Manipulating DNA extracting and studying DNA - Xavier High School

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Genetic
Engineering

Changing the Living
World

Homework


13
-
1 and

Guided reading
workbook

Selective Breeding


Humans use
selective breeding

to pass desired traits on to the
next generation of organisms



Hybridization



The crossing of
dissimilar individuals to bring
together the best of both
organisms.


Luther Burbank and his amazing
Burbank potato.



Inbreeding

is the continued
breeding of individuals with
similar characteristics.

Increasing Variation


Mutations can be
induced to help create
variation in organisms.


Polyploidy plants have
an extra chromosome.

Manipulating DNA


Genetic Engineering

is the process of
reading and changing
DNA sequences in an
organism.


Reading the Genetic
Code


DNA extraction


Cutting and Labeling
DNA


Separating DNA


Reading the DNA
sequence


Making Copies (PCR


polymerase chain
reaction)

Manipulating DNA


Genetic Engineering

is the process of
reading and changing
DNA sequences in an
organism.


Reading the Genetic
Code


DNA extraction


Cutting and
Labeling DNA


Separating DNA


Reading the DNA
sequence


Making Copies (PCR


polymerase chain
reaction)

Manipulating DNA


Genetic Engineering

is the process of
reading and changing
DNA sequences in an
organism.


Reading the Genetic
Code


DNA extraction


Cutting and
Labeling DNA


Separating DNA


Reading the DNA
sequence


Making Copies (PCR


polymerase chain
reaction)

Manipulating DNA


Genetic Engineering

is the process of
reading and changing
DNA sequences in an
organism.


Reading the Genetic
Code


DNA extraction


Cutting and Labeling
DNA


Separating DNA


Reading the DNA
sequence


Making Copies (PCR


polymerase chain
reaction)

PCR


Polymerase Chain Reaction


Making copies to work with.

Uses of Gel Electrophoresis


DNA Fingerprinting



An individual's DNA is as distinctive as a fingerprint. This technique
was used to assist in determining O.J. Simpson's life. DNA samples
can be obtained from the trace amounts of blood or sperm. These
DNA samples can be separated using
gel electrophoresis
. The
number and position of bands formed on each lane of gel is the
actual genetic "fingerprint" of that DNA sample. The characteristics
of certain segments of DNA vary from person to person and form a
highly individual, detectable "genetic fingerprint." Developed only in
the mid
-
1980s, genetic fingerprinting has rapidly become a widely
used courtroom tool. In 1988 the first person in the United States
was executed based on DNA technology.



The Human Genome Project


The most ambitious research project made possible by DNA
technology is the effort to map the entire human genome.

DNA Fingerprinting

Cell Transformation


Homework 13
-
3


Also,


Practice Gel
Electrophoresis


And


Find the Culprit


Go to this website to perform
your gel electrophoresis


http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/un
its/biotech/gel/


Once you understand the
process, use your DNA
detective skills to help solve a
mystery.


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/
sheppard/analyze.html


Or google NOVA DNA
Fingerprint


NOVA

Online | Killer's Trail |
Create a
DNA Fingerprint


Perform your own

Gel Electrophoresis


Go to this website to perform your gel
electrophoresis


http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/biotech/gel/


Once you understand the process, use your
DNA detective skills to help solve a mystery.


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sheppard/analyze
.html


Or google NOVA DNA Fingerprint


NOVA

Online | Killer's Trail | Create a
DNA
Fingerprint


Vocab


Plasmid
-

circular DNA molecule found in
bacteria


genetic marker
-

gene that makes it possible to
distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with
foreign DNA from those that don’t


Recombinant DNA


DNA that has been created
artificially. DNA from two or more sources is
incorporated into a single recombinant molecule.

Transforming Bacteria

Transforming Plants

Transforming Animal Cells


Can be
transformed
similar to plants.


Some eggs are
large enough to
physically inject
new DNA by
hand. Which
can “Knock Out”
a gene

Homework


Find two transgenic organism on the
internet.


Type up a summary about the organisms


What are they?


How are they made?


How are they useful? Or Why were they
created?


Answer the big question on “Dolly”


Why was she so special?

Homework (13
-
2 and 13
-
3)

1.
How is genetic engineering like computer
programming?

2.
How does gel electrophoresis work?

3.
What is transformation?

4.
How can you tell if a transformation
experiment has been successful?

5.
Compare the transformation of a
prokaryotic cell with the transformation of
a eukaryotic cell.

Transgenic Organisms


term used to refer to an organism that
contains genes from other organisms

Transgenic Organisms

Transgenic
Bacteria

Transgenic
Plants

Transgenic
animals

Produce


clotting factors


insulin


HGH

Stronger plants

More
production

Pest resistance

More
production


Cloning


member of a population of genetically
identical organisms produced from a
single cell

“Dolly”


“Dolly” was an important
break through not just
because she was a
mammal.


Frogs were cloned back
in 1950’s


Why was dolly so
special?


Research and answer this
question for me.


The Human Genome

Chapter 14

Human Heredity


polygenic trait

-

trait controlled by two or more
genes


Pedigree

-

chart that shows the relationships
within a family


Autosome

-

autosomal chromosome;
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome


sex chromosome

-

one of two chromosomes
that determine an individual's sex; females have
two X chromosomes; males have one X
chromosome and one Y chromosome


Karyotype

-

set of photographs of
chromosomes grouped in order in pairs

Karyotype


Making a
Karyotype


Photograph
chromosom
es during
mitosis


Cut
chromosom
es out of
photograph


Group them
in order, in
pairs


Male 46XY


Female
46XX


Determining Sex


All egg cells carry a
single X chromosome
(23X). However, half of
all sperm cells carry an
X chromosome (23X)
and half carry a Y
chromosome (23Y).
This ensures that just
about half of the
zygotes will be 46XX
and half will be 46XY.


Human Genes

Blood Group Genes


Rh+ and Rh
-

(Rhesus factor)

Autosomal Disorders


Genes for these disorders are located on
autosomes


Recessive disorder


Dominant disorders


Codominant disorders

Gene to Molecule


In both cystic fibrosis and sickle cell
disease, a small change in the DNA of a
single gene affects the structure of a
protein, causing a serious genetic
disorder.


PKU is the actual lack of a certain enzyme
that breaks down the amino acid
phenylalanine.

Cystic Fibrosis

Human Genome


Chromosomes 21 and 22 are the smallest
human autosomes.


Chromosome 22 contains approximately 43
million DNA bases.


22 contains as many as 545 different genes


includes an allele that causes a form of leukemia


Chromosome 21 contains roughly 32 million
bases.


225 genes, including one associated with ALS

Homework


14
-
3 Studyguide


Test Friday chapters 13 and 14


Review next class


Extra Help Wednesday 7:15AM

Sex
-
Linked Genes


Males have just
one X
chromosome.
Thus, all X
-
linked
alleles are
expressed in
males, even if
they are
recessive.


Sex
-
Linked Disorders


Colorblindness


Hemophelia


Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

X
-
Chromosome Inactivation


Females have two X chromosomes, but
males have only one.


Females can inactivate parts of an X
chromosome and use the same genetic
information from the corresponding
chromosome


Spotted Cats


Barr Bodies

Chromosomal Disorders


Nondisjunction
-

error in meiosis in
which
homologous
chromosomes fail
to separate

Down Syndrome


Trisomy 21


United States, approximately 1 baby in
800 is born with Down syndrome


mild to severe mental retardation. It is also
characterized by an increased
susceptibility to many diseases

Sex
-
Chromosome Disorders


Turner’s syndrome (X
-
)


Women with Turner’s syndrome are sterile
because their sex organs do not develop at
puberty


Klinefelter’s syndrome
-

Males (XXY;
XXXY…)


Unable to reproduce



What if there was just a Y chromosome?

Human Genome Project


The Human Genome
Project is an attempt to
sequence all human DNA.