked

to

real

work

for

real

people

to

agreed

and

monitored

standards,

we

are

able

to

equip

trainees

with

the

skills

and

work

experience

demanded

by

employers,

which

is

not

possible

through

training

in

simulated

settings

or

classrooms
.






Training Toolkit for Engineers

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20

UK Study Visit


Community

Refurbishment

Scheme,

Dudley


Some

of

the

trainees

live

in

conditions,

which

are

not

conductive

for

learning,

which

may

include

homelessness,

a

poor

living

environment,

etc
.

In

recognition

of

this,

the

CRS

developed

the

Live

&

Learn

Centre,

based

on

the

Priory

estate
.



CRS trainees


The

centre

offers

sheltered

living

accommodations

for

up

to

14

residents,

who

have

access

to

one

of

our

training

courses
.

Our

aim

is

moving

residents

onto

independent

living

and

employment

or

mainstream

education
.

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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UK Study Visit

Leicester

Development

Plan,

Leicester



Modern

Leicester

is

the

biggest

city

in

the

East

Midlands

and

a

successful

commercial

and

manufacturing

centre
.



Leicester

is

also

renowned

for

its

provision

of

culture

activities

through

its

museums,

sports

facilities

and

parks
.



Leicester

has

gained

international

recognition

as

Britain’s

first

Environment

City

and

more

recently

earned

the

prestigious

title

of

European

Sustainable

City
.

These

developments

have

brought

economic

growth

and

improvements

in

standards

of

living
.



Training Toolkit for Engineers

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UK Study Visit

Leicester

Partnership

for

the

Future’?



Leicester

Partnership

for

the

Future

(LPF)

was

launched

in

1998

to

bring

together

some

key

players

and

representatives

of

the

Leicester

community
.



Two

levels

of

membership,



The

strategic

coordinators

group



The

local

supporters

group


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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UK Study Visit

Leicester

Partnership

for

the

Future’?



The

strategic

coordinators

group

is

chaired

by

the

Leader

of

the

City

Council

and

has

representatives

from

the

Young

People's

Council,

Higher

Education,

Schools,

the

Police,

the

Health

Authority,

the

Chamber

of

Commerce

and

a

range

of

voluntary

organisations
.



In

addition

there

is

a

broad
-
based

group

of

local

supporters

who

represent

a

range

of

individual

interests,

groups

and

organisations
.

Together,

they

have

a

vision
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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24

UK Study Visit

Partnership

vision

is

for

Leicester

to

be,




“a

premier

city

in

Europe

with

a

thriving

and

diverse

society

in

which

everyone

is

involved

and

in

which

everyone

can

have

a

decent,

a

happy

and

fulfilling

life
.

A

city

with

a

strong

economy,

a

healthy,

caring

and

educated

society,

a

safe

and

attractive

environment,

and

an

improving

quality

of

life

-

a

sustainable

city
.






The

LPF

is

responsible

for

making

sure

the

Community

Plan

does

its

job
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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UK Study Visit


The

LPF

group

worked

with

the

business

sector,

the

public

sector,

voluntary

sector,

voluntary

organisations

and

focus

groups

to

work

out

what

needs

to

be

done
.

The

priority

areas

identified

were
:



Diversity


Community

Safety



Education


Health

&

Social

Care


Environment

Jobs

&

Regenerations


Each

priority

area

has

a

number

of

‘indicators’
.

These

are

set

out

next

to

the

goals


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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Training Toolkit for Engineers

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27

RUP
-
APPEP Project

Ten Major
Achievements

1
.

Capacity

building

of

the

community

and

grassroots

engineers



Learning

proper

housekeeping

that

will

keep

defects

away

from

the

buildings



Detection

of

distress

in

the

buildings



Site

level

management

for

the

repair

work

-

Quality

control

of

the

construction

work

-
Maintaining

accounts



How

to

estimate

costs

of

construction

works


Training Toolkit for Engineers

1.1/ P/
28

RUP
-
APPEP Project

Ten Major
Achievements

2
.

Community

ownership



Involvement

of

the

community

in

the

condition

survey

and

the

planning

and

implementation

of

repairs

has

developed

a

greater

sense

of

ownership
.

Some

of

the

schoolteachers

have

tremendous

creative

abilities,

which

have

turned

out

to

be

an

asset

in

improving

the

school

environment
.



3
.

Cost

reduction



Involvement

of

the

community

in

decision
-
making

has

reduced

the

cost

of

materials

and

labour

charges
.

In

some

schools

active

participation

of

the

schoolteachers

and

students

in

work

such

as

painting

has

also

reduced

the

overall

cost
.



Training Toolkit for Engineers

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29

RUP
-
APPEP Project

Ten Major Achievements

4
.

The

perception

of

the

community

on

maintenance

was

changed



Earlier,

the

community

had

little

or

no

interest

in

maintenance,

which

was

left

to

the

engineers

and

the

contractors
.

In

the

present

programme,

repair

work

was

integrated

with

the

teaching

and

learning

process

as

an

exercise

of

observation

and

analysis
.

This

showed

the

users

of

the

schools

a

different

and

better

way

to

improve

the

school

environment

and

generated

interest

in

the

process
.



5
.

The

local

school

became

a

source

of

learning

for

the

entire

community



While

interacting

with

the

community,

the

idea

came

up

of

writing

slogans

for

campaigns

related

to

health

or

the

education

of

girls

on

the

school

walls,

which

is

visually

accessible

to

the

community
.




Training Toolkit for Engineers

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30

RUP
-
APPEP Project

Ten Major
Achievements

6
.

Transparency

in

financial

transactions

of

public

funds



Periodic

meetings

with

the

community

regarding

financial

expenditure

have

contributed

to

transparency

in

the

process
.



In

general,

the

increased

involvement

of

the

schoolmasters

has

contributed

much

to

the

transparency
.

Vigilance

of

the

community

through

awareness

has

been

another

factor
.


7
.

A

further

step

towards

assessing

Low

Cost

Construction

(LCC)



Inadequate information on LCC has been the major deterrent
for the dissemination of CECT, since its sustainability could
not be ascertained. The buildings have withstood both the
environment and varied climatic conditions for almost five
years and hence the present exercise has provided a reliable
set of data for calculating the LCC of all the technologies used

Training Toolkit for Engineers

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31

RUP
-
APPEP Project

Ten Major
Achievements

8
.

Analysis

of

rates

for

repair

works

introduced



Analysis

of

rates

for

repair

work

has

been

the

weakest

link

in

the

maintenance

chain
.

Rates

related

to

a

standard

meant

for

new

infrastructure

were

applied

to

repair

work,

which

are

impractical

to

maintain

quality

work
.

This

usually

defeats

the

purpose
.

Poor

repair

has

to

be

repeated

time

and

again
.

The

present

project

has

provided

an

accurate

basis

for

analysis

of

rates

for

repair

works
.



9
.

An

understanding

of

pre
-
emptive

maintenance



Defects

that

can

be

avoided

at

the

planning

and

design

stage

were

identified
.

Repetition

of

one

technology

in

several

buildings

and

the

recurrence

of

a

particular

type

of

defect

have

made

the

work

of

diagnosis

easier
.

The

result

of

the

research

will

help

in

creating

improved

new

infrastructure
.


Training Toolkit for Engineers

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32

RUP
-
APPEP Project

Ten Major
Achievements

10
.

The

community

as

the

alternative

implementation

agency

for

maintenance



At

present

the

maintenance

of

education

infrastructure

is

usually

carried

out

by

the

district

administration

appointing

local

contractors,

whose

main

objective

is

to

maximise

their

profit
.

The

quality

of

such

repair

work

is

bound

to

suffer

specially

when

the

contractor

works

with

impractical

notes

and

brief
.



.