Genetic Engineering DNA technology

polarbearfellowshipΒιοτεχνολογία

12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering

DNA technology

Palindromes


mom


wow


race car


straw warts


never odd or even


stella won no wallets


was it a car or a cat I saw


eva can I stab bats in a cave


Palindromic DNA sequences



GAATTC


CTTAAG


The complementary strand reads
the same backwards as the original
strand reads forwards

What does this have to do with
genetic engineering?


Restriction Endonucleases
= DNA Scissors


These are enzymes that scientists use in genetic
engineering


The enzyme recognizes a site on the DNA which
is made of 4 to 6 bases.


The enzyme will cut DNA at these recognition
sites.


These recognition sites are
palindromes
.


Cutting DNA at recognition sites is the first step
in many types of DNA technology




These
restriction endonucleases

have been used to:


Create
recombinant DNA
(The
combination of DNA from two or more
organisms)


DNA fingerprinting



Splice genes from one organism into
another


Making a cloning vector

1.
A bacterial plasmid (circular DNA) is
used as one source of DNA and the
second source can be from any other
organism.

2.
The 2 DNAs are cut at the palindromes.
Both molecules become linear DNA
with “sticky ends”

2.
The two are mixed and the
complementary sticky ends base pair
with each other


creating a circle.

3.
This genetically altered plasmid is put
into a bacteria cell where it reproduces
the protein that the DNA sequences
for.

Example
: insulin

DNA Fingerprinting

1.
Restriction endonucleases

are used to
cut DNA in several places.

2.
The segments are then separated by a
process called
electrophoresis

3.
Once the DNA fragments are separated
each person (except identical twins) has
a unique banding pattern and can be
identified.

4.
This technique is also used to determine
how closely related different species
are.

More Genetic Engineering….


Human Genome Project


Gene Therapy


Genetically engineered vaccines


Genetically modified foods
(GMOs)


Cloning organs or whole
organisms

Ethical Considerations


You decide…


Just because we can does it
mean we should?