polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 21 μέρες)

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Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


Bl og resource:

http://ti nyurl.com/459sxqx






Cl i ck4Bi ology:

http://ti nyurl.com/4dpmu73



Ci te al l sources usi ng the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numeri cal i n Word
.
Hi ghl i ght al l
objecti ve 1 command terms i n
yel l ow

and compl ete these
before class
. Hi ghl i ght al l
objecti ve 2 and 3 command terms i n green



these wi l l be
part

of the di scuss
ions

i n cl ass.
After cl ass,
go back and review them
.

Compl ete the
self
-
assessment rubric

before submi tti ng to Moodl e. Avoi d pri nti ng thi s i f possi ble.

Learn.Genetics @ Utah

(great si mul ati ons and ani mati ons):
http://learn.geneti cs.utah.edu/



Human Genome Project:

http://www.genome.gov/10001772

and
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml



BioEthics Education Project
:
http://www.beep.ac.uk/content/i ndex.php




1.

The
polymerase chain reaction

(PCR)

is used where DNA sam
ples are too small to be useful.


a.

State the purpose of PCR in labs and investigations.






b.

Identify the cellular process which PCR mimics.






c.

State the role of high temperatures in PCR.






d.

State the role of complementary base pairing in PCR.






e.

Describe why it is called a
chain reaction
.








Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


2.

State two main uses of
DNA profiling

by electrophoresis.











3.

State some other names for DNA profiling.











4.

State the roles of the following components of gel electrophoresis:

Restriction enzymes


Gel


Electric current


Fluorescent DNA markers





5.

Annotate the image below to outline briefly

how gel electrophoresis works, including how the
size of fragments affects their position on the final gel.





















Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


6.

Use the gel electrophoresis results below to answer these questions.

In this case, a DNA sample was taken from a ci
garette found at a crime scene (smoking in a no
-
smoking zone):




a.

State the process used to amplify the small amounts of DNA collected at the crime scene to an
amount big enough to be used in DNA profiling.






b.

Deduce
w
hich criminal, Rob McCarr or Nick Allott, left their dribbly cigarette
-
end at the crime
scene. Explain

your answer.



Criminal:



Explanation:



c.

Draw

bands to show where the
standard

fragments would be observed.
State the role of the
standard fragment.






d.

Outline the evidence in the DNA profile that suggests Nick and Rob are related.








7.

Describe the
Human

Genome Project
.







8.

Outline the goals of the HGP (
http://www.beep.ac.uk/content/187.0.html

).


























Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


9.

Look at some of the HGP resources at
http://www.genome.gov/25019885



a.

Describe the role of
E
. coli

in the HGP.





b.

Explain how differently
-
coloured nucleotides were used in sequencing the genes.





c.

Explain why the information collected was stored in public databases.






10.

Outline how the HGP dev
eloped knowledge in the following fields:


Evolutionary research






Medicine






Bioinformatics





Ethical, Legal and Social Issues (ELSI)?








11.

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created using gene transfer.

a.

Outline
gene transfer
.

















b.

Explain how the
universality of the genetic code

is central to gene transfer applications.

















c.

Define
transgenic organism
.






Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


d.

State the role of the following in gene transfer:

Restriction enzymes





E. coli plasmids





Ligase





Vector






e.

Annotate the diagram below to outline the process of gene transfer:



f.

Explain how gene transfer is used in
industrial production of insulin
.






























Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


12.

Outline the use of gene transfer in gene therapy to treat SCID.


a.

SCID is…



b.

Gene therapy can treat SCID by…




13.

Give three examples of
genetically modified

(GM) plant crops and the effects of their new
genes.


New properties

Advantages

‘Golden Rice’










14.

Outline how genetically modified sheep can help hemophiliacs.



















15.

Discuss the benefits and potential dangers of one type of genetic modification used in
agriculture.
Suggest why

some groups

are
protesting GM (genetically modified) foods or crops?



























Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


16.

Define
clone
.






17.

Give three examples of
naturally occ
urring

clones.















18.

Dolly the Sheep was produced by cloning using a differentiated nucleus.


a.

Define
differentiated nucleus
.






b.

Suggest
why the differentiated nucleus taken from an udder cell.







c.

Suggest one reason why Dolly died younger than normal, but of age
-
related illnesses.





d.

Outline the method used to clone Dolly the Sheep.































Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


19.

Distinguish between
reproductive cloning

and
therapeutic cloning
.



Reproductive =



Therapeutic =


20.

State some of the medical applications and benefits of therapeutic cloning.














21.

Discuss the ethical considerations of therapeutic cloning in humans.

Advantages:


Disadvantages:




22.

Suggest why

stem
-
cell reprogramming (IPS cells) might mitigate the negative opinions of human
therapeutic cloning.

Source:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7180/full/451858a.h
tml



a.

Define iPS stem cells.





b.

Outline the process for reprogramming the cells.





c.

Explain the benefits of using iPS cells in medicine and research.







Essential Biology
4.4 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

Due Date:


Student Name:

Candi date Number: 002171
-




Stephen Tayl or

Bandung Internati onal School

http://sci encevi deos.wordpress.com


Works Cited

1.
Allott, Andrew.

IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma.
s.l.

: Oxfor
d University Press, 2007. 978
-
0
-
19
-
915143
-
1.

2.
Mindorff, D and Allott, A.

Biology Course Companion.
Oxford

: Oxford University Press, 2007. 978
-
099151240.

3.
Clegg, CJ.

Biology for the IB Diploma.
London

: Hodder Murray, 2007. 978
-
0340926529.

4.
Campbell
N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E.

Biology Concepts and Connections.
San Fransisco

:
Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0
-
8053
-
7160
-
5.

5.
Taylor, Stephen.

Science Video Resources.
[Online] Wordpress, 2010.
http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com.

6.
Burrell, John
.

Click4Biology.
[Online] 2010. http://click4biology.info/.

7.
IBO.

Biology Subject Guide.
[Online] 2007. http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/migrated/production
-
app2.ibo.org/publication/7/part/2/chapter/1.html.


Self Assessment:


Essential Biology

Assessment

Criterion

Complete (2)

Partially complete (1)

Self

MrT

Presentati on &
Organi sation

NA

Complete and neat. All command terms
highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented.




Academi c
Honesty

NA

Sources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical)
method, with Works Cited section complete and
correct.



Objective 1

understandi ng

All
answers

for the following command terms
correct:

Most answers

for the following command terms
correct:



Define

Draw Label List Measure State

Objective 2

understandi ng

All

answers

for the following command terms correct:

Most answers

for the following command terms
correct:



Annotate Apply Calculate Describe
Distinguish Estimate Identify Outline

Objective3

understandi ng

All

answers

for the following command terms correct:

Most answers

for the following command terms
correct:



Analyse

Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine Discuss

Evaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch Suggest

Logic, notation,
mathematical
working

NA

Answers are presented in a logical and
concise
manner. SI units used most times, with correct
unit symbols and definitions of terms. All
mathematical working shown.



Further research

NA

Evidence

is apparent of research and reading
beyond the textbook and presentations to find
correct answers to challenging questions.
If any
questions are unanswered, this criterion scores
zero.





Total (max 10):