Syllabus HCS 7625, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Instructors: TBD and John Finer

portertoaststicksΒιοτεχνολογία

23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

206 εμφανίσεις

Syllabus

HCS
7
625
,
Plant Breeding and Biotechnology

Instructors:
TBD
and John Finer


Fall 2012

3 credit hours


CLASS M
EETINGS:
Time: TBD

(two 2 hour class periods/week)

Location:
Room 244
Kottman Hall (Columbus Campus) and Fisher Auditorium Room 121
(Wooster Campus).


1. INSTRUCTORS:

Dr. John Finer

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science

OARDC/The Ohio State University

1680 Madison Ave.

Wooster, OH 44691

Tel: 330
-
263
-
3880
(from Columbus; 5
-
3880)

finer.1@
osu.edu

http://www.oardc.ohio
-
state.edu/plantranslab/


II: PREREQUISITE:


U
ndergraduate breeding or genetics course or consent of instructor.


III. TEXTBOOKS: NONE

(Carmen, library reading
reserve; see reference list)


IV. METHODS OF EVALUATION:



Quizzes


Assign. (8)


8%


(40 pts.)


Mid
-
term exam I




21%


(100 pts.)


Mid
-
term exam II




21%


(100 pts.)


Final exam





34%


(160 pts.)


Special Topic Report


16%



(75 pts.)






Total



475 pts.


A 442
-
475

B+ 418
-
426

C+ 371
-
379

D+ 324
-
332

A
-

427
-
441

B 394
-
417

C 347
-
370

D 282
-
323




B
-

380
-
393

C
-

333
-
346

E

281


Quizzes:

Two pretest quizzes will be arranged as needed, no make
-
up quizzes will be given. Up
to five points will be awarded for each quiz.


Assignments:

Periodically, special problems may be assigned (5 points each.)


Make
-
up assignments and exams:

“Make
-
ups”
must be rescheduled before time of the regular
exam. Either a pre
-
approved absence (by instructor) or evidence of illness/emergency (requires
document with physician’s signature and exact time of visit) will be required.


Special Topic Report Guidelines:

Topic of your choice subject to approval by instructors (
crop/topic not covered in course).

The
paper must be your own work.

Parameters: 10
-
12 pages, double

spaced
not including title

page, references etc., must cite majority of references that are origin
al research papers,
either
11
-
1
2 pt

character font, of letter quality.

Submission due date
will be during the last week of
Nov
ember
.


Your thesis/dissertation research

topic

is
not

permitted.


V.

ORGANIZATION OF THE
COURSE:


Distribution and use of
class time: The class will meet for two, two hour periods per
week. The first 50 minutes will be dedicated to lecture, and the remaining time to
additional lecture, discussion of the reading assignments, and/or questions related to the
lecture and upcomi
ng course activities. Additional time will be devoted to web
-
based
exercises and reading of original scientific literature.



At the beginning of certain class periods, questions pertaining to quiz or exam questions,
and/or guest lectures will be addresse
d.



V
I
.

RATIONALE:


This course will serve as a general introduction to the principles of plant breeding and
biotechnology. Breeding and biotechnology are central to anyone who works with plants
as most cult
ivated plants
have been impacted using breeding

and biotechnological
approaches. We will examine concepts relevant to students in plant breeding, genetics,
biotechnology, crop sciences, and allied fields of plant pathology and entomology.
The

course content will present a broad range of applicable in
formation pertaining to
modification and improvement

of

a wide range of crops, including both agronomic and
horticultural crop species important in temperate and tropical areas.



Specific objectives will include the following:


A.

To develop general fam
iliarity with the overall science of plant
breeding and biotechnology, especially as it relates to the improvement
of agronomic and horticultural crops.

B.

To understand how directed selection for crop improvement is affected
by plant mating systems, avail
able genetic variation, environmental
influences, selection strategies, transgenic approaches and the social
context.

C.

To gain an appreciation and understanding of the processes involved in
natural evolution and directed selection and manipulation by hum
ans.

D.

To become familiar with prominent techniques for directed plant
improvement.

E.

To assist the development of critical thinking, and to improve skills in
written and oral analysis of specific topics related to crop breeding.

F.

To lay the foundatio
n for the study of more advanced plant breeding,
biotechnology and molecular biology methodology and quantitative
genetics e.g. molecular

marker assisted determination of quantitative
trait locus variation.


VII. CLASS MEETINGS
:


History and Significance

of Plant Breeding

and Biotechnology


1.

History and
contributions

of plant breeding
and biotechnology
to crop improvement
,
introduction to

OSU

programs


Crop Evolution and Domestication



Plant
Genetics Review


1. Genetic Structure; Alleles, Genes and DNA

2. Somatic cell genetics

3
. Polyploidy

4
. Cellular organization of plants: an overview

5
. Biology

of plant reproductive systems

6
.
Gene transfer

t
heory

7
. Molecular markers theory


Types of Cultivars



Traits of Interest and Breeding Objectives


1
.
Breeding Objectives

2
.

Traits of interest for Field Crops

3
. Traits of interest for Fruits and Vegetable Crops

4
. Traits of interest for Ornamentals

and

Turf


Genetic Analysis in Plant Bree
ding

1.

Introduction to concepts of population genetics;
Mendel to
Neo
-
Darwinism and Biometrical
Genetics

2. Introduction to quantitative genetics;
Johannsen’s experiments

3. Common statistical methods in plant breeding (Prediction and Selection)


Midterm Exam I:


Methods of Plant Breedi
ng

1. Breeding self
-
pollinated
species

2. Breeding cross
-
pollinated species

3. Breeding hybrid cultivars

4. Wide hybridization

5. Haploid breeding


Genomics and Marker
-
Assisted Selection


1. The physical map

2. Marker development; SSR, SNP

3. Marker assisted selection

4. Reverse and fo
rward genetics


Breeding for Traits

1. Breeding for a physiological trait

2. Breeding for resistance to a biotic or abiotic stress

3. Breeding for aesthetics

4. Breeding for biomass/biofuel stocks


Introduction to Transgenic Approaches and
Plant Molecular Biology Review

1
.
History of commercial transgenic plants, early failures and current successes

2. Impact of transgenics

3.
DNA Cloning and plasmid construct design


Section
10
:

Genes of Interest


1
. Useful
g
ene

overview


2
. Commercialized

transgenic products

3. Transgenics in the pipeline


Midterm Exam I
I
:


Secti
on 11
:
Gene Transfer
Methods


1
. Transgenic Approaches: Transformation systems
,

Agrobacterium

and direct DNA uptake

2. Targeting specific tissue or organelles

3
. High throughput
transformation systems


R
egulating
trans
gene expression


1
.
Markers


2
.
Transient versus stable expression


3
.
Transgene stacking considerations

4
. Levels of gene expression

5
.
Targeted integration and homologous recombination systems


6
.
Zinc finger
nucleases


Down
-
Regulati
o
n

of

native genes

1. VIGS

2. RNAi approaches

a. native genes

b. associated organisms


Model transformation systems, Arabidopsis and ovule/p
ollen transformation


1.

Microspore and egg transformation

2
. Immature ovule injection

3
. Chromosome injection

4
. Apex or meristem transformation

5
. Macroinjection


Regulatory considerations for transgenics: laboratory and commercial


1. Performance evaluation and crop cultivar release

2
. Intellectual property


3
. Public perception of geneti
cally modified plants

A. Effects of herbicide resistance on pesticide application

B. IPM strategies with
Bt
corn

C. Horizontal gene transfer

D. Transgene escape

E
. Allergenicity

F
. Labeling

G
. Science and nature

4
. Registration and commercialization


procedures and costs


Final Exam


Reference texts for Plant Breeding

and Biotechnology
:


Genetic Modification of Plants, Biotechnol
ogy in Agriculture and Forestry

(2010) F Kempken, C
Jung


vol 64
,
Springer, Dordrecht


Plant Breeding
, (2008), Brown and
Caligari,

Blackwell Publishing


Plant Biotechnology and Genetics: Principles, Tech
niques and Applications

(2008)

C. Neal
Stewart Jr. Wiley
and Sons, New York


Principles of Plant Breeding (2000) Robert W. Allard, 2
nd

Edition, Academic Press


Breeding Ornamental Plants

(2000),
Dorothy J. Callaway

and
M. Brett Callaway
, Timber Press,
Inc. Portland, OR


Principles of Crop Improvement

(1999)

N.
W. Simmonds and J. Smartt, 2nd Edition, Blackwell
Science


Principles of Cultivar Development (1987), Walter R. Fehr; with the assistance of Elinor L. Fehr
and Holly J. Jessen, Macmillan, New York, NY, V.1 and 2


Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding
(2007), George Acquaah, Blackwell Publishing,
Malden, MA.



VIII
. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES:


A.

Articles in scientific journals. (Please note that graduate students will be
required to read and cite at least five original articles published during the
last
ten years from at least two of the listed journals as part of the special
topic paper.)


Crop Science

Euphytica

Genetics

Genome

HortScience

Journal of Heredity

Journal Am. Soc. Horticultural Science

Journal of Molecular Breeding

Journal of Plant Pathology

Molecular Breeding

Nature
-
Biotechnology

Phytopathology

Plant Biotechnology Journal

Plant Breeding

Plant Cell Reports

Plant Disease

Proceedings National Acad. Science

Science

The Plant Genome

Theoretical and Applied Genetics


The journals are available in

the AGI and ARD libraries or via the Internet:


B.

Annual Reviews, and other texts for reference include:



Excerpts will be made available in the AGI and ARD (reserve) libraries or via the
web.


Annual Review of Genetics

Advances in Genetics

Annual Review o
f Plant Pathology

Plant Breeding Reviews

Trends in Plant Science


Hybridization of Crop Plants

W. R. Fehr and H. Hadley (Ed.)

American Soc. Agronomy

CSSA, Publishers (1980)


Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources

A.H.D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler, and B.S. Weir (ed.)

Sinauer Associates Inc., Publishers (1990)


Principles of Cultivar Development

Walter R. Fehr; with the assistance of Elinor L. Fehr

and Holly J. Jessen

Macmillan, New York (1987) V.1 and 2


Prin
ciples of Plant Breeding

Robert W. Allard

2
nd

Edition, Academic Press (2000)


Principles of Crop
Improvement

N.W. Simmonds and J. Smartt

2nd Edition, Blackwell Science (1999)


Breeding for Ornamentals: Classical and Molecular Approaches (
2002)

edited by A
lexander Vainstein


Dordrecht, London: Kluwer Academic


Breeding Ornamental Plants

(2000)

Dorothy J. Callaway

and
M. Brett Callaway


Timber Press, Inc. Portland, OR


Vegetables I: Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodicaceae, and Cucurbitaceae
Handbook of Plant Breeding (2007)

by
Jaime Prohens

(Editor),
Fernando Nuez

(Editor)

Springer Verlag


Vegetables II: Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Solanaceae, and Umbelliferae

Handbook of Plant Breeding (2007)

by
Jaime Prohens

(Editor),
Fernando Nuez

(Editor)

Springer Verlag



I
X. ACCOMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILATIES:


In accordance with University policy, s
tudents with chronic disabilities are encouraged to in
form
the instructor at the beginning of the term. The instructor and student will work with the Office
of Disability Services (
150 Pomerene Hall, 1760 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210,
http://www.ods.ohio
-
state.edu/ Tel:

614
-
292
-
3307
) to provide appropriate

accommodations. No
special accommodations will be made for students who do not inform the instructor in a timely
fashion or who do not involve the Office of Disability Services, except that temporary
disabilities will be accommodated as needed.


X. CODE O
F CONDUCT:


Students will be trusted to act in good faith for exams, written assignments, etc. If
students breach that trust, this will be reported through the appropriate channels to the University
Committee on Academic Misconduct. You must not copy other

students work in exams or other
assignments. If you used or quote published material in your writing, it must be clearly identified
as a quotation and the source must be identified.
For additional information, see the Code of
Student Conduct (
http://stude
ntaffairs.osu.edu/resource_csc.asp).

1)

Respect of others (including instructors and guests) is required of everyone in the
classroom at all times.

2)

Students are expected to adopt the honor system during quizzes and exams. This system
requires no cheating d
uring exams and quizzes, and reporting of any observed, suspected
violations. Suspected violations will be handled in accordance with university
procedures on misbehavior and academic dishonesty as described in the Student
Handbook and Faculty Rules.

3)

Pla
giarism is not allowed. Suspected misconduct will be handled in accordance with
established university policy as stated in the Student Handbook and Faculty Rules

(
http://oaa.osu.edu/coam/faq.html#fairuse
).


A word about Plagiarism:


What is it?

(Verb)


plagiarize

to steal and pass off as one’s own (the ideas or words of another)

What are the consequences?

To be determined by committee review

(Committee on Academic Misconduct )
….usually 0
points for the ass
ignment.


If questions remain, see:
www.lima.
osu
.edu/
academics
/writing/
Plagiarism
Presentation.ppt


Cell Phone Policy


As a courtesy to your classmates, if you use a cell phone, please either turn off these
devices or make them completely silent (no vibration), before you enter the classroom. If an
emergency situation arises where you must be accessible, please immediately

exit the classroom
with the device to minimize disturbing your classmates. Texting is not permitted during class and
will result in removal of the student from the classroom.


The syllabus serves only as a guide and is valid on the date of issue. Dates,
times and topics
may change due to new developments and unforeseen circumstances.