Genetically engineered food

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Genetically engineered food
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Should genetically engineered food be labeled differently?


Lawrence Mortis


University of Belize


Lecturer: Kevin Tucker


July 21, 2011










Genetically engineered food
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I Introduction


The term GM foods or GMOs (genetically modified organisms) is most commonly used
to refer to crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular
biology techniques. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance des
ired traits
such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. The enhancement of
desired traits has traditionally been undertaken through breeding, but conventional plant breeding
methods can be very time consuming and are often n
ot very accurate One of the most
contentious issues is labeling of GE foods, with the alone U.S. biotechnology and food industries
opposing it and many nonprofit groups such as EDF (environmental defense fund) and so on are
critical of agricultural biotech
nology supporting it. The concerns on genetically engineer food
are both advantages and disadvantages with I can show you the reader if it should be labeled
differently?
My onion on this topic is that the labels on GE food need to have warning about the
he
alth effects and problems that it can cause to the consumer because we have the right to know
and if anybody purchases the item it is for their own risk, in other words we the consumers need
to know significant differences between GE and conventional or na
tural foods. If a nutritional or
allergenic difference were found in a GE food, current drug company is responsible to give
regulations require a label to that effect.





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II Counter Argument


Whitman stated that in most industries tend to make crop to less the chance of insect
pests eating crops by making pesticides, in some cases can be staggering, resulting in devastating
financial loss for farmers and starvation in developing countries. Farm
ers typically use many
tons of chemical pesticides annually, and consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated
with pesticides because of potential health hazards so they turn to GE foods. In some instances
there are many viruses, fungi and bacte
ria that cause plant diseases. Plant biologists are working
to create plants with genetically
-
engineered resistance to these diseases as the world population
grows and more land is utilized for housing instead of food production, farmers will need to
grow
crops in locations previously unsuited for plant cultivation.

Creating plants that can withstand long periods of drought or high salt content in soil and
groundwater will help people to grow crops in formerly inhospitable places. She also believe
that, as

the world population grows and more land is utilized for housing instead of food
production, farmers will need to grow crops in locations previously unsuited for plant
cultivation. Creating plants that can withstand long periods of drought or high salt co
ntent in soil
and groundwater will help people to grow crops in formerly inhospitable places. Drought
tolerance/salinity tolerance as the world population grows and more land is utilized for housing
instead of food production, farmers will need to grow cro
ps in locations previously unsuited for
plant cultivation. Creating plants that can withstand long periods of drought or high salt content
in soil and groundwater will help people to grow crops in formerly inhospitable places. Disease
resistance
s

there are

many viruses, fungi and bacteria that cause plant diseases. Plant biologists
Genetically engineered food
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are working to create plants with genetically
-
engineered resistance to these diseases. Pest
resistance Crop losses from insect pests can be staggering, resulting in devastating f
inancial loss
for farmers and starvation in developing countries. Farmers typically use many tons of chemical
pesticides annually. Consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated with pesticides
because of potential health hazards, and run
-
off of a
gricultural wastes from excessive use of
pesticides and fertilizers can poison the water supply and cause harm to the environment.
Growing GM foods such as corn can help eliminate the application of chemical pesticides and
reduce the cost of bringing a cro
p to market (Whitman, 2000, para.1
-
3).



As a statistical stated by (Cummins 1999), report that it has shown
toxins and poisons

in
genetically engineered products clearly h
ave the potential to be toxic and a threat to human
health. In 1989 a genetically engineered brand of L
-
tryptophan, a common dietary supplement,
killed 37 Americans and permanently disabled or afflicted more than 5,000 others with a
potentially fatal and p
ainful blood disorder, it could also pose serious hazards for human breast,
prostate, and colon cancer with little or no regulatory restraints, labeling requirements, or
scientific protocol, bio
-
engineers have begun creating hundreds of new GE "Franken foo
ds" and
crops, oblivious to human and environmental hazards, or negative socioeconomic impacts on the
world's several billion farmers and rural villagers. Despite an increasing number of scientists
warning that current gene
-
splicing techniques are crude, i
nexact, and unpredictable and therefore
inherently dangerous pro
-
biotech.



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Genetically
-
modified foods have the potential to solve many of the world's hunger and
malnutrition problems, and to help protect and preserve the environment by increasing yield an
d
reducing reliance upon chemical pesticides and herbicides. Yet there are many challenges ahead
for governments, especially in the areas of safety testing, regulation, international policy and
food labeling. According to, Whitman (2000) “Many people feel
that genetic engineering is the
inevitable wave of the future and that we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has such
enormous potential benefits”. However, we must proceed with caution to avoid causing
unintended harm to human health and the enviro
nment as a result.

In some part of the world
food
allergies

are a major issue, as
many as 7 out of every 10 children all around the world have
developed life threatening aller
gies to peanuts and other foods so why isn’t the foods labeled. I
believe that eventually that there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may create a
new

allergen

or cause an allergic reaction in individuals. They perform extensive testin
g of GM
foods may be required to avoid the possibility of harm to consumers with food allergies but why
do they continue to create more when they know that it still has some glitches.



III. Your Argument


Scientist speaks on how GM foods are pest resistan
ce, how they have proven that it can
resist against pest but they don’t look at the chemicals used in creating theses gm food. The
concern for the environment is not in their minds

protection of basic natural resources such as
soil, water and biodiversity.

Biodiversity is
the degree of variation of

life

forms within a
given

ecosystem
,

biome
, or an entire

planet
. Biodiversity is a measure of the health
of

ecosystems
. Greater biodiversity implies greater health. Biodiversity is in part a function
Genetically engineered food
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of

climate
, this deal with plats this is one of the most important aspects of the ecosyst
em, which
is a part of all life forms. Pest and parasites although they can be a nuisance they play a great
work in balancing the ecosystem and help keeping a balance necessary for life cycle to occurs.


According to, Whitman (2000):

“Just as some populati
ons of mosquitoes developed resistance to then own
-
banned
pesticide DDT, many people are concerned that insects will become resistant to
other crop that has been genetically
-
modified to produce their own pesticides”.


In past research
they found that polle
n from genetically engineered corn was poisonous to
Monarch butterflies. The study adds to a growing body of evidence that GE crops are adversely
affecting a number of beneficial insects, including ladybugs and lacewings, as well as soil
microorganisms, be
es, and possibly birds.


According to, Cummins (1999):

He stated that “Genetically engineered products clearly have the potential to be toxic and
a threat to human health. In 1989 a genetically engineered brand of L
-
tryptophan, a
common dietary supplement,

killed 37 Americans and permanently disabled or afflicted
more than 5,000 others with a potentially fatal and painful blood disorder, eosinophilia
myalgia syndrome (EMS), before it was recalled by the Food and Drug Administration”.

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The risk of getting ca
ncer from genetically engineered foods are a high factor it has been
proven that it contain too many unnatural chemical in cooperated in the gene of the fruit or
vegetable and when consumed by human beings will change some important proteins that or
bodies

need to fight against cancer cells, so it could increase the risk to get cancer. Scientist are
starting to inject chemical into animals, the GE recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH)
--

injected into dairy cows to force them to produce more milk

for a p
rofit, so even “milk” isn’t
safe and people would drink milk thinking that it will help then in the future could cause their
death. Mother would even feed their babies with pack milk thinking that it is safe.

In 1994, the FDA approved the sale of Monsanto'
s controversial GE recombinant Bovine
Growth Hormone (rBGH)
--

injected into dairy cows to force them to produce more milk
--

even
though scientists warned that significantly higher levels (400
-
500% or more) of a potent
chemical hormone, Insulin
-
Like Growt
h Factor (IGF
-
1), in the milk and dairy products of
injected cows, could pose serious hazards for human breast, prostate, and colon cancer. A
number of studies have shown that humans with elevated levels of IGF
-
1 in their bodies are
much more likely to get

cancer. In addition the US Congressional watchdog agency, the GAO,
told the FDA not to approve rBGH, arguing that increased antibiotic residues in the milk of
rBGH
-
injected cows (resulting from higher rates of udder infections requiring antibiotic
treatme
nt) posed an unacceptable risk for public health. In 1998, heretofore undisclosed
Monsanto/FDA documents were released by government scientists in Canada, showing damage
to laboratory rats fed dosages of rBGH (Cummins, 1999, para.9).


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Conclusion

A lot of

people from all over the world may have already heard about some of the negative
effects that GM crops pose on the environment and the labeling or the products produced from it.
So much so with the probable health risks that GM crops may supposedly create

for lack of
extensive safety testing but I don’t believe it is. But it seems that there are more bad news
incoming.

I believe that the future is fast approaching and technology is changing with it, but I
also believe that there can I and is a little to th
e way a man can change or tamper with nature, so
I don’t agree that it should be labeled because human life is in danger.










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Reference:

Whitman, D. (2000).
Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?

Retrieved from:

http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php
.


Cummins, R. (1999).
Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods and Crops
. Retrieved form:

http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/geff4.html
.


Anup,
S.

(2002). Is GE food safe? Retrieved from:

http://www.globalissues.org/issue/188/genetically
-
engineered
-
food
.


Smith, J. (2001). Facts about genetically engineered foods. Retrieved from:

http://www.psrast.org/



Wade, S. (2005). 20 questions on genetically modified foods. Retrieved form:

http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/


Schroeder, J. (2007). The history of genetically engineered food. Retrieved from:

http://www.helium.com/items/277805
-
the
-
history
-
of
-
genetically
-
engineered
-
food
-
gef