Crowdsourcing and Business

positiveriverΔιαχείριση

20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

284 εμφανίσεις

RENSSELAER HARTFORD

Crowdsourcing and
Business

The ability of crowdsourcing to reduce
competitive advantages and core competencies



From xkcd.com


Timothy Sze

MGMT
-
6390, Summer 2012

Prof. James Stodder

8/6/2012






Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

2

Tim Sze


International Operations


Contents

Thesis

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

3

Abstract

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

3

What is Crowdsourcing?

................................
................................
................................
...............................

4

Reduced Competitive Advantage

................................
................................
................................
.................

4

Open Collaboration

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

5

Quality Control

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

5

Distributed Knowledge

................................
................................
................................
.............................

5

Reduced
Core Competencies

................................
................................
................................
........................

6

Project Control

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

6

Loss of Knowledge

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

7

Counter Arguments

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

7

Wisdom of the Crowd

................................
................................
................................
...............................

7

Focus on Core Competency

................................
................................
................................
......................

8

Reduced Costs Provides Higher Competitive Advantage

................................
................................
.........

8

Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................

9

Works Cited

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

12






Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

3

Tim Sze


International Operations


Thesis


Crowd
sourcing reduces the competi
tive advantage and core competencies of a firm.

Abstract


As a relatively new term, coined in 2006 by Jeff Howe, the definition of crowdsourcing is
subjective and is still debated among industry analysts. Howe’s definition

is “the act of taking a job
traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined,
generally large group of people in the form of an open call.” (Howe, 2006). A
t
its
core,
it can be
defined as

the prac
tice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large
group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or
suppliers,” per Merriam Webster. Crowdsourcing can be divided i
nto different categories including
microworks, prizes and contests, implicit crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, wisdom of the crowds, and
crowdsourcing of creative works.

As crowdsourcing grows in popularity, businesses need to be aware of
the risks that are ass
ociated with
its
use. The risks of crowdsourcing include the reduction in competitive
advantage and core competencies of the business.

Crowdsourcing poses significant challenges to the
long term competitive advantage of a company. Knowledge is shifted

from internal sources to unknown
external sources and that knowledge is not retained unlike in a cluster where the gain in knowledge is
shared with those in the area. Open collaboration reduces the companies’ ability to develop competitive
strategies whic
h can make long term success difficult to achieve. Failures in quality controls are setbacks
for companies trying to compete in the market. Crowdsourcing reduces core competencies by removing
the controls that a business has on its product and service whil
e preventing the company from gaining
the knowledge needed to maintain the competencies.
As we will cover in this paper, the effects of
crowdsourcing may positively affect the short term but, more importantly, negatively affect the
company in the long run
without proper thought.





Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

4

Tim Sze


International Operations


What is Crowdsourcing?



As a relatively new term, coined in 2006 by Jeff Howe, the definition of crowdsourcing is
subjective and is still debated among industry analysts. Howe’s definition is “the act of taking a job
traditional
ly performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined,
generally large group of people in the form of an open call.” (Howe, 2006). At
its

core, it can be defined
as “
the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas
, or content by soliciting

contributions from a large
group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or
suppliers
,


p
er Merriam Webster.

(Merriam Webster, n.d)

In this paper, the term “crowd” will be used
to

describe any person partaking in providing the “needed services, ideas, or content.”


Crowdsourcing
can be
divided into different categories

including microworks, prizes and
contests, implicit crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, wisdom of the crowds, and crowdsourcing of creative
works
.
Microworks are

jobs that are simple and quick that technology has not been able decipher. Early
types of crowdsourc
ing included the use of prizes and contests. Implicit crowdsourcing is harnessing the
crowd to complete tasks where the crowd is not necessarily aware of their contributions. C
rowdfunding

is the use of the crowd to fund projects that they deem worthy of im
plementing.

“Wisdom of the
c
rowd


projects are projects where the crowd is presented

with a complicated challenge and solved as a
community. C
rowdsourcing of creative works

is the request to the online community to design new

works of art
.
(Wikipedia
-

Cro
wdsourcing, 2012)
The concept of crowdsourcing in the different forms
have been around for many centuries as seen in the
Longitude Prize in 1714 and the
creation of the
Oxford dictionary

in the past

(Esposti

(a)
, Jul 2011)
, to the modern day use of Amazon
Mechanical Turk
and reCaptcha.
(Lynch, 2010)
Needless to say, crowdsourcing is a complex and broad term that can be
incorporated into many different industries.


As crowdsourcing grows in popularity, businesses need to be aware of the risks that are
associated with its’ use.
The risks of crowdsourcing include the loss of competitive advantage and the
loss of
the core competencies of the business.
Crowdsourcing
does

have

positive features such as lower
costs, large labor pool with a diversified base of knowledge,
and allow
ing

for global collaboration.

(Alsever, 2007)

These positive features do come with their own set

of challenges.

Reduced Competitive Advantage


Whil
e crowdsourcing is
a
broad and general concept that may work for some industries
and sub
industries
,

it can be
more
destructive to the business soliciting for the contributions

than an internal
group tasked to solve the problem
.

The use of crowdsourcing can reduce the
long term
compet
itive
advantage of business. R
equest
s

for contributions from the crowd become open to the general
population and can provide insight to the competition into future innovations or products in
developme
nt. Ideas generated by the crowd may

be
susceptible to fallacies
and
those that
remain
unchecked
can
lead to failure
. The distributed knowledge of the crowd reduces the companies’ ability to
create a business cluster in the
local
area to grow and share kno
wledge amongst suppliers and
producers.





Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

5

Tim Sze


International Operations


Open Collaboration



Open collaboration on projects can be beneficial for end users and businesses maintaining a
product.
They
are able to
reduce costs by

essentially testing every aspect of the product
to prevent

mistakes
and using

the crowd to maintain the product as in the case with Mozilla and Linux.
(Capra et al,
2010)
However,
open collaborations

are not
necessarily
useful for
for
-
profit
businesses
in the process of
developing a product. The information neede
d
to complete the tasks t
o the public could provide too
much insight to goals and direction of the company.
Business branding, strategy and software products
are difficult to protect using traditional methods such as patents, contracts or trade secrets. (I
nc.com,
2009)

Sharing company private information may leak strategy to the competition and reduce its’
competitive

advantage.



In a global economy where the ownership of ideas and products are being challenged in courts
by competing businesses, the
generation of

ideas must be carefully protected and documented

to
remain competitive
.
Polling ideas from the publi
c can add difficulty as to the ownership of the
intellectual property. Additional resources need to be allocated to researching
patents
nation
ally and
internationally.

With strong intellectual property rules for existing information, the open initiatives of
crowdsourcing become more challenging in creating new concepts and ideas as they may conflict with
the established intellectual property of
others.
(Benkler, 2002)

Businesses can work together and share
their intellectual property to facilitate the open collaboration; however, the trend seems to be in the
opposite direction since 2001 as found
by

the International Trade Commission.

(DLA Piper,

2011)

As
crowdsourced ideas come from protected properties, companies will face difficultly protecting their
advantage and be challenged with more lawsuits.

Quality Control




Quality control in relation to crowdsourcing is the
verification of the informa
tion that is
gathered from the crowd. For a business relying on crowdsourcing
completing

a major task, there needs
to be controls in place to prevent the use of bad information or ideas
spreading
into the final product.
The two common ways of ensuring qua
lity in crowdsourced data are to have other

users

verify the
accuracy

such as in
,

W
ikipedia,

use internal controls

or hire experts

at an additional cost.

(Brumfield,
2012)
Using internal controls requires the use of internal employees to review each submis
sion from the
crowd

increasing costs to the company
. Using other members of the crowd requires additional
payment
s

t
o the crowd, again increasing costs. (Bauer, n.d.)
Quality issues can be counterproductive to
the
business and in most cases
failures can
tarnish the brand of the company
.





Members of the crowd are not employees of the organization seeking solutions. The businesses
will have little control of the over progress towards the solution including time to completion, and
quality of the result. T
hey will need to manage the costs of the crowd and the payout for the services.
(Alsever, 2007)

The lack of control may be difficult for large and small organizations not properly setup
to handle the volume of requests

of hundreds and thousands of eager me
mbers of the crowd.

Distributed Knowledge



The explosion of crowdsourcing in recent years is largely due in part to the advent of the
internet and the development of broadband infrastructure across the globe.
(Esposti

(b)
, 2011)
The
internet has allowed u
sers to communicate and share ideas with little start up costs. With faster
broadband in homes and businesses, more information
is available to the crowd and a variety of digital


Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

6

Tim Sze


International Operations


formats can be shared.
However, this decentralization makes business clusters

less likely to develop.
Business clusters are important to the growth
and long term success
of an industry. Clusters allow
businesses to develop and share talent, utilize similar resources and build networks with suppliers and
other producers.
(Mammone, 2
009)
As Mammone puts it,


“The knowledge that your company gains in hiring experienced employees who
have participated in successful companies is not the kind of knowledge you can
obtain from books or courses. Such deep knowledge helps your company make
b
etter decisions and correct faulty ones sooner. This unwritten or tacit
knowledge is an asset to your company, albeit an intangible one.”


An example would be Silicon Valley, without like
-
minded individuals and venture capitalists able to
share their knowledge of becoming successful in
technology

industry
;

the technology we have now
would still be in its’ infancy
.

Hartford, Connecticut is ano
ther example
of clustering in the
insurance
industry
.

By not building the cluster, new innovations
to remain competitive
will be more difficult to

generate.




When compared at a business level, the clustering effect reduces competitive advantage of the
bu
siness in some aspects such as shared knowledge with suppliers, employee turnover to competitors,
etc. However, on a macro level, it increases the chances that the company is able to survive compared
to already established competitors such as the case of A
MD/Global
Foundries

in upstate NY compared
to Intel.
(“Manufacturing in Saratoga”, 2012)
They are able to survive because the clustering effect
challenges companies to increase productivity, drive innovations, and create new business

opportunities
. (Porter
, 1998)
Without this motivation, competitors will
surpass and
take
the
advantage
to improve a product or service.

Reduced Core Competencies


Executing to the core competencies
is

how businesses are able to gain market share and
maintain sustainable performance.
Many of the larger businesses have grown by streamlining
operations and developing hierarchies within the organization to better control the use of resources.
The use of cro
wdsourcing produces a significant challenge to that control.
Crowdsourcing

the
competencies of the company can create

a disadvantage
compared to the other competitors who
maintain the competencies in house
. T
he knowledge of the core
competency

that

is gain
ed from
the
crowd does not
always
remain with the company
.



Project

Control



Over the years, as large companies and even populations grew, the need to organize and
develop a hierarchy became more
prevalent. Crowdsourcing is a major challenge to the
organ
izational
structure
in place at many large organizations.

(Wikipedia
-

Organizational Structure, 2012)

Many
organizations are structured based on functionality.

In designing new products,
the different functions
need to work together to create a cohesive p
roduct. This
in
itself is a challenge for established
business
es
.
(Saito, 2012)
It becomes more complicated when there is no central organization to
guide

the
hundreds of
employees

or more

to work together

to determine a solution
.
(Rich, 2010)

T
his reduces
the core competencies by pushing a inferior product to the market.



Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

7

Tim Sze


International Operations


Loss of Knowledg
e



As with outsourcing,
when tasks and projects are assigned to external sources, the knowledge
gained from the learning curve is not translated into the effor
ts of the company.
As similar issues or
product deficiencies occur, the company is ill
-
equipped
to quickly correct the issue. The issues will need
to be sent out and addressed with a quick turnaround. Crowdsourcing may not be the best suited to
application
s requiring quick turnaround times as many contribute based on available free time and ideas
need to be carefully evaluated to ensure quality.

(Livingston, 2010)




Similarly, the loss of knowledge gained from completing a task in house cannot be replicate
d
without retraining a worker. With new crowd workers available each hour, repeating requests for task
completions will yield no improvements in efficiencies in completing a task. Each worker will need to be
retrained on the scope, actions and requirements

of the task assigned. (Ipeirotis, 2012)

Counter Arguments

Wisdom of the Crowd



With the enormous and diversified labor pool to select from, cro
wdsourcing has the advantage
of being able
to utilize the collective intellect
of the crowd. Studies have shown

that
collective work of
the crowd produ
ces better results than that of the
individuals

within the crowd

in
certain

instances
.

(Surowiecki, 2004)

A better designed product or better designed process, should lead to an increase in
the competitive advantage
of a company. The issues arise when the collective wisdom of the crowd is
not well intentioned or when groupthink takes over the crowd.
(MacKay, 1980)
As a
n example, the
competition to name a section of the International Space Station failed when Stephen C
olbert, a popular
comedian
,

asked his followers to vote to name the section after himself. His millions of fans submitted
his name and tipped the results in his favor.
(Popular Science, 2009)
Another instance is when the New
York baseball team, the Mets, asked fans to submit ideas
for an eighth inning sing
-
a
-
long
song for the
Mets, voters
were encouraged by

humor
websites to vote
for Rick Astley’s “Never
Gonna
Give You Up”
,
based on the interne
t prank phenomenon of “rickrolling”.

(Friedman,
2008)

The wisdom of the crowd
can be influenced resulting in failures.
An example is the phenomenon of stock market bubbles.
According to the wisdom of the crowd

theory, the large participation of investors i
n the market should
always choose correctly
. However, in markets
,

bubbles are create by the crowd of investors until they
are proven wrong and burst. (MacKay, 1980)




The wisdom of the crowd is also susceptible to social influences.
(TImmer, 2011)
As crow
ds
interact
,

their thoughts and perceptions change.
This can be seen in a study by Lorenz et al, where
respondents were asked a series of questions and were provided multiple chances to answer. They were
given their own answer, the collective groups answer

or averages and ranges. While given answers other
than their own, they were likely to change their responses closer to the groups

whether the answer was
right or wrong. (Lorenz et al, 2011) From this study, the wisdom of the crowd is dependent on the
numb
er of knowledgeable participants in the crowd.


Another issue with the wisdom of the crowd is that the source of their exp
ertise or knowledge

and ethics are
unknown. Ideas may be taken from competitors,
submitted to multiple solicitors
or
plagiarized
from

sources already using the selected ideas.
(
Boshers, 2010
)
This use of another’s
intellectual property is a growing co
ntention in the global economy with companies fighting to ban


Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

8

Tim Sze


International Operations


products from certain countries due to similarities in products.

(Giusto, 20
12)
Researching the
copyrights and fighting the lawsuits can quickly add up in unexpected costs.

(Economist


“Following the
Crowd

, 2008)

Focus on Core Competency



Businesses that crowdsource the
non
-
core competencies, such as marketing, advertising,
br
anding
, human resources, financials / accounting,

and other overhead costs

will

argue that
crowdsourcing the non
-
essentials of the business will allow their employees to focus on the core
competencies.
(
Sperling
, 20
09
)
Putting the front end of the organiza
tion in the hands of others poses a
serious risk to the long term
success

of the company.
For example, the branding and marketing of a
business is one of the first things that a customer will notice. The logo of the business needs to reflect
the values and

qualities of the company. Outsourcing this task to the crowd can lead to a design that
meets the criteria set by the requestor, but the resultant product not reflec
t the qualities of the
company because the crowd does not understand the company.

(Johnson,

2012)

This mixed message
can play a psychological role against a company

and hurt their image
.


Reduced Costs Provides Higher Competitive Advantage



For businesses to be profitable, the cost of the inputs must be less than the price of the output.
Companies that are able to lower their input costs, are able to lower their prices to the customer, and as
per the law of supply and demand, increase
s

the number of customers they are able to attract.
Ultimately
,

this would increase their market share and
the competitive advantage of the company.
Reducing the cost of the labor through crowdsourcing should therefore reduce the input costs to the
company.



By

focusing on the lowest cost providers, businesses have prevented the growth of long term
partnership
s with the providers. Long term partnerships allow companies to mutually grow. The success
of long term partnerships can be seen
between the way Toyota and Ford managed their suppliers and
logistics. Ford focused on low costs with high expectations and sou
rced their logistics to a new supplier.
Toyota worked with the logistics company and incrementally enabled them to succeed.
Ultimately, Ford
needed to reconfigure the logistics model to the cost of several millions of dollars

in order to ensure
flow of wor
k within the company
.
(Toyota Way, 2004)



With the US Federal minimum wage set at $7.25 per hour and many states minimums matching
or exceeding the Federal wage rate,

(Department of Labor, 2012)

the pay that those in the crowd
receive is
60
-
70%

lower

than the minimum wage.

(Simonson, Brahma, 2011)

O
n

Amazon’s Mechanical
Turk, the
average hourly rate was

less than $2

per hour
.
(Fort, 2011)
This lower cost to the company is
great for the bottom line, but it raises serious questions
about the morality a
nd ethicality of the low cost
labor
.
Crowdsourcing is a global business strategy used in various nations.
The biggest participant
s

in the
crowd are the US
, Europe

and
India
.
(Simonson, Brahma, 2011)
In these nations, the
wages
offered by
the
solicitor is u
nable to maintain an acceptable standard of living, especially since crowdsourced
activities do not include additional worker
benefits. For profit companies are often most criticized as
they use these low wages to then generate much larger profits.
Nonprof
its may have better success as
there is a more intrinsic motivation for the crowd to complete the tasks. (
Rogstadius et al, 2011)

In this
period of enlightened corporate social responsibility of fair trade and equality,
these low wages offered
in crowdsour
cing are viewed as unfair and may hurt business reputations. (Lee, 2011)



Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

9

Tim Sze


International Operations





Crowdsourcing is able to offer the less than minimum wage rates as there is a large labor pool
for the requestor to gain from. Part of this large labor
pool
is a result of the econ
omic conditions
currently in the world today.

For some workers, the wages offered for these tasks are supplemental to
their primary income; for others
,

it is a full time position.
Currently, the demographics of the crowd are
generally, western, educated,
a
nd
from industrialized, rich democracies.
(Economist


“The Roar of the
Crowd”, 2012) The countries with these demographics mostly have unemployment
rates ranging from

5% to 10
%. (Trading Economics, 2012) Eventually, the cyclic nature of commerce will reve
rt and
unemployment should decrease.
The loss of the labor pool can dramatically increase the costs

of
crowdsourcing

based on the laws of supply and demand
of labor.

(Labor Market Supply and Demand,
n.d)
Coupled with steady wages, the newly employed will l
ikely reevaluate the value of their time which
may reduce the labor pool further.
(Morphy, 2009)

This increase in cost may
affect the company as they
will not have the expertise and the costs to crowdsource will have increased.




Effects of a decrease

in Labor supply

(Labor Market Supply and Demand, n.d)



Another way that crowdsourcing is able to keep costs low is by using intrinsic motivation to
engage the crowd.
While some in the crowd complete challenges to supplement their income, others in
the cr
owd complete the challenges to gain recognition or other non monetary awards.
These crowd
workers enjoy submitting their thoughts and ideas for the
intrinsic
rewards. However
,

intrinsic rewards
are able to motivate as long as the task at hand remains enjoy
able.
(Kaufmann et al, 2011)
R
egistrations,
peer reviews,
rules
and
complicated
challenges

increase the rate of difficulty for the tasks. These
additional steps are required to maintain the quality of work that is supplied to the requestor.

(Livingston, 20
10)

This in turn increases costs,
and

can
de
-
motivate individuals.

As
intrinsic
motivation
decreases, companies will need to find new ways to motivate

the crowd

or increase the wages paid to
the workers.

Conclusion



Since the late 90’s the growth in size and popularity of the internet
as a business tool
has
substantially increased. It has grown from text to picture to video and continues to expand its reach in
areas of social collaboration, content generation and info
rmation sharing. In its’ growth, new business
models have come to market such as the topic of crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is not a new concept,


Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

10

Tim Sze


International Operations


but was revolutionized with the advent of the internet. With a seemingly endless labor pool, businesses
are abl
e to leverage their hiring position to lower

the
costs
of

acquir
ing

marketing strategies, product
designs, data mining and other human tasks for very little upfront costs.
However, crowdsourcing is still
in its infancy and has been known to fail in complet
ing certain tasks.
This infancy also creates a challenge
in collecting data from the crowd. As crowdsourcing improves and standardizes, more data can be
recovered and used for analysis to better support the positives and negatives of crowdsourcing.


Crowds
ourcing seems to work best in areas where information is freely available,
have
simple
and non
-
complicated tasks

(or are complex but broken down to the smallest components)
,
are
digital
goods or non
-
physical products, and are low risk to businesses / non
-
c
ore competencies.
As we have
seen in this paper, non
-
proprietary information reduces the risk of businesses giving away business
strategy to the competition. Simple, non
-
complicated tasks are direct and have a conclusive answer.
Digital and non
-
physical go
ods require little start up costs for those in the crowd enabling higher rates of
participation.
Crowdsourcing non
-
core competencies also reduce

the exposure of the company to any
failures the crowd may come
across
.
The below graphic helps illustrate the u
se of crowdsourcing in
terms of attractiveness of the technology, and competitive position.


(Mattes, 2012)



As crowdsourcing grows,
improper implementation can lead to reduced competitive advantage
and reduced core competencies.
Crowdsourcing poses significant challenges to the long term
competitive advantage

of a company
. Knowledge is shifted from internal sources to unknown external
sources

and that knowledge is not retained unlike in a cluster where the

gain in

knowledge is sha
red
with those in the area
. Open collaboration reduces the companies’ ability to develop competitive
strategies

which
can
make
long term success difficult to achieve
.
Failures in quality controls are setbacks
for companies trying to compete in the market.
Crowdsourcing reduces
core competencies by removing
the controls that a business has on its product and service while preventing the company from gaining
the knowledge needed to maintain the competencies.
Critics will argue that the wisdom of the crowd is
better than any individual, however as Steve Jobs
simply

put

it
, “
A lot of times, people don’t know what


Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

11

Tim Sze


International Operations


they want until you show it to them.”

Businesses that crowdsource to focus on their core
competencies
will still need to properly choose when crowdsour
cing as the decisions they make from the crowd can
impact their business in the long run.
Focusing solely on costs as a reason to crowdsource may provide
more challenges and costs as seen in the Ford example, and changes in the market can leave the
solicit
or paying more.
Many business publications and journals, believe that crowdsourcing is part of the
new economics that are created from the introduction of the internet. The motivation behind this thesis
is to bring to light the less popular view so that as

businesses engage in the decision to crowdsource or
not
,

are able to
avoid the group think and
make an informed decision

for their business
.







Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

12

Tim Sze


International Operations


Works Cited


Alsever, Jennifer. "What Is Crowdsourcing?"
CBSNews
. CBS Interactive, 07 Mar. 2007. Web. 04 Aug.

2012.
<http://www.cbsnews.com/8301
-
505125_162
-
51052961/what
-
is
-
crowdsourcing/>.

"Amazon Mechanical Turk."
Amazon Mechanical Turk
. Amazon.com, n.d. Web. 01 Aug. 2012.
<https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome>.

Bauer, Michael. "Top 10 Crowdsourcing Lessons."
Top 10 Crowd Sourcing Lessons
. Brilliant Arc, n.d. Web. 06 Aug.
2012. <http://www.brilliantarc.com/home/top_10_crowdsourcing_lessons>.

Benkler, Yochai. "Coase's Penguin, Or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm."
Yale Law Journal

112.369 (2002): 369
-
446.
The
Yale Law Journal Online
. The Yale Law Journal Online, 3 Dec. 2002. Web. 28 July 2012.
<http://www.yalelawjournal.org/the
-
yale
-
law
-
journal/article/coase%27s
-
penguin,
-
or,
-
linux
-
and
-
the
-
nature
-
of
-
the
-
firm/>.

Boshers, Jeff. "The Crowdsourcing Quagmire."
Sixre
visions.com
. Sixrevisions.com, 25 May 2010. Web. 05 Aug.
2012. <http://sixrevisions.com/project
-
management/the
-
crowdsourcing
-
quagmire/>.

Brumfield, Ben. "Quality Control for Crowdsourced Transcription."
Collaborative Manuscript Transcription
.
Blogspot.com
, 5 Mar. 2012. Web. 05 Aug. 2012.
<http://manuscripttranscription.blogspot.com/2012/03/quality
-
control
-
for
-
crowdsourced.html>.

"Crowdsourcing."
Merriam
-
Webster
. Merriam
-
Webster, n.d. Web. 01 Aug. 2012. <http://www.merriam
-
webster.com/dictionary/crowdsourc
ing>.

"Crowdsourcing."
Wikipedia
. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 July 2012. Web. 01 Aug. 2012.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdsourcing>.

(b)
Esposti, Carl. "Can You Outsource CRM to the Crowd?"
Www.crowdsourcing.org
. Massolution, 9 May 2011.
Web. 04 Aug. 2
012. <http://www.crowdsourcing.org/editorial/can
-
you
-
outsource
-
crm
-
to
-
the
-
crowd/3951>.

(a)
Esposti, Carl. "Why Crowdsourcing? Why Now?"
Www.crowdsourcing.org
. Massolution, 26 July 2011. Web. 30
July 2012. <http://www.crowdsourcing.org/editorial/why
-
crowds
ourcing
-
why
-
now/5570>.

"Following the Crowd."
The Economist
. The Economist Newspaper, 04 Sept. 2008. Web. 03 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.economist.com/node/11999251?story_id=11999251>.

Fort, Karen, Gilles Adda, and Kevin Cohen. "Amazon Mechanical Turk: Gold M
ine or Coal Mine?"
CrowdResearch:
The Site for Researchers Computing with Crowds
. Wordpress, 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 04 Aug. 2012.
<http://crowdresearch.org/blog/?p=2135>.

Fox, Stuart. "A New ISS Module Named...Colbert?"
Popular Science
. Bonnier Corporation, 2
4 Mar. 2009. Web. 05
Aug. 2012. <http://www.popsci.com/military
-
aviation
-
amp
-
space/article/2009
-
03/stephen
-
colbert
-
nasa
-
and
-
so
-
can
-
you>.

Frenkel, Karen. "Crowdsourced in the U.S.A."
Businessweek.com
. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 29 June 2012. Web. 26
July 2012
. <http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012
-
06
-
29/crowdsourced
-
in
-
the
-
u
-
dot
-
s
-
dot
-
a
-
dot>.

Friedman, Emily
. "'Rick Rolling' Ruins Mets Vote."
ABC News
. ABC News Network, 11 Apr. 2008. Web. 05 Aug.
2012. <http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=4628658>.

Gi
usto, Randy. "Apple vs. Samsung and How Innovation Suffers."
Innovation Excellence
. Innovation Excellence, 6
Aug. 2012. Web. 06 Aug. 2012. <http://www.innovationexcellence.com/blog/2012/08/06/apple
-
vs
-
samsung
-
and
-
how
-
innovation
-
suffers/>.

Griffith, Erin.
"Is the Crowdsourcing Debate Finally Over? | PandoDaily."
PandoDaily
. PandoDaily, 26 June 2012.
Web. 02 Aug. 2012. <http://pandodaily.com/2012/06/06/is
-
the
-
crowdsourcing
-
debate
-
finally
-
over/>.

Hancock, Denis. "Crowdsourcing: Business Model Failure vs. Man
agement Mistake."
Wikinomics
. Wordpress, 11
Sept. 2008. Web. 03 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.wikinomics.com/blog/index.php/2008/09/11/crowdsourcing
-
business
-
model
-
failure
-
vs
-
management
-
mistake/>.

"How to Outsource R&D."
Inc.com
. Mansueto Ventures LLC, 28 Sept.
2009. Web. 05 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.inc.com/guides/growth/outsource
-
research
-
development.html?nav=next>.

Howe, Jeff. "Wired 14.06: The Rise of Crowdsourcing."
Wired.com
. Conde Nast Digital, June 2006. Web. 02 Aug.
2012. <http://www.wired.com/wired/archiv
e/14.06/crowds.html>.



Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

13

Tim Sze


International Operations


Ipeirotis, Panos. "The (Unofficial) NIST Definition of Cloud Labor and Crowdsourcing."
Www.crowdsourcing.org
.
Massolution, 3 Apr. 2012. Web. 4 Aug. 2012. <
http://www.crowdsourcing.org/editorial/the
-
unofficial
-
nist
-
definition
-
of
-
cloud
-
labor
-
and
-
crowdsourcing/13077>.

Johnson, Julia. "Design Debate; Crowdsourcing Design in CHEAP but Is It GOOD for Your Brand?"
Financial Post
.
National Post, 25 June 2012. Web.
02 Aug. 2012. <http://www.lexisnexis.com.colelib
-
prxy.ewp.rpi.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=55YP
-
88J1
-
JBKR
-
R112>.

Kallender, Paul. "Gates Warns against Reliance on Outsourcing."
InfoWorld
. IDG Network, 25 June 2005. Web. 30
July 2012. <http://
www.infoworld.com/t/business/gates
-
warns
-
against
-
reliance
-
outsourcing
-
725>.

Kaufmann, Nicolas, Thimo Schulze, and Daniel Veit. "Worker Motivation in Crowdsourcing."
Proceedings of the
Seventeenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Detroit, Michig
an August 4th
-
7th 2011
.
Proceedings of the Seventeenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Michigan, Detroit. N.p.:
University of Manneheim, 2011. 1
-
11. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://schader.bwl.uni
-
mannheim.de/fileadmin/files/publikationen/Kaufmann_Sc
hulze_Veit_2011_
-
_More_than_fun_and_money_Worker_motivation_in_Crowdsourcing_
-
_A_Study_on_Mechanical_Turk_AMCIS_2011.pdf>.

Lee, Doris. "Fair Wages: Strengthening Corporate Social Responsibility | Asia Monitor Resource Centre."
Fair
Wages: Strengthening
Corporate Social Responsibility | Asia Monitor Resource Centre
. Asia Monitor
Resource Centre (AMRC), 19 Jan. 2011. Web. 06 Aug. 2012. <http://www.amrc.org.hk/node/1092>.

"Lesson 3. Labor Market Supply and Demand."
Lesson 3. Labor Market Supply and Demand
.

New Mexico State
University, n.d. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://cepfe.nmsu.edu/?q=book/print/69>.

Liker, Jeffrey K.
The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World's Greatest Manufacturer
. New York,
NY [u.a.: McGraw
-
Hill, 2004. Print.

Livingston, G
eoff. "4 Real Challenges to Crowdsourcing for Social Good."
Mashable
. Mashable, 12 Oct. 2010. Web.
05 Aug. 2012. <http://mashable.com/2010/10/12/social
-
good
-
crowdsourcing/>.

Lorenz, J., H. Rauhut, F. Schweitzer, and D. Helbing. "How Social Influence Can U
ndermine the Wisdom of Crowd
Effect."
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

108.22 (2011): 9020
-
025. Print.

Lynch, Alec. "Crowdsourcing Is Not New
-

The History of Crowdsourcing (1714 to 2010)."
DesignCrowd
.
DesignCrowd, 28 Oct. 2010. Web. 04 Au
g. 2012.
<http://blog.designcrowd.com/article/202/crowdsourcing
-
is
-
not
-
new
--
the
-
history
-
of
-
crowdsourcing
-
1714
-
to
-
2010>.

Mackay, Charles.
Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds
. New York: Harmony, 1980. Print.

Mammone, Richard. "How to
Take Advantage of Business Clusters."
Bloomberg Business Week
. Bloomberg.com, 8
Dec. 2009. Web. 30 July 2012.
<http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/dec2009/sb2009128_428278.htm>.

"Manufacturing in Saratoga: The Springs That Heal."
The Economist
. T
he Economist Newspaper, 14 Apr. 2012.
Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://www.economist.com/node/21552607>.

Mattes, Frank. "Core Competence Management in the Era of Open Innovation."
Www.innovation
-
3.com
.
Innovation
-
3, July 2012. Web. 02 Aug. 2012. <http://innovat
ion
-
3.com/2012/core
-
competence
-
management
-
in
-
the
-
era
-
of
-
open
-
innovation/>.

Morphy, Erika. "The Dark Side of Crowdsourcing."
Technology News World
. ECT News Network, 24 Apr. 2009. Web.
05 Aug. 2012. <http://www.technewsworld.com/rsstory/66891.html>.

Organ
isciak, Peter. "Crowdstorming."
Crowdstorming
. Wordpress, 31 Jan. 2008. Web. 04 Aug. 2012.
<http://crowdstorming.wordpress.com/2008/01/31/motivation
-
of
-
crowds
-
the
-
incentives
-
that
-
make
-
crowdsourcing
-
work/>.

"Organizational Structure."
Wikipedia
. Wikimedia
Foundation, 08 Feb. 2012. Web. 31 July 2012.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_structure>.

Porter, Michael. "Clusters and the New Economics of Competition."
Harvard Business Review

(1998): 1
-
14.
Harvard
Business Review
. Harvard Business Review.

Web. 5 Aug. 2012.
<http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/23061093/2055444036/name/M.Porter
-
nw+and+clusters.pdf>.

"A Review of 2010's Patent Litigation Trends at the United States International Trade Commission."
DLA Piper
. DLA
Piper, 22 Mar. 2011. Web. 5 Aug. 201
2. <http://www.dlapiper.com/review
-
of
-
2010s
-
patent
-
litigation
-
trends/>.



Crowdsourcing Thesis

8/6/2012

14

Tim Sze


International Operations


Rich, Laura. "Tapping the Wisdom Of the Crowd."
The New York Times
. The New York Times, 05 Aug. 2010. Web.
05 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/05/business/smallbusiness/05sb
iz.html?pagewanted=all>.

"The Roar of the Crowd."
The Economist
. The Economist Newspaper, 26 May 2012. Web. 04 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.economist.com/node/21555876>.

Robertson, Niel. "Wikipedia's Decline and the 7 Types of Human Motivation."
EnterpriseIrre
gulars.com
. Enterprise
Irregulars, 3 Mar. 2010. Web. 02 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.enterpriseirregulars.com/14301/wikipedia%E2%80%99s
-
decline
-
and
-
the
-
7
-
types
-
of
-
human
-
motivation/>.

Rogstadius, Jakob, Vassilis Kostakos, Aniket Kittur, Boris Smus, Jim Laredo, a
nd Maja Vukovic. "An Assessment of
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Task Performance in Crowdsourcing Markets."
Fifth International
AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media
. Proc. of Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs
and Social Media.
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 5 July 2011. Web. 5 Aug.
2012. <http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM11/paper/view/2778>.

Saito, Marcio. "Crowdsourcing: The Next Step in Enterprise Collaboration | Ledface Blog."
Crowdso
urcing: The Next
Step in Enterprise Collaboration | Ledface Blog
. Ledface, 15 Mar. 2012. Web. 27 July 2012.
<http://www.ledcrowd.com/blog/2012/03/crowdsourcing
-
the
-
next
-
step
-
in
-
enterprise
-
collaboration/>.

Shaughnessy, Haydn. "Work Without Jobs: A Trend Fo
r The Educated Elite."
Forbes
. Forbes Magazine, 10 Mar.
2012. Web. 04 Aug. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2012/03/10/a
-
little
-
more
-
on
-
work
-
without
-
jobs
-
for
-
the
-
educated
-
elite/>.

Simonson, Eric, and Sarthak Brahma. "Every Crowd Has a S
ilver Lining."
Everest Group Research

(2011): n. pag.
Everest Group Research
. Everest Group, 2011. Web. 1 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.thesmartcrowd.com/files/2012/03/Every
-
Crowd
-
Has
-
a
-
Silver
-
Lining.pdf>.

Sperling, Ed. "Outsourcing Core Competencies."
Forbes
. F
orbes Magazine, 3 Aug. 2009. Web. 05 Aug. 2012.
<http://www.forbes.com/2009/08/01/outsource
-
john
-
lutz
-
technology
-
cio
-
network
-
ibm.html>.

Stevens, Darren. "Crowdsourcing: Pros, Cons, and More."
Crowdsourcing: Pros, Cons, and More
. Hongkiat.com,
Nov. 2011. W
eb. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/what
-
is
-
crowdsourcing/>.

Surowiecki, James.
The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter than the Few and How Collective Wisdom
Shapes Business, Economies, Societies, and Nations
. New York: Doubleday, 2004. Print.

Timmer, John. "Social Influences Kill the Wisdom of the Crowd."
Ars Technica
. Conde Nast Digital, 17 May 2011.
Web. 06 Aug. 2012. <http://arstechnica.com/science/2011/05/following
-
the
-
crowd
-
undermines
-
its
-
wisdom/>.

"Un
employment Rates, List by Country."
Unemployment Rates, List by Country
. Trading Economics, 3 Aug. 2012.
Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tradingeconomics.com/unemployment
-
rates
-
list
-
by
-
country>.

"U.S. Department of Labor
-

Wage and Hour Division (WHD)
-

Mi
nimum Wage Laws in the States."
U.S. Department
of Labor
-

Wage and Hour Division (WHD)
-

Minimum Wage Laws in the States
. U.S. Department of Labor,
1 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm>.

"Visualizing Motivation in C
rowdsourcing Competitions."
Strategic Innovation Partners
. Strategic Learning Partners,
17 Apr. 2012. Web. 04 Aug. 2012. <http://www.stratlearningpartners.com/2012/04/17/visualizing
-
motivation
-
in
-
crowdsourcing
-
competitions/>.

"Wisdom of the Crowd."
Wikipe
dia
. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 July 2012. Web. 03 Aug. 2012.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisdom_of_the_crowd>.

Zvaifler, Ben. "The Rise of Enterprise Crowdsourcing."
TechAxcess
. The Global Strategic Management Institute, 7
Apr. 2011. Web. 04 Aug. 2012. <
http://techaxcess.com/2011/04/the
-
rise
-
of
-
enterprise
-
crowdsourcing/>.