20 Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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#20 Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology

DNA & RNA Standard 5C

5c. Know that genetic
engineering
(biotechnology) is used
to produce novel
biomedical and
agricultural products.

Genetic Engineering is a
form of selective
breeding.
Selective
Breeding

allows only
those animals or plants
that have desired traits to
reproduce.

For thousands of years
breeders have been
selectively breeding dogs
that may be better hunters,
retrievers or companions.

Luther Burbank used a method
called
HYBRIDIZATION

to
cross dissimilar daisies to bring
together the best of both
organisms. This is kind of like
our parents. Dad is great at
something and mom is great at
another. Hopefully, their
offspring are great at two or
more things.

X

Insect Resistant


Great Scent

Hybridization

The crossing of the two
plants above give us an
insect resistant and great
smelling rose.

For thousands of years
people have been selectively
breeding plants that produce
better tasting fruit or plants
that my be unaffected by
insects, fungus,disease or
other plant destroying pest.

Burbank’s best work with
plants allowed him to cross
disease resistant plants with
plants that had high food
yields.
The result were plants
that allowed farmers to
increase food supplies.

Here scientist show off their very
large corn plants that yield lots of
corn. This corn is also more
resistant to the fungus that affect
most corn plants.

Inbreeding
-

Is a technique used
by breeders, to maintain desired
characteristics. Here breeders
allow individuals with similar
characteristics to reproduce.

Once a desired trait
is obtained breeders
try to maintain that
trait.

Despite man’s desire to
manipulate plant or animal
traits.
Scientist have learned
that mutations are the
ultimate source of genetic
variation.

Biotechnology has
allowed man to transform cells
to find greater variation and
ultimately a better organism.

Scientist induced mutations in
bacteria to produce bacteria that
eat oil.

Transgenic Microorganism
reproduce rapidly and are
easy to grow.
Bacteria are
used to make insulin, growth
hormone and clotting factors
that were all once rare and
expensive.
This is done by
transforming cells by
inserting a human gene into
the cell of a bacterium.

Remember: Way to high joke.

When transformation is
successful, the foreign DNA
will be integrated into one of the
cell’s chromosomes.

Creating Recombinant DNA


The ends of the
Recombinant DNA
recombine with

sequences in the host cell DNA.


Transforming Cells

Creating Recombinant DNA


When the
Recombinant DNA
is inserted into the
the target location,

the host cell’s original gene is
lost or knocked out of its place.

Transforming Cells

Here a
transgenic
tobacco plant
was created by
inserting a
gene from a
fire fly into a
tobacco cell.

Transgenic cows are grown with
extra copies of growth hormone
genes. These cows grow faster
and produce meat with less fat.

Transgenic plants and
animals have played a
major role in increasing
and improving our food
supply.

Cloning

A clone is a
member of a
population of
genetically
identical cells
produced by a
single cell.

Swedish scientist Ian Wilmut
stunned the world, in 1997, when he
successfully clone a sheep.
This is
how “Dolly” was cloned.


1. Scientist were able to produce
oil
-
eating bacteria by?

A.

Inbreeding bacteria.

B.

Hybridizing bacteria.

C.

Inducing mutations in bacteria

D.
Making cell’s polyploidy.


2. What is the advantage of
producing transgenic plants?

A.

Using more pesticides

B.

Producing clones

C.

Studying human genes

D.

increasing food supply


3. To make a new line of plants,
Burbank used a process called?

A.

Inbreeding

B.

Cloning

C.

Hybridization

D.

Transformation

X
Insect Resistant
Great Scent
Hybridization
The crossing of the two
plants above give us an
insect resistant and great
smelling rose.
4. Which of the following is a
clone?

A.

The adult sheep whose DNA was

used to make dolly.

B.

A transgenic mouse.

C.

A funny person.

D.

Dolly


5. Why is Dolly considered to
be a clone?

A.

The DNA in her cells are identical.

B.

She has a funny nose.

C.

She is genetically the same as her

offspring.

D.

Her DNA source is a single body

cell.